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HISTORY 



BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



GRADUATES 



FROM 1806 TO 1879, I3STC LTJSI^E. 



NEHEMIAH CLEAVELAND, 

Class of 1813. 
fiftittb anb ContplettiJ 

BY 

ALPHEUS SPRING PACKARD, 

Class of 1816. 



BOSTON: 
JAMES RIPLEY OSGOOD & COMPANY. 

1882. 



Press of Alfred Mudge & Son, 
Boston, 1882. 



PEEFACE. 



At the celebration of the semi-centennial of the college in 1852, Nehe- 
miah Cleavelancl, LL. D., of the class of 1813, delivered the historical 
discourse. This, and a paper by John S. Tenney, LL. D. (1816), and a 
poem by Ephraim Peabodjr, D. D. (1827), were requested for publication. 
After more than a year's delay, the project of publication having failed, 
Mr. Cleaveland, with an amount of material on hand, conceived the idea 
of a more extended history of the college, with biographical sketches of 
its early trustees and overseers, its instructors and graduates of the first 
fifty years, with engravings of its prominent men. He prosecuted the 
work with characteristic energy and care to near the close of his life early 
in 1877. In August of that year his manuscripts and an accumulation 
of papers and letters were placed in the hands of the writer to complete 
for the press. The history, so far as Mr. Cleaveland contemplated, and 
most of the sketches of graduates to 1837, were ready for the press. A 
committee was appointed by the Alumni Association at their annual 
meeting in 1880 to arrange for publication, and to bring the history down 
to such a date as they might deem expedient. The writer has devoted the 
last five years to the work committed to him, aided by Prof. Chapman, 
who consented to prepare sketches of the last ten classes, and has ren- 
dered valuable assistance in preparing the index of graduates, as well as 
in other ways; and he now commends it to the friends of the college, 
assured that, in the words of Ex-President Quincy in his history of Har- 
vard College, "No duty is more incumbent upon seminaries of learning 
than the commemoration of the virtues and labors which have contributed 
to their existence and prosperity." 

The portion of the work executed by Mr. Cleaveland is published as he 
left it in his clear, beautiful manuscript, with scarce an erasure. Such 
vacancies as were left in the biographical portion for another hand are 
indicated by the writer's initial. From 1837 the sketches drawn by Mr. 
Cleaveland are indicated by the initial C. The editor has followed the 
method of his predecessor, but some embarrassment unavoidably attends 
an effort to complete what another has begun. Whoever has had like 
experience can estimate the labor, delays, and perplexities involved in a 
work the materials of which are in distant archives or dependent on 
circulars and correspondence. "It is not easy," Mr. Cleaveland once 



IV PREFACE". 

wrote, "to collect information respecting graduates whether living or 
dead, owing in part to their' wide dispersion. Many have been wanderers; 
others have settled in remote States, or beyond the limits of the Union: 
but the main cause is the want of interest." Class feeling has not been 
cherished until a comparatively recent date, when classes have had re- 
unions and class secretaries have been appointed, without whom the 
editor could not have accomplished nearly what he has done. He regrets 
that in any case he had been compelled to state that his circulars have 
met with no response. They may have met with the common fate of 
such issues, or from ignorance of the proper address, or from reluctance 
to write concerning one's self. In no instance has effort on our part to 
reach one been omitted. 

The birthplace of graduates as given in the history cannot be entirely 
depended upon, inasmuch as the record of admissions, until quite recently, 
gives sometimes residence and not the place of birth. 

The main interest and value of this work, its conception, and whatever 
of felicity appears in its execution, are to be accredited to Mr. Cleaveland, 
whose taste and skill with a delicate humor have been conspicuous in other 
publications. The writer has been conversant from the first with the 
progress of the work in the hands of his college friend, and has been his 
correspondent to the close. 

Most of the engravings, by an artist of reputation in ]STew York, were 
obtained from the subjects of them or their friends by Mr. Cleaveland 
twenty or more years ago. 

The editor would express his obligations for valuable aid in his work 
from Messrs. Herrick (1844), Fogg and Waterman (1846), S. F. Hum- 
phrey and Sewall (1848), Williamson (1849), Wheeler (1853), Linscot 
(1854), Palmer and Williamson (1856), Eastman (1857), A. S. Bradley 
(1858), Burbank (1860), Emery (1868). 

A. S. PACKARD. 



ADDITIONAL ERRATA. 

Page 199, Edward Theodore Bridge should read Edmund T. 
Page 612, Ralph Waldo Johnson should read Alfred W. 



HISTORY 



Bowdoin College. 



BRUNSWICK. 



The great river on which Brunswick lies, rises in the northeastern 
corner of Maine ; and after spreading itself out in several fine sheets 
of water, issues from the last, Lake Umbagog, to find that it has 
wandered into New Hampshire. Re-enforced by the Margalloway, a 
respectable stream which has come down for that purpose from Sun- 
day Mountain, it runs south to the very foot of Mount Madison. As 
farther travel in this direction is out of the. question, the sensible river 
turns short to the left, and soon re-enters its native State. Proceed- 
ing eastwardly as far as Jay, it makes another right angle and again 
runs southwardly, until, in Merry Meeting Ba}^, it mingles its rapid 
and ruffled waters with the gentler current of the Kennebec. The 
course of this stream is far from smooth. At Brunswick, in the space 
of a third of a mile, it falls forty feet, making the descent in three sepa- 
rate plunges. Dams and sawmills and heaps of lumber and crooked 
wooden bridges are not specialty promotive of the picturesque. I 
remember when the river was but partially obstructed, and can at 
least imagine the sublime spectacle it presented when, rushing in all its 
might through the primeval forest, it dashed and foamed and roared 
down the precipitous and rugged channel. 

According to the late Loammi Baldwin, an engineer of distinguished 
ability, no other river of New England conveys to the sea so large a 
body of water as the Androscoggin. To me this seems hardly cred- 
ible, as the stream is sometimes very low ; but I shall not attempt to 
refute a man of figures. If this cataract under the torturing hand of 
man has lost something of its beauty and grandeur, it has gained in 
usefulness. For man} T } - ears the lumber business was a source of profit 
to the villages of Topsham and Brunswick, which it may indeed be 



2 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

said to have created ; but the forests above, on which that business 
depended, have mostly fallen, and little comparatively is done now. 
The attempted manufacture of cotton goods met with a series of dis- 
asters, and was for years abandoned It has latery been resumed with 
better auspices : a motive force so great and so well situated cannot 
always remain idle. The day is perhaps not remote when the Bruns- 
wick Falls, like those of the Merrimack, will have become the parent 
of large and prosperous cities. Latterly, ship-building has been carried 
on quite extensively in Brunswick. 

The site of the college is unquestionably salubrious, and railroads 
have made it very accessible. To a literary institution these are 
advantages of indispensable necessity. Its climate, which is that of 
Maine, seems severe to the native of milder latitudes. If, however, 
the winters are long and cold, they have the merit of consistency ; 
sudden and violent changes of temperature are less frequent here than 
in Southern New England, and the fact is conducive both to health 
and comfort. The snow usually falls early, and lasts long. On the 
whole, I think we enjoj^ed the season, excepting perhaps the periodi- 
cal midwinter thaw when the slush and water often stood knee-deep 
all over the plain. 

In summer the herbage usually becomes very thin and veiy brown. 
But the sandy porosity which makes the soil unproductive is a positive 
boon when rains prevail ; mud is a nuisance almost unknown to the 
happy denizens of Brunswick. 

Within the last forty years, much has been done to improve the gen- 
eral aspect of the place. Not that I so regard the stripping awa} r of 
the trees, which formerly hid from view the unsightly plain, and shut 
in the quiet hamlet with their ever-verdant wall. But for the protect- 
ing arm of the college, and the conservative care of the McKeens, 
which have preserved two invaluable remnants of the forest once so 
broad, scarcely a pine would have been left to remind us of old times. 
As some atonement for the injury, shade trees have been successfully 
planted, not only throughout the college grounds, but along the pleas- 
ant streets, and round the generally comfortable and often handsome 
homes of this little village. 

To all its other claims on our grateful remembrance and regard, 
Brunswick has long added the possession of an intelligent and agree- 
able society. 

When I first knew Brunswick, the college and the modest settlement 
below it literally occupied only a small clearing among the indigenous 
evergreens. On every side but that which the river bounded, the 
dwellings stood in close proximity to the forest, which stretched out 



BRUNSWICK. 6 

for miles, a shady and unobstructed promenade. The earlier gradu- 
ates must have many recollections of social and solitaiy walks through 
these. quiet grounds. Their memories have sadly failed, if they do 
not still recall the chief features of the scene, — the level earth, 
through whose slippery carpet of scanty herbage and withered pine 
leaves shot up, in their season, the frequent blueberry and winter- 
green ; the air charged with resinous odors ; the blackened tree trunks 
which told of former fires ; the subdued and sombre light ; the tink- 
ling cow-bells ; and the gentle rustle of the breeze in the branches 
above. The river is another Brunswick image which none of us can 
forget. We remember our walks upon its banks, both above and 
below the falls ; our frolics in its waters and on its floating logs ; the 
awe with which we gazed on its might and fury, when, swollen by the 
spring flood, it rushed down and by, sometimes carrying with it bridges, 
mill, and dam ; and that low, continuous roar which always pervades 
the still night air. It would be idle to deny that Brunswick lacks the 
charm and the freshness which belong to more diversified landscapes 
and to more fertile soils. It can boast no sweet variety of hill and 
dale, no wide extent of prospect, no sublimity of mountain scenery, 
near or distant. Still, the general aspect of the place is pleasing, and 
seldom fails to impress* strangers agreeably. It has an air of quiet 
and sobriety well suited to academic pursuits. The college buildings, 
standing in calm isolation on their own ample grounds, seem to assure 
us that within that hallowed precinct there is no danger of interrup- 
tion, no serious impediment to mental or to moral progress. 

I have indeed sometimes regretted, and have heard others regret, 
that some spot more favored of nature was not selected as the home 
of our Alma Mater. An expression to that effect in my historical 
discourse of 1852 touched, as I was sorry to learn, the sensitiveness 
of rny Brunswick friends. The probability is that we are prone to 
overrate,' in cases of this kind, the influence and importance of mere 
scenery.* Our great schools of learning vary much in their position 
and surroundings, as well as in their internal advantages and disci- 
pline. Williams from her mountain amphitheatre and Amherst from 
her commanding watch-tower send forth excellent classes ; but so, 
also from their less ambitious plains do the halls of Dartmouth and 
of Union. With such results it is evident that scenery has little to 
do. On the side even of imagination, — and here, if anywhere, we 
might expect to see a difference, — it is not easy to say where the 

* See some striking remarks on the influence of scenery in the Life of Dr. Archi- 
bald Alexander, page 25, 



4 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

advantage lies. If the muse of Bryant was first wakened amid the 
grandeur and beauties of Berkshire, it was beneath our own "■ whis- 
pering pines" that Longfellow began to ,' ; lisp in numbers." 

Again, what merely local attachment is stronger than that which we 
feel for the spot, however horn el}*, where our youth was passed, and for 
those objects, however rude and simple, with which we then connected 
scenes and employments and joys and friendships that no change 
of place, no lapse of time, can rase from our remembrance? In this 
particular I acknowledge, without reserve, nry allegiance to Brunswick. 
In, other climes and on distant shores, I have often found myself 
beneath the solemn shadow of the pine, but never when its soft 
and soul-like sound did not speak to me of happy college days. 
Amid the impressive solitudes of the high Alps, with the ineffable 
splendors of Mont Blanc or of the Jungfrau in full view, the roar of 
a hundred waterfalls, as it came blended with the multitudinous tink- 
lings of the cow-bells, has owed its sweetest charm to the loved mem- 
ories of youth, and to imperishable associations with the monotonous 
plains of Brunswick, its noisy river, and its roving kine. 



THE COLLEGE FOUNDED. 

Previously to the Revolution and for some time after that event, 
the Province and District of Maine was for the most part an unin- 
vacled wilderness. Rich as it is in harbors, only two or three ports, 
and those mostly in the northern part, had attained to any commercial 
importance. The population was not only small, but sparse and com- 
paratively poor. Yet even before the war of Independence some 
movement towards founding a collegiate institution was made in the 
county of Lincoln. In 1788, the first actual step was taken in Cum- 
berland Count}*. The justices of the peace assembled as a court of 
sessions, and the Congregational ministers in their associated capacity, 
respectively petitioned the General Court of Massachusetts to incor- 
porate a college in the District of Maine. In February, 1790, the 
committee to whom this petition was referred reported in favor of 
granting the prayer. A bill was accordingly brought in, which passed 
in the Senate but failed in the House. After three years, the subject 
of an Eastern college again came before the Legislature. A bill for 
the purpose went up and down several times before the two houses 
could agree, but was finally passed on the 28th of March, 1793. Tins 
Act the governor, John Hancock, refused or neglected to sign, and so 
another year was lost. At the winter session in 1794, the subject was 



THE COLLEGE FOUNDED. D 

again agitated and again put by. The summer proved more favora- 
ble : the charter of Bowdoin College dates from June 24, 1794. 

The act which established the college exhibited its first practical 
result at Portland on the 3d of December, 1794. The trustees, sum- 
moned by Judge Thatcher, met in the Court House. There were 
present four clergymen, — Thomas Browne, Samuel Deane, Thomas 
Lancaster, and Tristram Gilmau ; and four laymen, —John Fro thing- 
ham, Josiah Thatcher, David Mitchell, and William Martin. Judge 
Thatcher presided ; Mr. Frothingham was secretary. They tried to 
elect a president of the college, but could not agree. The next day 
they met at Dr. Deane's house, and their only action was to choose 
Rev. Mr. Gilman president for one year. On the third clay they dis- 
covered that the overseers were an independent body, in their refusal 
to confirm the Rev. J. Fairfield as a trustee. William Martin, 
Stephen Longfellow, and John Dunlap were chosen to lay out the 
five townships which had been granted by the State. To this com- 
mittee, Mr. Thatcher and Mr. Freeman were afterwards added. A 
cheering result of the legislative Act giving the name of Bowdoin to 
the college was a letter from Hon. James Bowdoin, of Boston, in 
which, alluding to the name of the college, as a tribute of respect to 
the name, character, talents, and virtues of his late father, he promises 
his aid to the college, and calls a donation of $1,000, and a thousand 
acres of land in the town of Bowdoin, " a first step to the design." 
During the year 1795, the board held three meetings in Portland. A 
meeting called at Brunswick in August failed for want of a quorum. 
In May, 1796, they met at Mr. Martin's, in North Yarmouth. Dur- 
ing this period they had but little to do. Reports and discussions in 
regard to the college lands occupied the meetings. 

Where the college should be Avas not easily settled. In the bill as 
first reported to the Legislature, North Yarmouth was inserted. This 
was erased and the question left open. Judge Thatcher, of Gorham, 
who had done more than any other man in getting the incorporation, 
pleaded earnestly for his own town, and was much disturbed by his 
failure. Dr. Deane contended that Portland was the only place for a 
college, and might perhaps have carried his point, but for the oppo- 
sition of his clerical brother and townsman, Mr. Kellogg. North 
Yarmouth, Freeport, Brunswick, had each its advocates ; while others 
were for Turner, in favor of which it was said that the great land- 
owner, Mr. Little, of Newbury, would make a liberal donation. The 
counties of Lincoln and Kennebec had also their favorite spots, and 
saw no reason wiry Cumberland should have all the advantage. To 
settle the matter, a convention, consisting of the two boards and of 



6 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

other gentlemen friendly to the college, met at Brunswick. The meet- 
ing was held in John Dunning's Inn, on the 19th of July, 1796. Here 
they resolved themselves into a committee of the whole, and walked 
out to see for themselves. 

Let us, in imagination, go back for a moment to that hour. Bruns- 
wick has witnessed many academical processions, but this was the 
precursor and predestinator of them all. No ordinary pi-omenaders, 
these who move down the narrow lane from John Dunning's, spread 
out on the twelve-rod road, wind up the little hill, and then wander in 
groups over the open plain and beneath its bordering pines. What 
dignity, what picturesqueness, in their very costume, — the cocked hat, 
the white wig, the broad-skirted coat, the tight knee-breeches, and the 
large bright buckles ! "Well may they look grave, for a grave question 
is before them. They are to determine, for all time, where a great 
seat of learning is to have its home. With them it rests to say 
whether that tame, uninteresting plain shall become classic ground, 
enriched thenceforth and hallowed by all delightful associations. 

On reassembling, the committee reported in favor of thirty acres, 
the pi'operty of William Stanwood, provided said land should be 
given to the college, and provided also that three hundred acres of 
the adjoining land could be obtained on the same terms. Though it 
does not appear from the record, these conditions, in part at least, 
were subsequently fulfilled. Stanwood and others gave the thirty 
acres, and the town of Brunswick gave two hundred acres. This 
grant was afterwards confirmed by legislative action, and also by a 
vote of the Pejepscot proprietors. As this tract, with all its pines 
and blueberries, was then estimated at two shillings an acre, the en- 
tire value of the donation was S76.67. 

The decision thus made had probably very little to do either with 
the charming landscape or the tempting donation. It was a foregone 
conclusion, which had been reached b} r a compromise of the different 
county claims. In other words, the place selected was in Cumber- 
land County, it adjoined the county of Lincoln, and was not far from 
Kennebec. 

On account of hindrances and delays in accomplishing the work 
intrusted to them, some were disposed to attribute the responsibility 
of the alleged neglect to the Board of Trustees, — to represent them as 
inefficient and dilatory ; and on this ground, petitioned the Legisla- 
ture to increase the number of its members. The trustees remon- 
strated, alleging in reply that they had done all they could do The 
townships given to the college had been explored, and one of them 
had been laid out in lots for sale. They had solicited donations, and 



THE COLLEGE FOUNDED. 7 

had received some books and some money. To nurse the college 
fund, they had given their time and borne their own expenses. It was 
not true that they had failed to get a quorum in many instances. 
They had attended the meetings, and had done all the business 
that came before them, although their most important votes had been 
frustrated by the overseers. To the charge that they are old and super- 
annuated, thej reply that only one of their number is very old. 
Want of money was their only serious trouble, — Si, 500 being all 
that they as. } T et had to work with. To make more trustees would 
not help the matter. A better plan would be to reduce the over- 
seers. The complaint, it is to be presumed, found no favor with 
the Legislature. c It was undoubtedly groundless, if not ill-natured. 
A college could not be started without money, and the only means in 
the hands of the trustees were five townships of wild land. This 
article was not then appreciated as we have known it to be since. 
Prices were low, sales infrequent, the taxes and expenses burden- 
some ; so that it became a common saying that the more one had of 
Eastern land, the worse it was for him. Alden Bradford, in a letter 
dated Feb. 3, 1835, sa} T s : "It required time and effort to prepare 
the way, to sell lands without an entire sacrifice, to raise funds from 
the sales, to get the pa}*, to beg money and books, and to arrange for 
opening the seminary. There was much land in the market selling at 
twenty cents and even lower, and it was difficult to sell at an}* price. 
. . . The trustees were, in fact, a sort of executive committee to pre- 
pare all and propose all and devise all ; and they thought it better to 
proceed slowly that the progress might be sure." 

Another competent witness and prominent actor, Mr. Kellogg, in a 
letter of nearly the same date, bears testimony to the efficiency and 
fidelity of the committee which managed the business of the college 
lands. Indeed, it is enough for us to know that the leading member 
of that committee was Isaac Parker, afterwards the able and excellent 
Chief Justice of Massachusetts. The lands, considering the circum- 
stances, were well sold. One township (now known as Dixmont) 
brought $20,000. All honor to the memory of those good men, to 
whose disinterested care and toil, pursued in the midst of discour- 
agements and reproaches, the infancy of the college was so largely 
indebted ! 

At the meeting for choice of a president, a number of candidates 
were put in nomination. Dr. Deane named Rev. Dr. Morse, Charles- 
town, Mass. ; Mr. Lancaster was for Prof. Tappan, Harvard College ; 
Mr. Frothingham brought forward his own minister, Dr. Deane ; Judge 
Parker gave in the name of Alden Bradford, Wiscasset ; Rev. Mr. 



O HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Johnson, of Freeport, that of Mr. Pemberton, formerly principal of 
Andover Acadenry, Massachusetts ; and Mr. Kellogg that of Mr. 
McKeen, Beverly, Mass. The final agreement on the successful can- 
didate appears to have been reached without difficulty. 

On the 2d of September, 1802, a president and a professor were in- 
augurated, and the college was duly opened. Some particulars of the 
day may be found subsequently in the notice of -Dr. McKeen. Imme- 
diately after, eight 3'oung men were admitted into the Freshman Class, 
and thus was Bowdoin College fairly started in the world. Few events 
of historical importance marked its early j^ears. Its growth was slow at 
first, — a fact which may be ascribed to other causes than want of con- 
fidence in the young college. It had scarcely entered on its career 
when the commercial prosperity of the country received a stunning 
blow, and sank under a long paralysis. Nowhere was the suffering 
greater than in Maine, at that time largely engaged in trade and navi- 
gation, and entireby dependent on these interests. During those years 
of general depression and poverty, few comparatively were able to meet 
the expense of a liberal education, moderate as that expense then was. 

Notwithstanding its paucity of numbers, the college, from the first, 
commanded respect. Its standard of requirements, of study, and of 
discipline was high for that da} r . Its officers were men of tried abil- 
ity and excellence. Even its tardy development, though discouraging 
in some respects, was better than the rapid expansion of sudden pros- 
perity, as insuring a growth more solid and more uniform. 

In 1803, the trustees found difficulty in getting possession of certain 
lands which had been given to the college by Mr. Bowdoin. The 
trouble was caused by " squatters," — a class at that time numerous in 
Maine, and who often made themselves forminable b} r their lawless 
habits and combined opposition. To secure the rights of the college 
in the case referred to, it was found necessary to get aid from the law, 
and from the executive authority of the State. 

In 1804, a tutorship was established and Samuel Willard was the 
first incumbent. In 1805, the professorship of mathematics and natu- 
ral philosophy was founded, and filled by the election and acceptance 
of Parker Cleaveland. 

The first Commencement came the first Wednesday of September, 
1806. Such occasions were then kept as holidays, to which multitudes 
resorted, as they would go to a militia muster. Besides this promiscu- 
ous throng, a higher curiosity and the novelty of the scene brought a 
vast multitude to Brunswick from near and from far. Alas ! the long- 
wished-for clay broke on the young aspirants for honor, and on the 
crowd of visitors, in a furious tempest of wind and rain. The new, un- 



THE COLLEGE FOUNDED. 9 

finished meeting-house was filled, notwithstanding, with a drenched and 
eager audience. The boards, appalled by the violence of the weather, 
and certain that it could not last long, postponed the exercises to the 
following day. Thursday came, and the storm, regardless. of the ad- 
journment, still raged ; and so Commencement went on, and was followed 
b} T the ball and by a wet night of darkness, filled with blunders, annoy- 
ances, and disasters innumerable. Happily, there was no fatal acci- 
dent ; and in after years the first Brunswick Commencement was re- 
called by thousands with a sense of the ludicrous, which outlived that 
of discomfort. 

In 1807, the second large building was erected and finished. Dur- 
ing that summer, the college met with its first great affliction in the 
death of President McKeen. Several candidates for a successor were 
brought before the trustees at their meeting of Sept. 1, 1807. At the 
second trial, Isaac Parker, afterwards Chief Justice of Massachusetts, 
was elected, but the overseers said no. On the following day they 
chose Eliphalet Nott, long and honorably known as the president of 
Union College. Him also the overseers rejected. On the third trial, 
Jesse Appleton was elected and confirmed. Mr. Appleton was inau- 
gurated in December, 1807, and entered forthwith on his duties. The 
Commencement of 1809 was honored and enlivened by the presence of 
Governor Gore, who attended b} T invitation of the board. 

During the first eight 3-ears, the students took their meals in a few 
private houses, which were opened for that purpose. In 1810, by vote 
of the board, a commons hall was established in Nichols's Inn. The 
experiment, like all such attempts in American colleges, was an utter 
failure. Justly or not, there was almost constant complaint of the 
living, and frequent quarrels with the purveyor. As a school for bad 
manners, it was wonderfully successful. After a short trial, the 
nuisance was abated, and private boarding-houses were again in use. 

By the death of Mr. James Bowdoin, in 1811, the college came into 
possession of his valuable library and collection of pictures. At the 
Commencement of 1812, the Rev. William Jenks, by request of 
the board, delivered a eulogy on this distinguished benefactor of 
the college. The same year, a professorship of the Oriental and 
English languages was created, and Dr. Jenks was appointed. 

In 1815, there was some trouble of a financial character. The pri- 
vate affairs of Dr. Porter, who had been the college treasurer for ten 
years, were found to be hopelessly involved. As the college funds 
were believed to be in immediate danger, Mr. Benjamin Orr, as agent 
and counsel for the trustees, went to Bath, and spread an attachment 
over the entire property of William King, who was surety for his 



10 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

brother-in-law. Gen. King was largety engaged in commerce, and this 
legal drag-net stopped everj'thing, even his. vessels ready for sea. He 
got rid of the impediment by securing the college ; but his indignation 
against the immediate actors, in what he called a needless and mali- 
cious ti'ansaction, was vast and loud. Nor can this be wondered at ; 
for besides all the damage it caused to his business, it was a direct 
impeachment of his integrity. Party feeling had not then ceased to 
disturb with its heat and bitterness the ordinary dealings of men, or 
even their social intercourse. Politically, Orr and King were unre- 
lenting foes, strong and daring leaders both. I can believe that Mr. 
Orr was thinking mainly of the college, and that he took what he 
regarded as the only certain course to save it from ruin ; but Mr. 
King did not, and perhaps could not believe this. The worst of it 
was, that he became openly hostile to the college, which he looked upon 
as a Federalist institution ; and especially to President Appleton and 
Mr. John Abbot, whom he wrongly regarded as Mr. Orr's prime 
instigators and abettors. The affair caused no little commotion and 
talk at the time. The friends of the college rejoiced that it had been 
snatched from the verge of bankruptcy. Gen. King resolved that he 
would be revenged, and bided his time. 

In 1816, the trustees resolved to petition the Legislature to grant a 
lottery for the benefit of the college. This extravagant and iniquitous 
way of raising money was, at that period, often resorted to by literary 
and even by benevolent institutions. The overseers, who seem to 
have been in advance of the moral sentiment of their day, refused 
their sanction. Let it be remembered to their credit ! This year Mr. 
Abbot resigned his professorship, and was chosen treasurer ; still 
remaining librarian, as he had been from the beginning. 

In 1817, the chair of ancient languages remaining unfilled, the 
number of tutors was increased to three. 

President Appleton died in the autumn of 1819. When the boards 
assembled in the following spring, there was much to consider and 
much to do. An organic change had taken place in the State, which 
must seriously affect the college. Maine had become independent, 
and was just setting up for herself. The politics of the new State 
differed essentialby from those of Massachusetts, and the feelings of 
some who would now become leaders were known to be unfriendly 
to Bowdoin College. In anticipation of what might happen, some 
friendly member of the Massachusetts Legislature had procured the 
insertion of a clause in the Constitution of Maine which insured to 
Bowdoin College the continued payment of the legislative grant, and 
provided that the president and trustees and overseers should " have, 



THE COLLEGE FOUNDED. 11 

hold, and enjoy their powers and privileges in all respects ; so that 
the same shall not be subject to be altered, limited, annulled, or re- 
strained, except by judicial process, according to the principles of 
law." This clause in the Act of June 19, 1819, had been hailed by 
President Appleton and others as an invaluable boon, — as offering, 
in fact, a haven of shelter from the threatening blasts of party and 
personal animosity. Had that great man been spared, the college 
would undoubtedly have gone on under the protection of the clause ; 
nor can we imagine that under his guidance, it would have been suf- 
fered to languish through the want of support from without. But the 
new Constitution contained another important clause, which restrains 
the legislative bocby " from making any donation, grant, or endow- 
ment to any literary institution, unless the said Legislature shall have, 
at the time of making such endowments, the right to grant any further 
powers, to alter, limit, or restrain any of the powers vested in any 
such literary institution." No aid could ever come from the State so 
long as the college should take refuge under the special provision. 
Should it give up this, it must pass under the control of the Legisla- 
ture. It would be subject to the caprices of a constantly changing 
bocby, and to the uncongenial influences of party prejudice and pas- 
sion. Such, briefly, was the state of the question presented to the 
boards at their meeting in Ma}' - , 1820. 

President Allen, who had been elected with some reference to con- 
ciliation and compromise, was strongly in favor of the change. The 
subject elicited an animated discussion. In the lower board, espe- 
cially, the step, which to some seemed little better than suicidal, was 
opposed with earnest and even pathetic eloquence. But a majority 
was in favor of submission, and " the college boards passed a vote, 
which, after reciting the clause of the Constitution of Maine as to 
endowments, declared that the consent of the boards be given, that 
the right may be vested in the Legislature of the State of Maine ; that 
is, the right to enlarge, alter, limit, or restrain the powers given by 
the college charter." President Allen was on the committee appointed 
to carry this vote into effect. Application was immediately made to 
the Legislatures of Massachusetts and Maine " for their assent to such 
modification of the college charter as should enable the college con- 
stitutional ly to receive patronage and endowment from the Legislature 
of Maine." Each Legislature passed resolves in accordance, — Mas- 
sachusetts on the 12th of June, 1820, and Maine on the 16th of the 
same month. Massachusetts consented to any modification of the 
protecting clause which the authorized agents of the college should 
make with the consent of the Maine Legislature. Maine enacted that 



12 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

the terms and conditions of the clause should (provided the Legislature 
of Massachusetts shall agree thereto) be so far modified that the 
managers of the college should hold their power subject to alteration, 
limitation, restraint, and extension by the Legislature of Maine. The 
change here attempted was one which, according to the express terms 
of the Act, could be made only by the subsequent agreement of the 
Legislatures of both States. The legislative Acts above mentioned 
did not constitute such an agreement. The Maine Act makes no 
reference to the Massachusetts resolve passed four days before, but 
does look to some future act of that State, an act which was never 
performed. This discrepancy or miscarriage, which seems to have 
been unnoticed at the time, turned out, in later years, a matter of 
considerable importance. 

The Maine Legislature, and the leaders of the party then dominant 
in the State, soon proceeded to take the college into their own hands. 
By the Act of Marcli 19, 1821, the number of trustees was nearly 
doubled, and that of the overseers was increased by more than a 
third. The appointment of these new members, in the first instance, 
was given to the governor and council. It may be presumed that Gov- 
ernor King performed, without reluctance, this particular duty. As 
•the college had now become constitutionally eligible, and politically 
orthodox, the fond hope was indulged by some that thenceforth it 
was to be a nursling of the State, and to bask in the bright sunshine 
of legislative bounty. 

A continuance of the grant which had been made to the college by 
Massachusetts, and which had been appropriated from a tax on banks, 
was granted by the Legislature of Maine until the charters of the 
banks should expire in 1831. 

At the same time an Act of the Legislature established the Medi 
cal School in connection with the college, with an annual grant 
of $1,000 during the pleasure of the Legislature.* The project 
originated with President Allen, who had fortunately secured the ser- 
vices of the eminent Dr. Nathan Smith, of the Medical Department of 
Yale College, to inaugurate the enterprise. Dr. Smith was a member 
of several societies in this country and Europe, was the founder of the 
Medical School at Dartmouth College, and distinguished as a physi- 
cian and surgeon. Another gentleman of reputation was appointed 
lecturer on anatomy and surgery, but had declined, and instruction in 
that branch was assumed by Dr. Smith. He was, however, assisted 
by Dr. John D. Wells, who had just graduated in medicine at lLir- 

*The grant ceased in 1834. 



THE COLLEGE FOUNDED. 13 

vard. Dr. Wells at once gave proofs of dexterity and skill as a dem- 
onstrator of anatomy, and as a lecturer, which justified his appointment 
to the chair of anatomy at the close of the term ; and he immediately 
sailed for Europe, where he spent nearly two years preparing himself 
for the position. The Faculty appropriated a fund to be expended by 
him in purchase of books and anatomical preparations for the school, 
and thus the school was set forth on its way. The third story of 
Massachusetts Hall had been fitted up for the lectures in anatomy and 
surgery, and theory and practice ; while the lectures on chemistry and 
materia medica were given by Prof. Cleaveland on the lowest floor 
of the building. Subsequent changes were made in that hall for the 
accommodation of the school, until a gift from Mr. Seth Adams, of 
Boston, of several thousand dollars, enabled the boards in 1862 to 
erect, for the accommodation of the school, Adams Hall on what is 
called the Delta, outside the college grounds In the plan of this 
commodious and sightly structure, as well as in furtherance of its 
erection, much was due to the energy and counsel of Prof. Chad- 
bourne, now president of Williams College, who succeeded Prof. 
Cleaveland in the chair of chemistry. A detailed history of the growth 
of this school our limits will not allow. Its character and value may 
be estimated from the roll of its professors, sketches of whom in the 
earlier years of the school are given on subsequent pages.. It has 
exerted an important influence on the interests of medical science and 
general intelligence in the State, thus having far more than repaid the 
amount expended by the State in its endowment. 

Various causes combined to increase the number of students, so 
that in 1822 it was found necessary to erect an additional dormitory, 
to which was given the name of Winthrop Hall. In March, 1821, 
Maine Hall took fire, and the whole interior was burnt, while the walls 
were not essentially impaired. This severe blow to the prosperity of 
the college was averted by the liberality of the public. Contributions 
were received in a large number of the Congregational churches in 
Maine and Massachusetts, and the loss fully repaired. This hall was 
burnt a second time in 1886, and rebuilt with better accommodations 
for its inmates, but with a less pleasing front ; the pediment and 
entrances in front are missed by the older graduates. 

In September, 1824, were established professorships of moral phi- 
losophy and metaphysics, and of rhetoric and oratory. Eev. Thomas 
Coggswell Upham, a son of Dartmouth, and who was pastor of the Con- 
gregational church, Eochester, N. H., was chosen to fill the former, 
and Prof. Samuel Phillips Newman the latter ; Alpheus S. Packard, 
then a tutor in the college, was chosen to succeed Prof. Newman in that 



14 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

of ancient languages and classical literature. The new professors were 
inducted into office in February, 1825. Prof. Newman conducted also 
instructions in civil polity and political economy, and soon published 
a' treatise on the last-named subject, which was well received. In 
1825, William Smyth, tutor in the college, became associate professor 
of mathematics and natural philosophy, and soon after entered on a 
full professorship. In 1829, Henry W. Longfellow (1825) was elected 
first professor of modern languages, towards the foundation of which 
$1,000 had been bequeathed by Mrs. Dearborn, formerly Mrs. James 
Bowdoin. In 1835, Mr. Longfellow accepted an invitation to succeed 
Prof. Ticknor in a similar position at Harvard. 

The year 1831 was to the college a year of special interest. Dur- 
ing the eleven years which had elapsed since President Allen was 
inaugurated, the favor which at first attended him had suffered abate- 
ment. Though a man of high character, and an officer of unques- 
tioned abiluvy and fidelit}', he had somehow become in some quarters 
unpopular. There was no chance of removing him by impeachment. 
The mode adopted was of a kind that only politicians would devise. 
On the 31st of March, 1831, the Maine Legislature passed an Act 
making the office of college presidents annually elective, and requir- 
ing for an election or re-election two thirds of the votes cast. It 
decreed that this office should thenceforth be held at the pleasure of 
the electing board, and that fees for diplomas should no longer be 
regai'ded as perquisites. 

In the meeting of the boards in September, this Act at once came 
up. The trustees voted " to acquiesce " ; the overseers " disagreed." 
The trustees were willing to re-elect Dr Allen, if he would only prom- 
ise to decline. A committee waited on him, and asked whether he 
would accept, if elected; but he refused to consider the question. 
Of seventeen ballots cast, William Allen had seven. The election of 
a president was then postponed to the next regular meeting, and the 
duties of the office were devolved upon the professors. In the pre- 
sumption that the case would be carried into the courts, Mr. Longfel- 
low was appointed solicitor in behalf of the trustees, and instructed 
to ask the Legislature to look after the affair. A committee which 
had been appointed the year before to petition the Legislature for a 
continuance of the annuity reported that they had performed the 
dut}', and without success. 

A joint committee was appointed to ask the repeal of the recent 
" Act respecting Colleges," so far as it relates to the two-thirds vote, 
and also to renew the application for pecuniary aid. It consisted of 
Gen. King and Reuel Williams, trustees, and of K. P. Dunlap, Charles 
Dummer, and Williams Emmons, overseers. 



THE COLLEGE FOUNDED. 15 

At the next annual meeting, Sept. 5, 1832, Mr. Longfellow informed 
the trustees that the Legislature had declined to make, in the courts, 
any defence of its own Act. Gen. King and his colleagues had also 
failed in both parts of their application. So far as the two-thirds vote 
was concerned, the trustees wished to petition again ; but the over- 
seers said no. 

Meanwhile, President Allen had been taking measures for the recov- 
ery of his position He removed his family to Newburyport, and by 
residence in Massachusetts qualified himself to bring an action in 
the United States courts. The case came on for trial at the May 
term of the Circuit Court, holden at Portland in 1833, Judge Story 
on the bench. The district judge, Ashur Ware, being a trustee, did 
not sit. The defendant in the action was Joseph McKeen. the col- 
lege treasurer, and the alleged object was recoveiy of the salary which 
belonged to the plaintiff as president of the college. Mr. Simon 
Greenleaf, for Dr. Allen, presented his case with great clearness and 
strength. Mr. Longfellow, with a weaker cause, pleaded ingeniously 
on the side of the trustees. The Court decided that the plaintiff could 
recover his fees, but not his salary. None the less, however, did this 
decision completely reinstate him in the presidential chair. But the 
Court went much further. In an argument that carries conviction at 
every step, Judge Story shows that the entire action of the Maine 
Legislature in its tampering with the college had been unconstitu- 
tional, and of course invalid. The thirteen trustees and the fifteen 
overseers who were added at one time to the boards, and the gov- 
ernor, who was made an ex officio trustee, had really no title to the 
seats which they occupied. In fact, the college was restored to the 
very position which it held under the protecting clause in the Separat- 
ing Act. Not only in consideration of the change which this great 
legal opinion wrought in the fortunes and prospects of the college, but 
as being an invaluable exposition of fundamental law for all col- 
leges and all time, I give in the appendix a condensed statement of 
its main points.* 

The question in regard to President Allen being thus decisively set- 
tled, he resumed at once his place and duties The decision and the 
opinion of Mr. Justice Story were somewhat differently regarded by 
the two boards. The overseers, at their annual meeting in 1834, 
voted that the number of their board ought not to exceed forty-five, 
and chose a committee to report the names of all those who were not 
legally members, with a plan for reducing the number, if found to 

* See Appendix No. 1. 



16 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

exceed forty-five. This committee consisted of George Evans, Charles 
S. Daveis, and William Cutter. 

The trustees appear to have taken another view of the matter. 
Thej 7 ' regarded the judge's opinion, so far as it related to the increase 
of the boards by legislative action, as extra-judicial, and therefore as 
not binding on them. They took no measures to reduce their num- 
ber ; still, there was a tacit understanding that the places of any who 
might die or resign should not be filled until the board, by this pro- 
cess, should be brought down to its original thirteen. This result 
was reached ten years later, when only one of the twelve who came 
in together in 1820 remained in the board. This gentleman, Judge 
Weston, held his seat until his death in 1872. 

The overseers, at their regular meeting in 1835, resolved, in effect, 
that the appointment of members to their board, under the Act of 
March 19, 1821, gave no right to seats there; also, that elections 
made when the board consisted of the full number of forty -five — 
elections which included the president of the college and the secre- 
tary of the trustees — were equally invalid ; also, that certain persons, 
forty in number, whose names had been reported by their committee, 
were entitled to seats, thus leaving five vacancies to be filled. 

The religious histeuyof the institution deserves special notice. The 
truths and duties of morality and religion, in accordance with the 
design of its founders, have always been faithfully and ably inculcated. 
Near the close of the last and the earlier part of the present century, 
it is well known, there was in the community a low state of religious 
principle, the influence of which was felt in its colleges. The private 
diaiy of President Appleton records his deep solicitude on this account 
regarding the college. Graduates of that period have often referred 
to his efforts in the church, where he often preached, and in chapel, to 
resist the evil and awaken interest in religious truths. When there was 
not a professed Christian among the students, he was greatly encour- 
aged b}' the admission of a student in 1810, who to highly respecta- 
ble scholarship added the charms of a piety deep, fervent, yet unob- 
trusive. Alone among his fellow-students, he yet sustained, in the 
midst of thoughtlessness, and at times open immorality, a Christian 
character without reproach to the end of his college course, which to 
-him was almost the end of life, as he almost literally descended from the 
Commencement platform to the grave.* The memory of Cargill was 
long cherished with respect and affection by contemporaries in college. 
He could warn and counsel without exciting aversion to the truth or 

* See the president's allusion to the event in his baccalaureate, 1815, near the close. 



THE COLLEGE FOUNDED. 17 

himself. In 1812, Frederic Southgate (1810) was appointed tutor, — 
lovely in Christian character, respected as a scholar and a man. 
His fervent piety always shone with mild radiance. Man}' for 
years could recall the affectionate counsel and earnest exhortation 
to a life of purity and devotion which fell from his lips even in 
the class-room. It seemed a mysterious Providence which removed 
him by pulmonary disease before he had completed half his year 
of service. He established the Saturday-evening religious meeting, 
at first often conducted by students, which has been sustained and 
has contributed much to the moral and religious life of the institution. 
In the following year, two or three students of decided religious char- 
acter were admitted to college, — an accession which, the diary reveals, 
was regarded as of great importance and encouragement. In the 
autumn of 1816, there were indications of unusual interest in religious 
things ; and several gave evidences, as the diary of President Apple- 
ton testifies, " of being transformed by the renewing of the mind, while 
others were serious." The college has been thus favored repeatedly 
in subsequent years. 

President Allen, on his return to the college in 1833, had been met 
with much of that sympathy and welcome which men usually give to 
him who has made a manly and successful struggle. And all the more 
cordially was he thus regarded, as having won the battle not for him- 
self alone : in his restoration, many saw the vindication of great prin- 
ciples, and the deliverance of the college from that political thraldom, 
under which his own early influence had done so much to place it. But 
the warm flush of grateful emotion soon passes away. In the course 
of four or five years, President Allen became convinced that he could 
no longer be useful or happy at Brunswick. Accordingly, on the 5th 
of September, 1838, his resignation, to take place in 1839, was ten- 
dered and accepted. 

By vote of the boards, the tenure of the presidential office was 
changed from " good behavior" to the pleasure of the boards, under 
certain conditions of hearing and notice. The salary was fixed at 
$1,500 and a house free. 

On the 15th of November, 1838, the trustees, at a special meeting, 
elected for president the Rev. Chauncey A. Goodrich, one of the most 
distinguished scholars and professors of Yale College ; but he was not 
acceptable to the overseers. The trustees concluded to let winter pass 
before they would try again. 

May 8, 1839, the boards were again in session, and the trustees sent 
down the name of William G-. Goddard, a professor in Brown Univer- 
sity. The overseers declined to confirm the choice. Leonard Woods, 

2 



18 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

then a professor at BaDgor, was chosen the next day, and was 
accepted by the lower board. 

The Commencement of 1839 was diversified and brightened by the 
inauguration of the new and youthful president, whose address on that 
occasion was much admired. On the other hand, many were made sad 
by the resignation and departure of Prof. Newman, who had been for 
twenty years a very active and useful college officer. 

At the May meeting of this year, the students, undeterred Ivy former 
failures, again presented their grievance to the boards, in an earnest 
petition that the system of ranking as to Commencement parts should 
be abolished. This persistent action of the undergraduates does not 
seem to accord with common experience. The question will arise, 
How could such opinions and such wishes prevail among a large body 
of young men, — a class usually so quick to feel the promptings of 
ambition, and so eager for those distinctions which reward successful 
competition ? That indolence and incapacit} 7 might not object to being 
put forward as on the same footing with industry and talent, all can 
understand ; but that the laborious and accomplished scholar should 
ask to stand on a level with the lazy and the dull is something con- 
trary to nature. Yet this Brunswick phenomenon is not wholly inex- 
plicable. During the third and fourth decades of our century, a good 
deal was said and a good deal was written on the subject of education. 
In many parts of New England, a desire for reform and a spirit of 
improvement took possession of the public mind. As usually happens 
in such movements, the zeal of some soon outran their discretion, and 
carried them to absurd extremes. Among those writers and talkers 
were two or three amiable men who imagined that they had found in 
the principle of emulation the grand disease of school and college, — 
a virus fatal to the moral constitution, which had too often been 
inserted and nursed by teachers themselves. Once rid of this, the 
path of improvement would be comparatively smooth. These views, 
urged with great earnestness and evident sincerity, influenced many. 
Among those who adopted them in full was a distinguished son of 
Bowdoin, — President Lord, of Dartmouth College. Through his com- 
manding influence, the ranking system at Hanover was done away, 
and the Commencement parts were made all alike. Here, then, the 
youthful advocates of reform at Brunswick had example as well as 
precept. 

And, now let it be remembered that there are undeniable evils — 
misapplications and abuses, in fact — which attend every effort to 
encourage merit by means of discriminating honors ; that many young 
men, overrating the value of these distinctions, make them the highest, 



THE COLLEGE FOUNDED. 19 

if not the sole motive to exertion, dwarfing mind and character by the 
narrowness of their aims, and losing, perhaps, all ambition when this 
factitious stimulus is gone ; that the dispensers of honor are not infal- 
lible, and that their most judicious awards not unfrequently fail to com- 
mand approval; that angry rivalries, jealousies, disappointments, and 
resentments are too often witnessed in the strife for " parts." Remem- 
ber, also, how easily public opinion is sometimes created and diffused in 
the compact community of a college ; that an active party once formed 
grows fast ; that more than half of every class would be lifted up, rather 
than depressed, by the removal of all distinctive honors ; and finally, 
that the few who would be losers might put their names to such a 
petition rather than incur the odium of refusal, or in the hope to be 
praised for their generous self-sacrifice. 

On this occasion the boards referred the whole subject to -a commit- 
tee, whose report, adverse to the petition, was rendered and accepted 
at their meeting in September, thus putting the question to rest. As 
this subject is one of great importance and of universal interest, I 
must refer, in conclusion, to the calm and admirable statement of the 
case which was made by Mr. Ebenezer Everett in the report of the 
visiting committee of 1836, to a brief and pithy paragraph from Judge 
Preble's caustic pen in the report of 1839, and to the report of the 
committee to whom the matter was finally assigned.* 

Financially, at this time, the college was in straits. To meet cur- 
rent expenses, the treasurer was authorized to borrow $2,500. The 
visiting committee of the year, b}- their chairman Preble, refer to this 
condition of affairs with some significant and important suggestions. 
The plan proposed was to pay quarterly, from the treasury, $1,000 
to the president and $500 to each professor, and then to divide the 
whole of the tuition money equally among those officers. The mode of 
compensation thus recommended was adopted by the trustees ; but the 
overseers non-concurred, — unwisely and unfortunately, as it appears 
to me. The reasoning of that report is conclusive and irresistible. 
The method proposed is in accordance with experience, and com- 
mends itself to common-sense. The opportunity was favorable for 
the experiment, which might at least have been tried. 

This lynx-eyed committee of 1839 found a good many things out of 
order. Some parts of the old college dormitory were unfit to live in. 
The law in regard to the college library was violated by everybody, 
but especially by the members of the executive government. Its vol- 
umes were scattered all over the State ; and all this in spite of its 

* Appendix No. 2. 



20 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

energetic librarian, Prof. Goodwin. The law was peremptorj' - that no 
student should enjoy the privileges of the college until he had given 
bonds to the treasurer ; yet sixteen }'oung men who had given no 
bonds were in actual enjoyment of those privileges. The boards had 
appropriated $20 annually as a prize for the best declamations ; but 
there had been no declamations. After specifying other neglects of 
duty and violations of law, the committee soothingly added that few 
colleges were favored with officers more intelligent and faithful, and 
concluded with this remark, of general application: "There is so 
much of mere routine in a college life, so little to excite, to stimulate, 
to awaken, that when the head ceases to be vigilant, remissness, and 
abuses even, will creep in." 

During the eight years which preceded 1837, tutors were dispensed 
with ; the instruction being given wholly hj professors, who had rooms 
in college, which they occupied more or less during the day. While 
this regimen, induced by sheer necessity, was in force, it was some- 
times claimed as a special advantage, which colleges with tutors did 
not possess, — it being a great thing that mature intellect and ripe 
scholarship should thus constantly be brought into contact with the 
pupil. Notwithstanding this, there had been for some time a grow- 
ing conviction that the interests of the college required a return to its 
former practice in regard to tutors. The need and the utility of this 
class of officers were presented in the report of 1839, with that ability 
which characterized every effort of Judge Preble. The considerations 
there presented relate to a policy of permanent importance, and deserve 
a permanent record.* 

THE DECLARATION. 

During the disastrous years which immediately followed the great 
land speculations in Maine, the college suffered not a little in its 
finances. The banks, in which a considerable part of its small prop- 
erty was placed, paid no dividends, while some of them lost their cap- 
ital. The institution was in distress. To all who knew its situation, 
it was evident that some increase of its funds had become a matter of 
the first necessity. The recent separation of the college from all 
State management, in consequence of the decision and the super- 
added opinion of Judge Story, entirely precluded hope of aid from 
that quarter. Under these circumstances, one of the professors was 
sent out to present the case and ask for help. His mission proved 

* Appendix No. 2. 



THE DECLARATION. 21 

abortive * Among the Orthodox Congregationalists, to whom the col- 
lege naturally looked for its principal patronage and support, doubts 
had arisen in regard to its denominational position, and its probable 
future in that respect. For all they cared, the impoverished college 
might still go a-begging, unless it should be put, in this particular, on 
a known and sure foundation. It was under these circumstances, and 
for the purpose of removing this impediment, that the Declaration 
was put forth. This paper was signed by eleven of the trustees, and 
by thirty- four overseers. Through its consequences, direct and inci- 
dental, it has alreachy acquired historical importance. It runs as 
follows : — 

DECLARATION, f 

Whereas, It has been deemed desirable by some of the friends of Bowdoin 
College that its position in relation to the religious instruction which shall 
be given in the college, and in regard to the denominational character which 
it shall profess, should be clearly understood, and also that some reasonable 
assurance of its future policy should be furnished to those who are disposed 
to contribute to its support : now, the undersigned, members of the trustees 
and overseers of the college, do hereby declare, — 

First, That they regard it as a permanent principle in the administration of 
the college that science and literature are not to be separated from morals and 
religion. Against such a separation the charter of the college has guarded, 
by requiring that its funds shall be appropriated, not only for improvement in 
the "liberal arts and sciences," but also in "such a manner as shall most 
effectually promote virtue and piety." 

Second, That they are of opinion this object can be most fully accom- 
plished, and at the same time the pecuniary ability of the college increased, 
by a known and established denominational character and position, whereby 
the college may be entitled to appeal for support to some particular portion 
of the community, by whom the corresponding obligation to afford it is recog- 
nized. 

Third, That although there is nothing expressly said in the college charter 
which requires it to have any particular denominational position ; yet, from 
its foundation, it has been and still is of the Orthodox Congregational denom- 
ination, as indicated by the state of the religious community in Maine when 
the college was established, by the religious instruction which has heretofore 

*The editor, one of the professors referred to in what follows, may be justified in 
adding that near the close of 1841, in pursuance of a vote of the boards at the annual 
meeting in the September preceding, the Faculty issued a circular, setting forth the 
wants of the college, and appealing to its alumni and friends. During the winter 
vacation, the president and three of the professors visited the principal towns of the 
State ; and in the following spring, Hon. S. P. Benson was requested to act as special 
agent for the object. The result of these efforts was so meagre that the project was 
abandoned. 

t The original of this Declaration is left in the keeping of Prof. Smyth. 



22 HISTORY OF BOWJ.OIN COLLEGE. 

been given, and by the opinions of its former and present presidents, and of 
a large portion of those who have been engaged in its government and instruc- 
tion. 

Fourth, That they consider any attempt to modify or change the character 
which it has so long maintained, unwise and inexpedient, and .they have no 
purpose or expectation of making such an attempt. 

Fifth, That in their opinion the boards of trustees and overseers and the 
academic Faculty should be composed of those who are competent and willing 
to perform their respective duties in a manner not to impair or restrain, or 
in anj r degree conflict with the moral and religious instruction which is de- 
signed to be given in the college, in harmony with its denominational charac- 
ter as herein defined, care being taken that such instruction be given by offi- 
cers of that religious faith. 

Sixth, That although no purpose or expectation is entertained of attempt- 
ing any change in the character of the college in the foregoing particulars, 
yet if, in the progress of opinions and events, it shall result that the " liberal 
arts and sciences, virtue and piety," can be more successfully advanced by 
some modification or changes, nothing herein expressed is to be understood 
as forbidding the trustees and overseers of that clay from adopting such 
measures as shall best promote the ends of the college, and the advancement 
of religion and knowledge, a proper regard being always had to the circum- 
stances and motives which induced this Declaration. 

Seventh, The undersigned make this Declaration as a basis of action, in the 
expectation and hope that it will secure the highest results of literature and 
piety ; and that it will not only furnish a basis for pecuniary aid, but will also 
effect a conciliation of different views and interests, and thus present the col- 
lege in the most favorable and satisfactory light before the public. 

With this document, and a subscription paper in accordance, the 
same agent (Prof. Upham) again went forth to ask aid for the col- 
lege. The result was favorable. Subscriptions for more than $70,000 
were obtained, and almost wholly from Congregationalists. 

Thus far, the Declaration seemed to work well. The drooping insti- 
tution revived. Its officers could again get their annual stipend, which, 
though small, was important. The chapel, long unfinished, could now 
be completed. A professorship devoted to religious instruction and 
pastoral care w r as established, and already filled by a distinguished 
man. 

But a difficult}' soon arose, relating mainty to the true interpretation 
of the declaratory document. A majority of the upper board were 
known to differ, either doctrinally or ecclesiastically, from the Orthodox 
Congregationalists. Three of them, indeed, having declined to sign 
the paper, acknowledged no fealty towards it. Some of those who 
had been active in bringing forward the new basis, and in raising funds 
upon the strength of it, now contended that in order to make it certain, 
and to insure public confidence, a majority of the trustees should indi- 



THE DECLARATION. 23 

vidually belong to the denomination in which the college was classed. 
This result they wished to see accomplished, not by resignation of 
existing members, but by the choice of orthodox men as vacancies 
should occur. Something like this was required, they said, by the 
spirit, if not by the very letter of the Declaration. While this view 
was held by a large proportion of the overseers, it was resisted by a 
majority of the trustees. They maintained that they had not bound 
themselves, and had never thought of binding themselves, to such an 
extent. In the choice of president or theological professor, they were, 
as individual signers of the paper, under obligation to vote for an 
Orthodox Congregationalist. Beyond this, and especially in filling 
their own vacancies, they felt at liberty to take such course as would, 
according to their best judgment at the time, be most for the interests 
of the college. In this. respect they believed that a liberal polic}-, such 
a polic} T as they professed to have always aimed at, would secure far 
the institution the widest influence and the highest usefulness. 

This difference of interpretation and of feeling soOn ripened into 
action. 'Iwo or three members elected as trustees were rejected by 
the overseers, and the vacancies remained unfilled. For three or four 
years the breach continued to widen. Though the trustees were the 
executive power, the body in which every act must originate, the}'' 
were entirety dependent on the lower board, not for efflcienc}" only, 
but for their very existence, so absolute and so comprehensive was 
their veto found to be. The prospect was alarming. The trustees, a 
small baud, were growing old, and could neither beget nor adopt those 
who, in the order of events, might make their places good. The over- 
seers, on the other hand, were numerous and strong, with full power 
to bring in new blood of the right quality as fast as wanted. If mat- 
ters were to go on so much longer, nothing could save that venerable 
bod}' from gradual extinction under the ever-tightening embrace of 
this overseeing anaconda. 

But even in the most terrible crisis, whether of church, college, or 
state, there is one infallible remedy As a step towards compromise, 
the trustees elected a worthy layman of the Orthodox Baptist persua- 
sion ; he was accepted. Two Orthodox Congregational clergymen 
have since become members of the board, and the controversy, we 
trust, is happily ended. It has filled too large a space in the public 
eye, and in the life of the college, not to be mentioned iu its annals. 
In the brief statement above, I have endeavored to give fairly the 
grounds on which it rested, without attempting to touch the merits of 
the question, or meaning to write a word that might tend to revive or 
to perpetuate feelings which cannot too soon be forgotten. 



24 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

* The year 1844 was made memorable in the college history by the 
sharp contest involving the reversionary interest of the college in cer- 
tain property bequeathed by Mr. Bowdoin, the patron of the college, 
to his nephew, James Temple Bowdoin, by whose death in England 
the property was supposed to revert to the college. A more detailed 
statement of the matter, which excited great interest among the 
friends in Boston, is given in the sketch of President Woods. A 
paper entitled " The Bowdoin Property Case" is found in Appendix 
No 3. 

The year 1852 was signalized by the celebration of the semi-centen- 
nial of the college ; the first of the kind, we think, except that of the 
bicentennial of Harvard, in 1836. A committee had been appointed 
at the preceding Commencement to arrange for the occasion, consist- 
ing of John O'Brien (1806), John McKeen (1811), Robert P. Dun- 
lap (1815), and A. S. Packard (1816). Hon. George Evans, LL. D. 
(1815), was selected to preside on the occasion ; N. Cleav eland (1813) 
and Judge John S. Tenney (1816) to deliver addresses on the history 
of the college and its course of instruction, respectively, and Rev. 
Ephraini Peabody (1827), a poem. A tent was to be raised on the 
college grounds for a public dinner. These arrangements were suc- 
cessfully executed. At 10.30 on the day before Commencement, a 
procession was formed at the chapel and moved through the front 
entrance of the grounds, nearly reaching the church when the rear left 
the chapel. The alumni filled the floor of the church. After the 
exercises the procession returned to the tent, and dinner and post- 
prandial speeches occupied the afternoon to a late hour. The large 
gathering of graduates, the good-fellowship and cheerful and animat- 
ing spirit throughout, made this a memorable day in the college 
annals. 

THE CHAPEL. 

The accession, it may be added, to the resources of the college, from 
the Bowdoin estate, justified the effort to supply a pressing need, which 
Dr. Woods had felt from the first, — a new chapel. Measures were at 
once taken for this object. The granite was obtained in Brunswick, a 
few miles from the college ; a plan in the Romanesque style was ob- 
tained from the well-remembered architect of New York, Mr. Upjohn ; 
the corner-stone was laid with imposing Masonic ceremonial, July, 
1845 ; the exterior was raised by workmen from New York ; the interior 
finished in black-walnut by the Messrs. Melcher, of Brunswick, the 

* The items of college history which follow are briefly recounted by A. S. P. 



MEMORIAL HALL. 25 

walls in fresco bj 7 German artists ; and the chapel dedicated with ap- 
propriate services June, 1855, when a discourse was delivered by the 
Collins professor, Rev. Dr. R. D. Hitchcock. 

The panels were filled subsequently through the gifts of Mr. 
Walker, Mrs. President Sparks of Cambridge, Nathan Cummiugs of 
Portland (1817), Mrs. Wm. Perry of Brunswick, by friends in 
Brunswick in memory of Dr. John D. Lincoln, and by the class of 
1866. 

MEMORIAL HALL. 

At the Commencement of 1865, a meeting of the alumni was con- 
vened at the chapel, the object of which was stated to be, "To con- 
sider what measures could be taken for a monument or memorial of the 
sons of Bowdoin who had fallen or taken part personalty in the war." 
After some discussion, on motion of Prof. Harris, of Bangor, subse- 
quently president of the college, it was resolved unanimously that 
"In the opinion of the meeting, a memorial building is the form the 
monument should take." It was urged that in a building, inscrip- 
tions, busts, portraits, flags, etc., could be preserved, and that the 
college was in need of lecture-rooms, especially of a hall for exhibi- 
tions, and one for its collection of paintings, and a common rallying 
point for the alumni ; and that a committee should be raised, of which 
ProT Smyth should be chairman, to carry the resolution into effect. 
The following committee was appointed at the Commencement of 
1866 : Prof. Smyth, H. H. Boody, New York ; W. L. Putnam, 
Portland; Joseph Titcomb, Kennebunk ; F. M. Drew, Brunswick; 
D. A. Hawkins, New York ; John M. Brown, Portland. At Com- 
mencement, 1867, it was resolved that the building should be granite, 
and that a sum not less than $50,000 should be raised for the object. 
Before Commencement, 1868, plans by S. B. Backus, an architect of 
New York, French Gothic in style, were accepted, contracts made, 
and the work of erection begun. Prof. Smyth, who had by personal 
effort obtained subscriptions to the amount of $30,280, had suddenly 
died in the spring of that year. Hon. S. P. Benson was chosen treas- 
urer and agent to collect and procure subscriptions, which eventually 
amounted to $49,044 ; and Mr. Putnam having retired from the build- 
ing committee on account of the pressure of other duties, Prof. J. B. 
Sewall was appointed in his place. The exterior of the hall was com- 
pleted at the cost of $47,027.53 ; but all the subscriptions not having 
been collected, the committee — which, on account of distant residences 
of the rest, virtually consisted of Messrs. Titcomb, Sewall, and Brown 
— settled the bills by giving their notes for more than $10,000. 



r+J -^LV. 9^>^C 



26 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

After all efforts of treasurer and committee, the failure of some sub- 
scriptions being caused by death or adversity, there remained a balance 
of §6,500, which, at the Commencement of 1880, was assumed by the 
college. Mrs. Stone, of Maiden, Mass., widow of the late Mr. Daniel 
P. Stone, of Maiden, Mass., has pledged the amount needed to finish 
the interior, which will be accomplished, it is hoped, before the Com- 
mencement of 1882. 

ADAMS HALL. 

The need of the medical school for better accommodations led to 
the erection of this structure, which owes its name to a generous gift 
of the late Seth Adams, of Boston. The hall was completed in 1862, 
and affords every convenience for chemical and medical lectures, ana- 
tomical cabinet, dissecting-rooms, and medical library ; an extensive 
herbarium collected by Rev. Joseph Blake (1835), and given to the 
college by his brother, Hon. Samuel H. Blake (1827) ; and a labora- 
tory and apparatus rooms. 

The removing of the medical school from Massachusetts Hall opened 
the way for great changes in that hall in 1873, through the munificence 
of Peleg W. Chandler, LL. D. (1834), especially for the proper dis- 
posal of the cabinet of minerals and shells, collected mostly by Prof. 
Cleaveland ; the two upper stories being thrown into one, and the roof 
raised a few feet, it became a spacious apartment, which for beauty 
and effect is unsurpassed. The porch on the eastern side was also 
raised a story, and a tasteful and commodious entrance afforded to 
what is called the Cleaveland cabinet. An admirable inscription pre- 
pared by N. Cleaveland, LL. D. (1813), on a marble slab, and a son- 
net (autograph) of Prof. H. W. Longfellow, LL. D., J. C. D. Oxon. 
(1825), with photographs of Prof. Cleaveland and Prof. Longfellow, 
adorn and grace the vestibule. The opening of Adams Hall and this 
renewal of the oldest of the college halls were celebrated by appro- 
priate exercises and made memorable by the addresses, in the former 
of President Woods, and in the latter of N. Cleaveland. The lower 
floor of Massachusetts Hall is devoted to a recitation and lecture room 
and the treasurer's offices. 

COLLEGE GROUNDS. 

The " college yard " during the first forty years contained scarcely 
more than a fourth of its present area. The south fence ran from the 
north end of Appleton to Maine Street in front ; and the rest of the 
present grounds to College Street, and the whole area in rear of 
the halls to the pines and to Cleaveland Street was open common. 



SOCIETIES. 27 

The interior, with the exception of what, constituted the president's 
garden in the southwestern portion, was an uncultivated barren waste, 
without shade, except from the bahn-of-Gileads and a single elm on 
the borders. 

At the opening of the college, a plan of the yard was prepared by 
a Mr. Parris, a Boston architect, which the writer once saw, but 
which, it is supposed, was burnt with the treasurer's office, in the 
building that stood at the corner of Cleaveland and Maine Streets. 
This plan provided for a planting of the yard with trees on the bor- 
ders, and in scxuare and diamond figures ; and trees were set in the 
sandy soil, but the balm-of-Gileads had alone survived. At a later 
period the attempt of tree planting was renewed under wiser methods, 
by college authority or by successive classes of students as a holiday 
service, with better success. Somewhat later, a landscape gardener 
from Massachusetts was employed, who devised the tree border in 
waving lines, which now adorns (some may say conceals) the halls 
and grouuds from the passer-by ; shrubbeiy and flower beds have 
been set, the area enlarged and enclosed, and well-kept walks been 
laid, the whole college campus being thus rendered spacious and at- 
tractive to the visitor. Ivy day, a recent institution, promises to clothe 
the walls of the chapel in living green. 

SOCIETIES, 

Literaiy or social, were formed in the early years of the college ; 
the}* had a temporary existence only, and need not be more partic- 
ularby referred to. Two, however, have made an important portion 
of its histoiy. 

The Pencinian dates from Nov. 22, 1805. Eight students, conspic- 
uous on its catalogue as founders, from social motives and for literary 
purposes, united in what was called the Philomathian, in the year fol- 
lowing changed to Pencinian, and adopting as a motto, Pinos loquentes 
semper Tiabemus, thus indicating the source of the new name. Its 
first public meeting, September, 1807, was addressed by Mr. Charles 
S. Daveis (1807) , whose performance attracted attention, and was pub- 
lished in the " Boston Anthology" with a highly complimentary notice, 
ascribed to Bev. Joseph S. Buckminster, one of the editors, then a 
brilliant star in the firmament of Boston In 1814, a new organization 
was made into what was called the " General Society," embracing 
graduates and undergraduates, which was to be supervisory, while the 
undergraduate society was to make its own regulations, subject to the 
approval of the general society. 



28 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

The Athencean had existed at an earlier date, but had dissolved, 
and some of its members were received into the Pencinian. The 
rivalry which had existed between the two societies was gracefully (as 
we of the time thought) referred to in the acceptance of one of the 
disbanded rivals of this invitation to the survivor: "Having been 
grievously pierced by the spear of Minerva [Athena] , I with pleasure 
take refuge under the shadow of the pine." In consequence of what 
was regarded an exclusive spirit in its choice of members on the part 
of the Pencinian, when it had the whole field to itself, and the jeal- 
ousies and irritation thus awakened, the Athenaean was revived in 
1815 ; a movement which, as was natural, excited a lively interest in 
the college world. A spirited rivalry was at once awakened in mem- 
bership, literary character, libraries, and public exhibitions. Both 
societies had the same general organization, and their anniversaries, 
both graduate and undergraduate, next to Commencement, were the 
notable public occasions of the college year. Each society secured 
an act of incorporation. Next to securing members, their zeal was 
expended on their libraries, largely gifts of undergraduates. In the 
second burning of Maine Hall, the fire having taken in " north end" 
on the same floor with the Athenaean library, that treasure was con- 
sumed, while the Pencinian in the "southern end" was saved; but 
earnest devotion and enterprise of graduates and undergraduates rap- 
idly supplied the loss suffered by the former. Their libraries at last 
numbered from five to six thousand volumes each, and did credit to 
the judgment and taste as to the zeal of the members. Each societ}^ 
issued catalogues of graduate and undergraduate members. Their 
reunions at Commencement drew past members to the annual holiday, 
and freshened and brightened college ties. Older graduates testify to 
the value of these associations in their debates and literary exercises ; 
and are apt to regard it as unfortunate, to say the least, that the 
introduction, begun in 1842, of what are termed the Greek-letter soci- 
eties has so monopolized the college spirit as to supplant at last the 
older and venerable associations. 

An outgrowth of each of these societies may be referred to, — the 
Caluvian and the Alpha Phi, each designed especially for the cultiva- 
tion of science. They were short-lived, but had collected cabinets 
and a few paintings, which were transferred to the college. 

The Praying Circle, which has existed more than sixty years, is 
referred to in the religious history of the college. 

The Theological Society, although more a moral than a theological 
society, was in active life in 1812 ; its object, as stated in its constitu- 
tion, being the pursuit of truth. It accumulated a library, which was lost 



SOCIETIES. 29 

in the conflagration of 1821, but was renewed and enhanced in value 
by gifts of friends in college and from without. The society ceased its 
existence in 1848, and its library now may be seen in an alcove of the 
college library. The report of a committee ascribed its decline to the 
interest engrossed by other associations. 

The Benevolent Society, instituted in 1815, designed to afford relief 
to such students as needed it, was composed of members of college, 
graduates, and friends, and for several years rendered aid by loans. 
Its resources were donations in money, furniture, text-books, etc. On 
the evening before Commencement, a public address was delivered 
before the societ}^ in the church, after which a contribution was taken 
for its benefit, and the liberally minded made it an object to be pres 
ent for the advantage of this contribution. The records show that a 
large number of undergraduates were thus helped on their way. The 
society received an act of incorporation in 1826, but it did not long 
survive this public recognition of its worthy object. 

The Phi Beta Kappa, the most venerable of college societies in the 
country, dates from 1776, when it was formed at William and Mary's, 
Williamsburg, Va. It was an association of young men, with no thought 
of its extension beyond their own college. In 1779, Elisha Parmelee, 
who had been two years in Yale and graduated from Harvard, on a 
visit at Williamsburg was introduced into the society. This suggested 
the idea, it would seem, of establishing branches or Alphas in Harvard 
and Yale, and on his return he took a charter for each. It is singular 
that the society which thus originated and propagated an institution 
that took root and flourished elsewhere in many vigorous stems, itself 
soon after died, in consequence probably of the closing of William and 
Mary in 1781 by the war of the Revolution. It became extinct; the 
original records were sealed up and placed in the custody of the stew- 
ard of the college. Seventy years after, they were found and opened, 
and the society was revived by the grandsons of its original founders. 
The charter party, under which the Alpha of Maine was founded, 
came from the Connecticut Alpha, of course sanctioned by the other 
affiliated branches, and bears the date of Oct. 25, 1824. Unlike other 
branches, this Alpha made it a rule that no undergraduate should be 
admitted, thus modifying much its character. A literary committee 
was created, to assign subjects connected with useful knowledge and 
the public good to different members, and papers were to be read at 
the annual meeting. Papers were accordingly read at several of the 
earlier meetings by prominent members. But in time this promising 
design fell into disuse. Of later years, the only public occasion has 
been the address, and at times a poem on the clay following Commence- 
ment. 



30 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

fW Music, vocal and instrumental, has been always cultivated more or 
less in the college. A society for the cultivation of sacred music was 
in active operation during the college life of the writer. In subsequent 
years the Lockhart Society was sustained by an unusual amount of 
musical talent, furnishing music for chapel services, and leaving proof 
of its enterprise and spirit in the organ, for which it raised three hun- 
dred dollars, and left it in trust to the boards of the college. In still 
later 3 T ears, instrumental music has at times been successfully cultivated? 
and furnished music for exhibitions. 



BENEFACTIONS. 

It becomes the college, as it is due to those who have contributed 
to its means of instruction, to make special mention of those who 
have in later years, by their benefactions, manifested interest in its 
welfare. Mr. Cleaveland prepared with care a statement of earlier 
donations, which it is thought best not to embrace in the history, for 
want of space. His record will be deposited with the treasurer of 
the college. In the account of the library, subsequently in "Remi- 
niscences," mention is made of the more considerable accessions from 
time to time. It remains to refer to other tokens of friendly interest 
in the college. 

The heart of Prof. Cleaveland was made glad several years ago by 
a beautiful and extensive conchological cabinet, the gift of the late 
Dr. George Shattuck, of Boston, which enabled him to embrace in 
his lectures that department of natural history, to the great gratifica- 
of his pupils. 

In 1858, Henry B. Haskell, M. D. (1855), a missionary plrysician at 
Mosul on the Tigris, under the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions, offered, through Prof. Cleaveland, to obtain a set 
of Assyrian sculptures from the buried remains of Nineveh, provided 
the college would bear the expense of transportation. At an outlay 
of five to six hundred dollars, these interesting relics were received, 
and placed in the vestibule of the north entrance to the library. 

John Bundy Brown, Esq., of Portland, fouuded four scholarships, 
and gave SI 0,000 for the general purposes of the college. 

The donations of Mr. Seth Adams, of Boston, and of Hon. Samuel 
H. Blake have been referred to elsewhere. 

When the Cleaveland cabinet was removed to its new hall, friends 
in Brunswick and .vicinity purchased for its gallery the collection of 
birds made by Dr. N. S. B. Cushinan, of Wiscasset. 

In 1875, Mrs. Margaret Elton, of Boston, and Miss Hannah F. 



JAMES BOWDOIN. 31 

Allen, daughters of the late Frederic Allen, LL. D, of Gardiner, 
gave a valuable geological and mineralogical collection, which was 
their mother's, and which now fills an alcove in the cabinet, — a me- 
morial of their mother's interest in science and of the connection of 
their family with the history of the college. 

It should also be stated that the late Mrs. Amos Lawrence, of Bos- 
ton, sister of Mrs. President Appleton, gave $6,000 as a fund for the 
aid of deserving students. By the liberality of other friends, twenty- 
two scholarships have been founded for the same purpose. 

In 1880, Mrs. Valeria G. Stone, Maiden, Mass., endowed the Stone 
professorship of intellectual and moral philosophy ; and Henry Wink- 
le} T , Esq., of Philadelphia, the Winkley professorship of the Latin 
language and literature. Mrs. Stone's liberality in favor of the Me- 
morial Hall has been already referred to. 

JAMES BOWDOIN. 

The Rowdoin family are of Huguenot descent. On the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes, among the refugees from France who took refuge 
in America was Pierre Baudouin, who came from the famous town of 
Rockelle, and landed at Casco, now Portland, in 1687. Soon after their 
arrival, the family name, as was common with the French refugees, 
was anglicized by them into Peter Bowdoin. Two years after, they 
abandoned a region constantly exposed to attacks from Indians, and 
removed to Boston. The father soon died, and the son, becoming a 
thrifty merchant, laid the foundations of the fortunes of the family. 
His portrait, as well as those of son and grandson, now adorns the 
college gallery of paintings. The son of the merchant became the 
eminent James Bowdoin of Eevolutionaiy fame, who succeeded in 
17^5 Gov. Hancock in the gubernatorial chair of Massachusetts, and 
by his patriotism, energy of character, and liberal and scientific at- 
tainments gained an honorable name in history. When by legislative 
act the college received the historic name it bears, Hon. James Bow- 
doin, son of the governor, became its munificent patron by gifts of 
lands, apparatus, and money in his lifetime, and at his death by mak- 
ing it a residuary legatee by will. 

Mr. Bowdoin was born in Boston in 1752 ; graduated at Harvard, 
1771. On account of his health, he went to England, prosecuted 
stucty nearly a year at Oxford University, and travelled on the Conti- 
nent until the news of the battle of Lexington hastened his return to 
take his part in the threatened conflict ; but his infirm constitution 
unfitted him for the service and exposure of the camp. On the night 



32 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

on which "Washington threw up the redoubt on Dorchester Heights, 
which compelled the British to evacuate Boston, he was accompanied 
by this 3^oung man. He also crossed over from Cambridge in the 
same boat with Washington after the departure of the British, and 
took him to dine at his grandfather Erving's, where we are told the 
greatest delicacy the town afforded was only a piece of salted beef. 
Mr. Bowdoin was subsequently delegate from Boston to the Massa- 
chusetts convention called to consider the Constitution, just framed hj 
the national convention at Philadelphia. He was repeatedly member 
of both branches of the Legislature of Massachusetts, and was ap- 
pointed successively, by President Jefferson, minister plenipotentiary 
to the court of Spain, and associate minister to the court of France. 
It was during his residence abroad that he accumulated his very valu- 
able library, a gallery of paintings, — large for the time, — a cabinet 
of minerals and fossils, with a collection of models of crystallography 
which he afterwards bequeathed to the college. He, was for some 
years a fellow of Harvard College, and was elected president of the 
Board of Overseers of this college ; which, however, his distant resi- 
dence compelled him to decline. Mr. Bowdoin married a daughter of 
his father's half-brother, who shared in his interest in the college, and 
was, as long as she survived, a generous patron, of which several 
works in its library give evidence. Mr. Bowdoin had been in diplo- 
matic service three years when the state of his health, which had never 
been firm, led him to request a recall, and he returned in 1808. He 
died in 1811. A eulogy, commemorative of his life and munificence, 
was pronounced before the trustees and overseers of the college at the 
ensuing Commencement. 

THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 

Thomas Browne, whose name will lead forever the lengthening list of 
Socii* was born in 1733, in Haverhill ; graduated at Harvard in 1752 ; 
for nine j^ears was minister of Mai'shfield, and of Stroudwater in Fal- 
mouth from 1765 to 1797, when he died. " A man," says Willis, " of 
keen wit and fine understanding." 

Samuel Deane was born in 1733, in Dedham. and graduated at Har- 
vard in 1760, where he was tutor in 1763. The next year he was set- 
tled as colleague of Rev. Thomas Smith, in Falmouth. The burning 
of the town in 1775 drove him out to Gorham. There he became a 
skilful farmer. There too he wooed the rural Muse, and brought out 
the once famous song of Pitchwood Hill. In 1795 he became sole 
pastor. From 1809 to his death in 1814, he was relieved from duty. 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 33 

He was tall, erect, and portly, a man of dignified manners, social, 
agreeable, and witty. His sermons were brief, plain, and practical, 
well written, and calmby delivered. His theology was supposed to be 
that of the Arminian school. In 1790, Dr. Deane published a work 
on "Husbandly," which was well received, and long regarded as 
authority. 

John Frothingham was born in 1750, in Charlestown ; graduated at 
Harvard, 1771 ; went to Falmouth about 1773, to teach children.. 
There he and Theophilus Parsons studied law with Theophilus Brad- 
bury. His useful life, until he lost his sight, was devoted in numerous 
offices to the public service. He died in 1826. 

Daniel Little, a Newbury man, was pastor of the Second Church 
in Wells (now Kennebunk), for half a century. If not a great man 
in any sense, he seems to have been a very good one. He died 1801, 
aged seventy-seven. 

Thomas Lancaster was born in Rowley ; graduated at Harvard, 
1764 ; became the minister of Scarborough in 1775. After a pastor- 
ate of fifty-six years, he died in 1831, aged eighty-seven. " His was 
not a brilliant, but an eminently useful career." 

Josiah Thatcher was born in Lebanon, Conn. ; graduated, 1760, 
at Nassau Hall; became, 1767, minister of Gorham. After a few 
years, he gave up preaching and went into civil life. He represented 
the town and the county in the Legislature, and was a judge of the 
Common Pleas. It was to him as senator that the petition for a col- 
lege in Maine was intrusted. He died in 1799. 

David Mitchell was a distinguished citizen, of North Yarmouth ; 
a judge of the Common Pleas, and the first treasurer of the college. 

Tristram Gilman, a native of Exeter, was settled, 1769, as minis- 
ter of North Yarmouth, where his forty years of service were filled 
with usefulness. He died 1809, aged seventy-four. 

Alden Bradford was of Duxbury ; graduated at Harvard, 1786, 
and was the minister of Wiscasset for eight years. Of the college 
trustees he was probably the most energetic and useful member. 
Returning to Massachusetts, he was made Secretary of the Common- 
wealth. He was much interested in historical researches, and pub- 
lished several works of value. He died 1843, aged seventy-eight. 

Thomas Rice, a resident in Wiscasset, graduated at Harvard, 1756 ; 
practised medicine ; was also judge and chief justice of the Court 
of Common Pleas, and a register of deeds. He died in 1812. 

William Martin was the son of an eminent London physician, 
and was in business there before and during the war with the colonies. 
That over, he came to Boston, and thence to North Yarmouth, where he 

3 



34 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

lived six years. Being unsuccessful in business, he removed to Port- 
land, where his daughters had already established a school for young 
ladies. In that school, once well known throughout the State, old 
Mr. Martin aided his accomplished daughters, Eliza, Catharine, and 
Penelope, — ladies honored and revered by many, and whose names it 
is a pleasure to recall and repeat. Mr. Martin died 1814, at the age of 
eighty -one. 

Samuel Freeman, of Portland, was the first elected trustee and sec- 
ond treasurer of Bowdoin College. During his three years in the board, 
he was very active and very useful. He lived to the age of eighty- 
eight 3-ears, dying in 1831. Few men even in that clay — none in our 
time — could exhibit a record of lifelong public service and duty 
comparable to that of Mr. Freeman. He began as a trader, a teacher, 
and an attorney at law. He was an ardent and active Whig before and 
during the Revolutionary contest. He was a member and secretary of 
the Provincial Congress. From 1776 to 1822 he was clerk of the courts 
for Cumberland County, except in Governor Gerry's year. During 
the same time he was first the register, then the judge of probate. 
From 1776 to 1805, he was postmaster for his native town. Many 
knew him through his useful manuals entitled " The Town Officer," 
"•The Clerk's Magazine," and "The Probate Directory." His latest 
performance in this line was the revision and publication of the now 
famous " Smith Journal." The manuscript was submitted to him 
with power to select and then destroy. Pie obeyed the injunction. 
For many a precious item of the quaint old journalist, we have instead 
the editorial statement, "No occurrences proper to be noticed." 
Mistaken fidelity! Too cautious reviser! He little 'suspected that 
the very reason assigned for omission would but enhance the regret 
occasioned by the loss. It was indeed extremely provoking. What 
would not William Willis gladly have given to save those precious 
papers from the flames ? 

I can still recall the venerable features of this good man (features 
which reminded men of Washington), as I often saw him in 1816 and 
1817, sitting in the deacon's pew in the old, venerable First Parish 
meeting-house. 

v Charles Turner (graduate of Harvard, 1752) was for several 
years minister of Duxbury. He became a resident of Turner, in the 
District of Maine, was a land-owner there, and sometimes preached. 

Alfred Johnson, of Plainfield, Conn. (Dartmouth, 1785), the first 
minister of Freeport, 1789 to 1805. As one of the Cumberland 
County ministers, and also as a member of the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature, Mr. Johnson was influential in procuring the college charter ; 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 35 

and subsequently, as a trustee, took an active part in the establish- 
ment and organization of the young institution. After leaving Free- 
port, he was for a time the minister of Belfast, and in that town he 
spent his closing years. 

Elijah Kellogg, of South Hadley (Dartmouth, 1785), became, 
in 1787, the first minister of the newly organized Second Church, 
in Portland. Twenty years later, Edward Pa3 T son was ordained 
as his colleague. Then came trouble, and at length secession. 
From 1811 to 1821, Mr. Kellogg ministered to another congrega- 
tion, known as the Third. The latter part of his life was given 
to missionary work and to philanthropic labors. A man of ardent 
temperament, he gave himself wholly to whatever business he 
had in hand. During one part of his checkered career, he entered 
largely into speculation. He bought lands, and put up buildings, 
and incurred heavy losses. For a while he was " careful and troubled 
about many things," and too much withdrawn from his clerical duties. 
He returned to them, however, from the disappointments of the 
world, with renewed interest and zeal. He died in 1842, in his 
eighty-second year. He was a trustee for twenty-six years, and 
through all the organizing period was active and useful. The Rev. 
Elijah Kellogg, Bowdoin College, 1840, is his son. 

Charles Coffin, of Newbury, graduate at Harvard, 1785; at first 
practised medicine in Newburyport, then removed to Brunswick, and 
went into trade. Unsuccessful in this, he took charge (1811) of the 
Portsmouth Academy. Then he went to South Carolina, but died in 
1820, when he had just entered on his duties as the principal of 
Beaufort College. Dr. Coffin was secretary of the Board of Trustees 
from 1801 to 1811. I remember him well ; a man of grave aspect, of 
few words, and of excellent sense. If he lacked the talents or the 
tastes that fit men for success as physicians or as merchants, he was 
highly valued as an instructor. 

Silas Lee, Harvard, 1784, was a successful lawyer in Wiscasset. 
He served as representative in Boston and in Washington. He was 
judge of Probate and of the Common Pleas, and during the last thirteen 
3'ears of his life was the United States district attorney for Maine. 
For several 3 T ears Mr. Lee was the financial agent of the college. 

Dummer Sewall was born in York. He served as lieutenant of a 
provincial company during the old French War, 1758 and 1759, set- 
tling afterwards at Bath. In 1775, he commanded a regiment at Cam- 
bridge, and subsequently acted as quartermaster in the Continental 
service. From .1799 to 1805, this stanch and true old man was the 
college treasurer. He died in 1833, at the age of ninety-six. 



36 HISTOEY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Isaac Parker was born in 1768, in Boston ; graduated at Harvard, 
1786 ; began as a lawyer in Castine, and soon came into notice. He was 
sent to the Legislature and to Congress. In 1799, be was appointed 
United States marshal, removed to Portland, and entered on an exten- 
sive and successful practice. Eight years later, he was made Associate 
Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court, and thenceforward lived in 
Boston. In 1814, he succeeded Parsons as Chief Justice. In 1820, 
he presided with great ability over that illustrious convention which 
revised the Constitution of Massachusetts. A stroke of apoplexy in 
1830 brought his useful career to a sudden close. 

Judge Parker, as I remember him in the seat of justice, and in 
the president's chair, and especially as I recall the contemporary esti- 
mate of others who knew him well, was a remarkably complete man. 
There were no prominent qualities that outshone the rest. His men- 
tal powers seemed to be evenly balanced and in perfect harmony. 
Everything that he said or wrote evinced scholarly culture and taste, 
without the slightest tinge of pedantry. If any one would know, at 
this late clay, how great and good a man held for sixteen years the 
highest judicial position in Massachusetts, let him find and study the 
admirable portrait of Isaac Parker, which was drawn by his illustrious 
successor. 

Let it be remembered that Mr. Parker was an influential trustee, at 
a time when the services of a man so able were of peculiar value. 

Josiah Winship was born in Cambridge ; graduated at Harvard, 
1762 ; minister of Woolwich for fifty-nine years ; died there in 1824, 
aged eighty-six. 

Benjamin Jones Porter was born in 1763, in "Wenham. His 
father, Billy Porter, entered the Continental army as a lieutenant, and 
was a major when the war ended. In 1780, the son entered the same 
service as surgeon's mate, and served through. He practised medi- 
cine for a time at Stroudwater. In 1793, he settled at Topsham, 
dropping his saddle-bags for a more lucrative pursuit. In partnership 
with his brother-in-law, William King, of Bath, he became a builder 
and owner of vessels, went largely into the lumber business, and was 
soon known as a prosperous merchant, who lived in handsome and 
hospitable style. Though brought up a Federalist, his connections 
and sympathies carried him very naturally iuto the opposing ranks. 
He was chosen to represent his town and coumVy at Boston, and sat 
for a year in the Governor's Council. After separation, he was on 
the joint committee for dividing with Massachusetts the public hinds. 
From 1805 to 1815, he was the college treasurer; then some trouble 
occurred and his connection ceased. In 1820, he again became a 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 37 

trustee, and so continued for twenty-four years. His last years were 
• spent in Camden, where be died in 1847. His wife, Elizabeth King, 
sbared largely in tbe talent and virtues of the distinguished family from 
which she came. She outlived him about four years. Of their five sons, 
William K. and Charles R. graduated at Bowdoin College. 

Samuel Sumner Wilde was born in 1771, in Taunton, Mass. Hav- 
ing graduated at Hanover, in 1789, he studied law with Hon. D. L. 
Barnes, of Taunton, and was admitted in 1792. He was married the 
same 3 T ear, and immediately settled with his young wife in Walcloboro', 
Me., where he practised two years. Then, for five j-ears, he lived in 
Warren, which town he represented in the State Legislature. In 1799, 
he removed to Hallowell, where he at once became a prominent mem- 
ber and conspicuous ornament of its bright and genial societ}*. His 
reputation as a lawyer rose rapidly, and a few years of successful 
practice sufficed to place him in the foremost rank of his profession. 
In 1815, he was appointed an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 
of Massachusetts. The duties of this high station he continued to 
discharge with great ability, and to general acceptance, for more than 
thirty-five jears. With a mind still clear and vigorous, he resigned at 
the age of seventy-nine. He died in Boston in 1855, aged eighty-four. 

At the separation of Maine in 1820, Judge Wilde removed to New- 
buryport. Here he lived eleven years, after which time his home was 
in Boston. Of political life he knew and desired to know but little. 
He was once a State councillor, and twice a member of the Electoral 
College. In 1820, he shone among the great men who revised the 
Constitution of Massachusetts. For a short time before he died, " He 
was the last surviving member of that convention* which had the sin- 
gular fortune to be largely composed of the wisest, ablest, and most 
patriotic men of New England, and which popular opinion, with the 
pertinacious bitterness of party prejudice, has regarded as having 
been made up of traitors." 

With talents which would have made him powerful and renowned in 
any department of life, with literary tastes and attainments of a high 
order, it was as a law} T er and jurist that he won his fame. The fol- 
lowing resolution is taken from the proceedings of the Suffolk bar on 
the occasion of Judge Wilde's retirement : — 

" Resolved, That in the review of his services, virtues, qualifications, 
and traits of personal and official character and mind, to which the 
occasion naturally turns Our thoughts, we appreciate- and record, with 
special admiration, his exact and deep knowledge of the common law 

* Known as the Hartford Convention. 



38 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

of real property, the fruit of his earliest studies under our greatest 
teachers of that learning ; his later mastery of the theory and practice 
of equit}' ; the rapidity as well as soundness of his perception of legal 
truth ; the fidelit}', quickness, and capaciousness of his memoiy ; the 
sagacity, firmness, and kindness of heart, the habits of despatch, and 
the instantaneous command of the law, both of evidence and of prin- 
ciples, with which he presided over the trial by jury ; his absolute and 
remarkable impartiality towards all the practisers before him, too just 
and too manly for antipathies or favoritism ; and to sum up all, his 
devotion to every duty of his office, which seemed to gain strength to 
the last hour of his judicial life, and to which all his tastes and all his 
enjojments were kept ever subordinate." 

From the response of Chief Justice Shaw I draw a single para- 
graph : — 

"Of his absolute and entire impartiality, a close and daily observa- 
tion of more than twenty years enabled me to speak with entire confi- 
dence. He seemed to have as little regard for parties as if they were 
expressed in algebraic characters ; nor did he seem to have any other 
interest in the result than the mathematician in the solution of his com- 
plicated problem. Rigidly scrupulous in ascertaining the truth and 
soundness of his premises, conducting the process by the strictest rules 
of legal deduction, his solicitude was that his conclusion should be right, 
not whom it might affect." 

I give another resolution from the classic pen of George S. Hillard, 
as adopted by the same bar, five years later : — 

" Resolved, That the private and personal worth of this eminent 
magistrate was in strict harmony with his official merits, and indeed 
formed part of them. His bearing upon the bench indicated the man. 
If he loved the law, it was because by it truth and justice were indi- 
cated and maintained. Simple in his tastes, of industrious habits, of 
warm domestic affections, and strong religious faith, he never lost his 
interest in life, and nothing of him but his body grew old. He was 
frank, direct, calmly courageous, and of unalloyed simplicity ; caring 
as little to conceal what he was, as to affect what he was not. His 
intellectual tastes were healthy, and his legal studies had not closed 
his mind to literature ; so that when the burden of accustomed toil 
was removed, he found constant delight in the reading and discussing 
of good books. His long and valuable life was crowned by a serene 
and beautiful old age, brought to a close by natural decay, and 
released by a touch so gentle as to leave more of gratitude than 
grief in the hearts of those who stood Iry his side." 

From the impartial and beautiful delineation of Judge Wilde's char- 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 3^ 

acter which was made by his pastor, the Rev. Dr. Peabody, a short 
extract must suffice : — 

'* In the extreme simplicity of his tastes and his honest frank- 
ness, in his respect for law, in his estimates of social duty and 
usefulness, his character was one which might have been set be- 
fore the world as presenting in its best form the true idea of an 
American citizen, — such a one as should be legitimately formed under 
our institutions. The first impression he made on a stranger was, I 
think, that of sternness, almost of severity ; but it was soon seen, as 
is often the case with strong and upright men, especially as they grow 
older, that underneath the force and the courage was a heart full of 
tenderness and sensibility, — in the granite cliff was a fountain of 
pure, unfailing kindness. He was one whose life bore a daily testi- 
mony to the beauty of simple tastes, and an unpretending, unexactiug 
independence, and to the worth of integrity and truth and kind affec- 
tions, and faith in God." 

In the contour and expression of his face, he bore a marked resem- 
blance to the great Duke of Wellington. An innate nobleness, an 
unaffected air of dignity and firmness sat ever on his countenance, 
and well befitted the bench of justice. During the thirteen years that 
he was a trustee of the college, he was truly one of its right-hand men. 

He married Eunice, daughter of Gen. David Cobb, of Taunton, 
Mass., and had five sons and four daughters. For two of the sons, 
see 1812 and 1819. 

Hezekiah Packard was born in 1761, in North Bridgewater, Mass. 
When the war began, he enlisted as a fifer, and served for several 
months in Massachusetts and New York. At a later period also, he 
served under Gen. Sullivan in his unsuccessful attempt to get posses- 
sion of Newport. From the army he went home to become a farmer. 
For this occupation he soon became disqualified by an accidental injury, 
so he went to Cambridge, where he graduated in 1787. Then he kept 
the grammar school in that place for a year Then he was made 
assistant librarian of the college, and aided in preparing the first 
printed catalogue. In 1789 he became mathematical tutor, and held 
that office very acceptably for four years. At the close of his tutor- 
ship he was settled in the ministry at Chelmsford, Mass. After eight 
years of faithful service there, he removed to Wiscasset. Here his 
labors were numerous and arduous. He not only discharged with 
fidelity the duties of a preacher and pastor, but for many years taught 
successfully a large school. For this employment he was admirably 
adapted ; he was a thorough teacher and an excellent disciplinarian. 
After he gave up the public school he received lads into his fam- 



40 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

ily, and his high reputation brought him many pupils from other and 
distant places. Dr. Packard became a trustee of the college in 1813, 
and was an efficient member until 1830. For ten years he was 
vice-president. At the commencement in 1819, President Apple ton 
being disabled hj sickness, Dr. Packard supplied his place. In the 
year 1830, at his own request, he was dismissed from his charge in 
Wiscasset, and soon after became the pastor of a small church in Mid- 
dlesex Village, a part of his former parish of Chelmsford. After six 
years at this place, he concluded to retire from active duty, and to 
live thenceforth with his children. Dr. Packard lived thirteen years 
longer, principally in Salem, Mass., in Saco, and in Brunswick. His 
last days were cheered by filial kindness and general respect. He 
died at Salem, April 25, 1849. He was married (1794) to Mary, 
daughter of Eev. Alpheus Spring, of Kittery (West) , now Eliot. This 
superior woman died in 1829. They had two daughters and six sons. 

Dr. Packard sent his six sons to Bowdoin College, — 1816, 1817, 
1821, 1825, and 1831. The youngest, William, who would have 
graduated in 1835, died in college. 

To those who would know more of a truly capable, pious, and char- 
itable man, I commend the tribute to his memory — equally just and mod- 
est — which his children prepared and printed for the use of their friends. 

Prentiss Mellen was born at Sterling, Mass., October, 1764 ; son 
of Eev. John Mellen and Eebecca Prentiss, daughter of Eev. John 
Prentiss, of Lancaster. He graduated at Harvard, 1784 ; pursued 
legal studies in Barnstable, Mass., and was admitted to the bar in 
Taunton in 1788. He began practice in his native town, but soon 
removed to Bridgewater, Mass., and again in 1792 to Biddeford, Me., 
where he ' ' entered upon a sphere of successful practice which placed 
him at the head of his profession in Maine, and at the head of its 
highest judicial tribunal. He practised in every county in the District 
of Maine, and was engaged in every prominent cause." In 1806, he 
removed to Portland, thus entering " on a wider sphere, in which he 
found competitors of high legal attainments and eminent ability, and 
was accounted a leader in that assemblage of legal talent. His voice 
was musical, his person tall and imposing, and his manner fascinat- 
ing." He was thrice a member of the executive council of Massachu- 
setts, Maine being then a district; in 1816, was an elector at large in 
the Presidential elections ; in 1817, was chosen a senator in Congress 
from Massachusetts ; in 1820, Maine having become a separate State, 
was appointed chief justice of its Supreme Court, For twenty-five 
3'ears he was a trustee of the college, and in 1820 received from it the 
degree of LL. D., as in the same year from Harvard.. He was pres- 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 41 

ident of the Maine Historical Society. In 1834, having reached the 
age of sevent} T , he became by the Constitution of the State disquali- 
fied for the office, and retired from a position which he had honored 
and adorned. He was soon appointed at the head of a commission 
to revise and codify the statutes of the State. 

In 1795, he married Miss Sally Hudson, of Hartford, Conn., who 
died in 1838, leaving six children, of whom Frederic graduated from 
the college in 1825. Judge Mellen died in, 1840, and is remembered 
as a gentleman of eminent social qualities, of a cheerful, gay temper- 
ament, abounding in wit and anecdote, and an ornament of society. 

Benjamin Orr was born in Bedford, N. H., where his Irish grand- 
parents settled about 1735. His father, a brave man, who had fought 
under Stark at Benniugton, was a small farmer, and could do but little 
in the way of outfit for his sixteen children. Benjamin, the eldest of 
them, was apprenticed to a house carpenter. Before his term expired, 
his master failed, went off, and left him free. Shouldering his tools, 
he set out with a fellow-apprentice, to hew his own way in the world. 
Travelling north, they found work in Lancaster, Coos County, where 
they contracted to do the joiner work of a meeting-house, and per- 
formed their contract. After this, he went to Portland and worked 
some time on houses there. While thus employed, his purposes and life 
received a new impulse. In intervals of labor, his eager curiosity 
sometimes carried him to the court-house. It was then and there that 
he decided to become a law3"er. The mind involuntarily recalls the 
contrast which that old forensic hall exhibited within the space of a 
few brief years. The young carpenter in coarse, working garb, on 
some unnoticed back seat, watching, as though he were all eye and ear, 
the progress of the trial, weighing with keen though uncultured 
acumen the arguments of opposing counsel, and the judicial summing 
up, and inwardly resolving that he would yet cross weapons with those 
doughty champions of the bar ; and not long after, the same individ- 
ual on the same spot, a commanding presence and an acknowledged 
master. At the close of 1793, he put himself under the tuition of 
Paul Langdon at the Fryeburg Academy. Though his exigencies still 
compelled him to use his tools in the vacations, and to employ his 
winters in teaching, his progress in study was rapid and thorough, so 
that he entered Dartmouth College as Junior, and graduated there the 
valedictorian of 1798. His law teachers were Samuel Dinsmore of 
Keene, N. H., and Samuel Sumner Wilde at Hallowell. From 1801 
to 1822, his home and office were in Topsham. After that time he 
lived in Brunswick, where he died Sept. 5, 1828. Two years excepted, 
during which he represented his district in Congress, his life was one 



42 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

of earnest and successful professional labor. Of this great man and 
truly original character, Chief Justice Mellen, soon after Mr. Orr's 
decease, spoke as one "who had long stood confessedly at the head 
of the profession ... in Maine ; who had distinguished himself by 
the depth and solidity of his understanding, by his legal acumen 
and research, b} T the power of his intellect, the commanding energy 
of his reasoning, the uncompromising firmness of his principles, and 
the dignified and lofty sense of honor, truth, and justice which he 
uniformly displayed, in his professional career and in the walks of 
private life." Another, who knew him well, informs us that Mr. 
Orr was always a pleasant and honorable practitioner, considerate and 
obliging towards his 3-ounger brethren. He knew, indeed, — none bet- 
ter than he, — how to be severe ; and hard was the case of that pre- 
varicating witness on whom he hailed the short, pithy sentences of 
his concentrated sarcasm. But his powers appeared to most advan- 
tage in discussing points of law before the court. Here, laying aside 
all display of wit and sarcasm, all superfluous illustration and circum- 
locution, all skirmishing at the outposts and dallying with his adver- 
sary, he seized at once upon the question at issue. His argument was 
dense and brief, proceeding in regular procession from commence- 
ment to conclusion ; so that it was dangerous for one who would com- 
prehend its full force to withdraw the attention from him even for a 
moment. He was an efficient trustee of the college, and its legal 
adviser on more than one occasion of great importance. 

Mr. Orr married Elizabeth, daughter of Capt. Richard Tappan of 
Brunswick. Of their large family, Elizabeth married John A. Poor, 
Esq., now of Portland ; Laura T. married Mr. Davis of Wellfleet, 
Mass. ; Margaret C. is the wife of Col. A. J. Stone of Brunswick; 
Catharine is married and lives in Andover, Me. ; Benjamin S. went to 
sea and died; Richard J. and Francis are farmers; John (Bovvdoin 
College, 1834) is a Congregational minister in Alfred ; Henry (Bow- 
doin College, 1846) lives in Brunswick, lawyer, and judge of the 
municipal court. 

Francis Brown was born in 1784, at Chester, N. II., and 
graduated at Dartmouth College, 1805. He was settled at North 
Yarmouth in 1809. He was appointed soon after Professor of 
Languages in Dartmouth College, but declined the honor. " For 
the succeeding five years he labored with great zeal and success among 
his people, while his influence was sensibly felt in sustaining and 
advancing the interests of learning and religion throughout the State. 
He was the intimate friend of President Appleton ; and no one, 
perhaps, co-operated with the president more vigorously than he in 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 43 

increasing the resources and extending the influence of Bowdoin Col- 
lege." During this period he preached occasionally in Brunswick. 
Though man}- years have since passed, they have scarcely dimmed the 
impressions which he made on my 3'Oung mind, — his air of quiet 
strength, his modest demeanor, and his manly beauty. Mr. Brown 
was soon called to put forth his powers on a wider field- Dartmouth 
College was in trouble. " President Wheelock, in June, 1815, brought 
a series of charges against the trustees before the Legislature of the 
Mate. In August of the same year, the trustees, acting on a pro- 
vision of the charter, removed Dr. Wheelock from the presidency ; 
and at the same time elected Mr. Brown in his place. At the next 
session of the Legislature, an act was passed to ' amend the charter, 
and enlarge and improve the corporation of Dartmouth College,' 
changing the name of it to a university, and adding to its trustees a 
sufficient number to control its corporate action. This act was not 
acknowledged by the trustees of the college as valid. . . The treasurer 
of the college adhered to the university party, taking with him the 
college seal, charter, etc." For the recovery of these an action was 
brought in the State court. It was argued* by Jeremiah Mason, Jere- 
miah Smith, and Daniel "Webster, for the college ; by John Sullivan 
and Ichabod Bartlett, for the university. The validity of the acts was 
the turning point. The Court decided against the college, and an 
appeal was taken to the Supreme Court of the United States. Daniel 
Webster and Joseph Hopkinson appeared for the college, John 
Holmes and William Wirt for the university. Feb. 2, 1819, Chief 
Justice Marshall gave the decision for the college. I need not apol- 
ogize for giving here, almost in the words of Dr. Sprague, this brief 
account of a controversy which excited at the time a deep and general 
interest, and which will be ever memorable, not only for the great 
men whom it enlisted, but still more for the great principles which it 
involved and settled, — principles of the highest import to the whole 
community, and especially to literary institutions. Into this fight, 
Mr. Brown, then a little more than thirty-one years old, was called at 
once to plunge. He came out of it with the college triumphant, but 
found himself prostrated by labors too severe. He complied with the 
customary usage in consumptive cases : he travelled to the West 
and to the South, in vain. He came back to Hanover, and died July 
27, 1820, in the serenity of Christian faith and hope. His widow, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. Tristram Gilman, of North Yarmouth, 
died in 1851. Samuel Gilrnan Brown, D. D., now a professor in 
Dartmouth College, is one of their three children. To the sketch of 
Tresident Brown, which Dr. Sprague has given in his " Annals of the 



44 HISTORY OF BOVVDOIN COLLEGE. 

Pulpit," he has appended two letters from two of that great man's 
most accomplished and distinguished pupils, — the Bev. Dr. Had- 
dock and the Hon. Rufus Choate. No one can read these beautiful 
tributes of admiration and love, without the conviction that it was no 
common power and no ordinary worth which made such impressions 
and won such regard. I give a brief extract from each. " The mind 
of Dr. Brown was of the very highest order, — profound, comprehen- 
sive, and discriminating. Its action was deliberate, circumspect, and 
sure. He made no mistakes ; he left nothing in doubt where cer- 
tainty was possible ; he never conjectured where there were means of 
knowing ; he had no obscure glimpses among his ideas of truth 
and duty. Alwaj-s sound and alwaj-s luminous, his opinions were 
never uttered without being understood, and never understood with- 
out being regarded. His heart was large. Great objects alone 
could fill it, and it was full of great objects. There was no littleness 
of thought or purpose or ambition in him, — nothing little. On 
the whole, it has been my fortune to know no man whose entire 
character has appeared to me so near perfection, — none whom it 
would so satisfy me in all things to resemble." (Prof. Haddock.) 
"He was still young at the time of his inauguration, but he had 
alreadjr, in an extraordinary degree, dignity of person and sentiment ; 
rare beauty, almost youthful beauty of countenance ; a sweet, deep, 
commanding tone of voice ; a grave, but graceful and attractive 
demeanor, — all the traits and all the qualities, completely ripe, 
which make up and express weight of character ; and all the address 
and firmness and knowledge of youth, men, and affairs which, consti- 
tute what we call administrative talent." After a short account of the 
varied struggle through which President Brown was called to pass, Mr. 
Choate adds: " This contest tried him and the college with extreme 
and various severity. To induce students to remain in a school dis- 
turbed and menaced ; to engage and inform public sentiment ; . . . 
to confer with the counsel of the college, two of whom, Mr. Mason 
and Mr. Webster, have often declared to me their admiration of 
the intellectual force and practical good sense which he brought to 
those conferences, — this all, while it withdrew him somewhat from 
the proper studies and proper cares of his office, created a necessity 
for the display of the very rarest qualities of temper, discretion, tact, 
and command ; and he met it with consummate ability and fortune." 

Josiah Stebbins, the youngest son in a large family, was born - 
in 1766, in Brimfield, Mass., where his father was a farmer. He 
graduated in 1791, at Yale, in the same class with Stephen Elliott, 
James Gould, Peter B. Porter, and others who afterwards rose to 



THE EARLY TEUSTEES. 45 

eminence. From 1792 to 1796, he was a tutor in Yale College, and 
had for colleagues James Gould, Roger Minott Sherman, and Jere- 
miah Atwater. In consequence of the death of President Stiles in 
1795, it fell to Mr. Stebbins, as senior tutor, to act for some time as 
the presiding officer of the institution. Mr. Stebbins, having studied 
law with Judge Goodrich at New Haven, was there also admitted to 
the bar, at the close of his tutorship. 

In 1797, he settled at New Milford, now Alna. In 1813, he was 
appointed by Gov. Strong a judge of the Common Pleas. In 1816, 
Governor Brooks being then in the executive chair, he was chosen one 
of the council, — an office to which he was successively re-elected two 
or three times. He was one of that famous convention which met at 
Brunswick in 1816 to count votes and form a constitution. It is 
hardly necessary to add that he objected to the new arithmetic. After 
the separation, Judge Stebbins returned to professional practice. In 
the first Legislature of Maine he had a seat in the House of Repre- 
sentatives. He afterwards served three terms as State senator. He 
died at Alna in 1829. He married Laura Allen, of New Haven, 
Conn., and left a daughter who is living in Bangor. 

"Judge Stebbins," says a competent witness, "was a zealous and 
faithful lawyer, an able counsellor, a patient, discriminating, impartial 
judge. In the private relations of life he is remembered only with 
kindness and respect." 

Long an overseer of Bowdoin College before he became a trustee, 
he felt a warm interest in the institution, and was seldom absent from 
its solemnities. 

Eliphalet Gillet was born in 1768 in Colchester, Conn. ; gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth College in 1791 ; studied with Rev. Dr. Spring, of 
Newbury port ; and was settled, in 1795, the first pastor of the church 
in Hallowell. Here he labored to good acceptance until 1827, when, 
at his own request, the connection was dissolved. Settled as he was 
" in a new and rising community, it devolved on him to la} T the foun- 
dations, and to give not only to the church and people under his care, 
but to some extent to the region around him, an impress and char- 
acter" for good. From the organization of the Maine Missionary 
Society in 1807, until his death in 1848, Dr. Gillet was its secretary. 
The last twent} r years of his life were given to the cause of home 
missions. In his official capacity, a large and constant care rested 
upon him, " and for the assiduity and faithfulness with which he ful- 
filled his trust, he was greatly and deservedly honored." " He was," 
writes Dr. Tappan, " a man of bland and courteous manners, of 
refined and delicate sensibility. His mind was of a superior order," 



46 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

and "he had a fine, classical taste. . . . He possessed all those moral 
and social, as well as intellectual qualities, that were fitted to make 
him a general favorite in society." Dr. Tappan bears ample testi- 
mony to the excellence of his Christian life and character. 

In 1805, Mr. Gillet married Mary, daughter of Rev. John Gurley, 
of Lebanon, Conn. Of eleven children, three daughters survived their 
father. 

Ichabod Nichols, son of Capt. Ichabod Nichols, was born in 
Portsmouth, - N. H., July, 1784; graduated at Harvard with high 
honor, in the distinguished class of 1802. He began theological 
study with Rev. Dr. Barnard, of Salem, Mass., and continued it 
while in the tutorship at Harvard. In 1809 he was settled as col- 
league pastor with Rev. Dr. Deane, at Portland ; after the death of 
the latter he came into the full pastorate in 1814, which he held until 
himself received a colleague in 1855. Near the close of that year he 
resigned the pastoral office ; but the parish, " unwilling to dissever the 
interesting and affectionate relation which had existed so long, ex- 
pressed a desire that while he should be relieved from all the duties of 
the office, the official character might not be sundered, — which he 
acceded to." He however soon removed to Cambridge, Mass., where 
he died in 1859. He was a trustee of the college forty -two years ; 
received from it the degree of D. D. in 1821, and the same honor 
from Harvard ten } T ears later. He was a member of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of the Maine Historical Society, of 
which he was president six 3'ears. Besides other publications, he gave 
to the world his last and ablest work, " Hours with the Evangelists," 
2 vols. 8vo, — a valuable contribution to the evidences of Christianit}'. 

Dr. Nichols was a constant student, of wide culture apart from his 
professional studies, conversant with European literature, with math- 
ematical and natural science, for which his earlier life had decided 
inclination. He was a man to be greatly respected and beloved, an 
ornament and honor to the city in which he lived, and the State. 

He twice married: first, in 1810, a daughter of Gov. John Taylor 
Gilman, of Exeter, N. H., who died in 1831, leaving two sons; 
second, a daughter of Stephen Higginson, Esq., of Boston. 

Stephen Longfellow was descended, five generations down, from 
William Longfellow (the first New-Englauder of the name), who, in 
1678, married Anne Sewall, and settled in Newbury (Byfield Parish), 
Mass., " as a merchant." So runs the legend, though it certainly pro- 
vokes a smile to think of a merchant operating on such a field. Ste- 
phen, a grandson of this patriarch, bom in 1723, in Byfield ; graduate, 
1742, of Harvard College; removed, 1745, to Falmouth, where he 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 47 

kept, at first, the grammar school, and became a very useful and 
influential man. When the town was destroyed he removed to Gor- 
ham, and there remained until he died in 1790. By his wife, Tabitha 
Bragdon, he bad three sons, Stephen, Samuel, and William ; and one 
daughter, Tabitha, who married Capt. John Stephenson. Of these, 
Stephen became judge of the Common Pleas ; he was also an over- 
seer of Bowdoin College. He died in 1824, at Gorham, in venerable 
age. B} r his wife, Patience Young, he had two sons, Stephen and 
Samuel; and two daughters, — Tabitha, who married Lothrop Lewis, 
and Abigail, wife of Col. Samuel Stephenson. The celebrity of our 
present subject, the third Stephen Longfellow, and the far wider fame 
of his poetic son, are my apology for this genealogical minuteness. 

Stephen Longfellow was born in Gorham, in 1776. He graduated 
with honor at Cambridge, in 1798, with Channing and Story for class- 
mates. His professional instructor was Salmon Chase. " He soon 
secured a successful practice, which never left him until its accumu- 
lating weight broke down the colossal power which had sustained it. 
His mind, taxed to its utmost strength through a long series of years 
by the constant pressure of engagements in the most important cases 
litigated in our courts, at length gave way. For several years before 
his death, which occurred in 1849, he was subject to fits of epilepsy, 
which gradually compelled him to withdraw from the profession he 
had so amply honored." 

Mr. Longfellow had no taste for political life, and never sought it. 
In one dark and perilous crisis of the country, he did indeed accept a 
public charge. With many other true patriots and great men, he was 
a member of that much-abused body, the Hartford Convention. In 
1822, he was elected to Congress. But it was to his profession that 
he gave his heart, and it was there that "he found his fame." The 
record of his labors through a period of thirty }'ears is contained in 
the first sixteen volumes of the " Massachusetts Reports," and in the 
first twelve volumes of the " Maine Reports." At a bar of unsur- 
passed ability, he ranked alwa3's with the first. But more than by 
his talents, his learning, or his high position, was Mr. Longfellow 
distinguished for his goodness. He was one of the kindest aud best 
of men, respected and beloved wherever known. In his domestic 
relations he was most happ} 7 . His faithful companion of more than 
fort}'-five j'ears was Zilpah, daughter of Gen. Peleg Wadsworth. 
Of their eight children, three are mentioned elsewhere in this volume. 
Their }-oungest son, Rev. Samuel Longfellow (Harvard College, 
1839) , is the well-known and beloved pastor of a society in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 



48 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

James Bridge was a son of Edmund Bridge, of Dresden. He grad- 
uated in 1787, at Harvard College ; established himself at Augusta, 
and had a very extensive practice, especially in cases relating to real 
estate. He was at one time a judge of the Common Pleas. He died 
in 1834. 

John Chandler was born in 1762, at Epping, N. H. His father, 
Joseph Chandler, a native of Amesbury, Mass., commanded a com- 
pan}^ in actual service during the greater part of the French War, so 
called ; and holding the same rank in the Revolutionary army, died at 
Fort Independence in 1776. 

In the year 1777, John Chandler, being only fifteen years old, 
enlisted for three months, and was enabled to bear a part in the 
capture of Burgoyne. Prevented from re-enlisting in the army by 
his mother's anxieties, he at length found his way, without her knowl- 
edge, on board an American privateer. This vessel, after some hard 
fighting, and after making numerous captures, was herself taken by a 
British ship of war and sent into Savannah, then under English con- 
trol. Confined here in noisome prison ships, with some five hundred 
of his countrymen, this hardy youth saw his fellow-prisoners rapidly 
sink under the horrors of their prison-house, until, of the whole num- 
ber, only forty remained. These, under the promptings of despair, 
determined to escape. Forming two bands, one of which was com- 
manded by young Chandler, they rose and bound their Tor} T guard, 
seized the boats, and, finally, after the severest hardships and dan- 
gers, got beyond the reach of their cruel foe. With two companions 
he now started for home. Long and weary was that foot journey. 
One comrade died in North Carolina, the other in New Jerse} 7 . He 
at length got back to Epping. Notwithstanding all this bitter experi- 
ence, he soon after went again into the army and served through the 
war. 

Mr. Chandler, having married in 1783 Mary Whittier, of South 
Hampton, removed to Maine, and became one of the first settlers of 
Monmouth. From the organization of the town to 1805 he repre- 
sented it in the Legislature. Then he was sent to Congress. In 
1808 he resigned his seat to become high sheriff of Kennebec County. 
At the breaking out of the war of 1812, he was appointed brigadier- 
general. After the return of peace, he was again sent to the Legisla- 
ture, as representative and senator. He was the first president of the 
first Maine Senate, and one of the first two members from Maine in 
the Senate of the United States. In 1829, President Jackson gave 
him the collectorship of Portland. He held the office until 1837. 
Old, at length, and infirm, he declined a reappointment, removed to 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 49 

Augusta, and there died in 1841, in his eightieth year. During his 
long life, he was more than twenty times appointed to office by the 
State and the national executive ; and besides the municipal trusts 
which he held, was more than fifty times elected to office by the peo- 
ple. In politics, Gen. Chandler was a Democrat of the straitest sect. 

"Manliness, sagacit}^, amenity, dignity, hospitality ? aud good faith 
distinguished him as a man. No trace of duplicity or of littleness 
was to be found in him." 

He left a widow, and one of the seven children she had borne him, 
namely, Anson G. Chandler, at that time United States Consul at 
Lahaina, in the Pacific. 

Judah Dana was born in 1772, in Pomfret, Vt., to which place his 
father, John W. Dana, had removed from Pomfret, Conn. His mother, 
Hannah Pope, was the eldest daughter of the Revolutionary hero, 
Israel Putnam. He graduated at Hanover in 1795, and began the 
practice of law in 1798 at Fryeburg. With distinguished associates 
and competitors at the bar, he soon became eminent among them, and 
received the usual awards of professional fidelity and skill. He was 
Commonwealth's attorney for Oxford, and also judge of probate. In 
1811 he was made judge of the Court of Common Pleas. After the 
separation he held a seat in the Executive Council. In 1836 and 
1837 he went to Washington, as senator, by executive appointment, 
and took an active part in debates there. "Judge Dana was an acute 
lawj^er, with read}' perceptions and nice powers of discrimination, 
and in a larger sphere of professional action might have acquired a 
more brilliant reputation. But he loved the country and its retire- 
ment, and there chose to act his part in the drama of life." In pri- 
vate, he was genial and uniformly courteous. " An unwavering dem- 
ocratic faith, strong religious hope, and Christian zeal cheered and 
sustained him to the last. His first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sylvanus Ripley, professor in Dartmouth College. The generals Elea- 
zar W. and James W. Ripley were her uncles, and the first President 
Wheelock was her grandfather. John W. Dana, late governor of 
Maine and United States minister to Bolivia, is the only son who 
survived infancy. Judge Dana's second wife was the widow of Gen. 
McMillan, of Fryeburg. He died Dec. 27, 1846, aged seventy-three 
years. 

Erastus Foote was a Connecticut man, born in Waterbury. His 
father came from Bradford, and his maternal grandfather was Rev. 
Samuel Todd, first settled minister of Northbury. After receiving 
a good academical education, he read law with Samuel Hinkley 
of Northampton, Mass. ; was admitted to the bar in 1800, and at 

4 



50 HISTORY OP BOWDOLN COLLEGE. , 

once entered on successful practice at Camden, Me. In 1811 he 
was appointed county attorney for Lincoln. Jn 1812 he served as 
a senator in the Legislature. Three years later, he removed to Wis- 
casset. In 1820 he again became a senator, on the organization of 
the State government. In that 3 7 ear, also, he was appointed by Gov. 
King attorney-general of Maine. "This office he held twelve }*ears, 
and gave a tone and character to the criminal jurisprudence which 
were honorable to him and highly appreciated by the public." 

" The late distinguished Chief Justice Mellen had a very high opin- 
ion of his talents and learning in that department ; and the eloquent 
Benjamin Orr, then at the head of the bar in Maine, and scarcely sur- 
passed in New England, used to sa}', ' It is almost impossible to 
wrest a criminal out of the hands of Brother Foote.' But no man 
could be more kind when he thought an individual was unjustly 
accused. He was the prosecutor of the guilty, not the persecutor of 
the poor and friendless. As a counsellor and advocate he stood in 
the foremost rank." 

" In all the relations of life, as a husband, father, citizen, and neigh- 
bor, Mr.- Foote bore an exemplary character. In a word, he was 
truly a good man. For twenty-four years he was a trustee of Bow- 
doin College, and through life he manifested a deep interest in its wel- 
fare." In 1812, Mr. Foote married Susan, daughter of Hon. Moses 
Carleton, of Wiscasset. In 1820, he married Eliza Carleton, a sister 
of his deceased wife. She still lives, with three daughters and a 
son. The latter is Erastus F., Bowcloin College, 1843, a lawyer in 
Wiscasset, and register of probate for the county. Mr. Foote, when 
he died in 1836, was sevent}'- eight years old. 

Mark Langdon Hill was born in Biddeford, in 1772. His father, 
James Hill, died when he was quite young. His mother, a sister of 
Gov. Langdon, and nearly related to Governors Sullivan and Eustis, 
married in 1782 James McCobb, of Georgetown, now Phipsburg. In 
this place Mr. Hill lived until his death in 1842, at the age of seventy. 
He married in 1797 Mary McCobb, a daughter of his mother's hus- 
band. She died in 1817, and four years afterward he married Abigail ? 
daughter of the late Daniel Sewall of Kennebunk. Many children 
and grandchildren still cherish his memory. ' 

Judge Hill possessed great activity both of mind and body. He 
was a man of good judgment ; skilful, energetic, and persevering in 
all that he undertook. The want of a liberal education he In good 
measure supplied by assiduous self-culture. His well-known ability, 
his tried integrity, and his agreeable manners early secured for him 
the confidence and good-will of his fellow-citizens. For several years 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 51 

he was in the Massachusetts Legislature, a member first of the House 
and then of the Senate. In 1810, he was made a judge of the Com- 
mon Pleas. From 1818 to 1822, he was a member of Congress. In 
1824, he was appointed collector of the port of Bath. He was elected 
an overseer of Bowdoin College in 1795, and a trustee in 1821, For 
thirty-six years his tall form was but once missed from the Com- 
mencement stage. In the various relations of private life, he was 
truly exemplary. With unvarying cheerfulness he met the claims of 
religion and benevolence. " To sustain an established ministry, he 
freely used his money, his influence, and his talents. He died as one 
who was at peace with the world, with himself, and with God." 

John Holmes. This celebrated man was born in 1773 in Kingston, 
Mass., where his father, Malachiah Holmes, had an iron foundry. To 
this business John was put. A schoolmaster found him working at 
the furnace, perceived his capacities, and advised the father to educate 
him. He was then almost twenty years old. A year afterward he 
entered Brown University, as a Sophomore. This was rapid progress, 
though it must be remembered that the Providence standard of admis- 
sion was not at that time ver3 r high. In college, he had for class- 
. mates Dr. Benjamin Shurtleff, the powerful Tristram Burgess, and 
others who afterwards rose to renown. He studied his profession with 
Benjamin Whitman, a lawyer of eminence in the old colony. 

Having gained admittance, Mr. Holmes went into Maine and 
planted himself in Sanford. In this new place (subsequently called 
Alfred) he at once found business. There were many unsettled 
land titles. Squatters were numerous, and the } r oung lawyer's talents 
were turned to good account in aid of the proprietors. As his abili- 
ties became known, his practice extended and grew important. In 
conflicts with such men as Parker, S} 7 mmes, Davis, Mellen, Emery, 
and Wilde, he proved himself no mean antagonist. Could Mr. 
Holmes have contented himself with the more quiet as well as sub- 
stantial honors and advantages of the legal profession, he would 
undoubtedly have been a leader, if not facile princeps, among the 
great men who shed such lustre on the bar of Maine, and especially of 
Cumberland, during the first third of the present century. It seems, 
however, that he could not resist the charms of public life. He got 
his first taste of it in 1802, when he represented Alfred in the Legis- 
lature at Boston. From the beginning of the great party distinction, he 
had been on the Federal side. As a young, ambitious, eloquent Federal- 
ist, he first made himself known to the public men of Massachusetts. 
As such, by voice and pen, in eloquent prose and keen satiric verse, he 
often distinguished himself during those 3 T ears of feverish agitation 



52 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

and frequent alarm, and even through the dark period of the Embargo 
and Non- Intercourse. But Federal politics were not those of York 
County, nor of Maine itself. The policy of Jefferson was the policy 
of the nation, and likely to continue such. Mr. Holmes went over to 
the Democratic side. His conversion was sudden and complete. His 
former enemies hailed with joy the accession of so much power, and 
sent him at once to the General Court. There he was run, unsuc- 
cessfully, as candidate for speaker. The next year (1813) he was 
elected to the State Senate. In the discussions of that bod} 7 , which 
assumed a national importance, Mr. Holmes stood up boldly and ably 
for the administration and for the war, against a strong majority, 
including men of the highest talent. " For wit he returned wit, and 
full measure ; for argument, argument ; and on all occasions pre- 
served his coolness." 

In 1815, he was appointed by President Madison a commissioner, 
under the Treaty of Ghent, to apportion beween the two countries 
the islands in Passamaquoddy Bay. In 1816, and again in 1818, 
he was sent to Congress by the electors of York district. His repu- 
tation soon became national, as one of the most ready and able 
debaters in the House of Representatives. His labors at Washington 
and on the northeastern boundary did not prevent him from taking an 
active part in home affairs. He was a leader in those movements 
which led to the separation of Maine. He was in the first Brunswick 
Convention, and reported a constitution, on the assumption that the 
requisite five-ninths majority had been obtained. For this he was 
much abused, and John Holmes's new arithmetic was proverbial for 
a while among the opponents of separation. It was afterwards ascer- 
tained that he did not invent the political calculus " which converted 
five ninths of the aggregate majorities of the corporations into five 
ninths of the legal voters in the district." " At the convention of 
1819, Mr. Holmes was chairman of the committee that drafted the 
Constitution, and took an active part in all the discussions." 

In 1820, he was chosen by the first Legislature of Maine to repre- 
sent the new State in the Senate of the Union. In this illustrious 
conclave he filled a conspicuous place until 1833, with the exception 
of a single year. After a brilliant and successful public career of 
more than twenty-two years, he returned to Maine, and to the practice 
of law. With strength unabated, with a freshness like that of youth, 
he took his place once more at the bar. In 1836, he represented 
Alfred in the Legislature. In 1841, President Harrison made him dis- 
trict attorney for Maine. He held this office at the time of his death, 
which occurred at Portland, July 7, 1843, in his seventy-first year. 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 53 

Mr. Holmes was unquestionabty a man of great ability. Of states- 
manship in its highest sense, I am not aware that he gave any remark- 
able proof. He could hardl} T be called original or profound ; but he 
was quick to perceive, energetic in act, never unprepared or embar- 
rassed or afraid. He possessed those bold and leading qualities of 
mind, of temperament, and of character, which qualify men to be the 
champions of party in times of fierce excitement. Armed at all points 
with the dreaded weapons of keen retort and sarcastic wit, he was 
everj^where a formidable antagonist. His political opponents proba- 
bly regarded him with that peculiar and unforgiving dislike which 
is the common lot of those who are viewed as apostates, either in 
religion or politics. 

Jn private circles, where I repeatedly met him, Mr. Holmes was 
easy and affable. His flow of anecdote and agreeable humor seemed 
inexhaustible. Exemplary in all domestic and social relations, a good 
neighbor and citizen, he gave his ready co-operation to every insti- 
tution and effort designed for the advancement of intelligence and 
virtue . 

By his first wife, Sally Brooks of Scituate, Mass., whom he married 
in 1800, he had two sons and two daughters. The eldest daughter 
married Judge Goodenow, now of the Supreme Court of Maine. For 
William B. Holmes, see Class of 1823. The other son, Charles H., 
entered Bowdoin College, graduated at Brown University, and lives 
in Topsfield, Mass. 

Albion Keith Parris was born in 1788 at Hebron, Oxford County. 
To that spot, then a wilderness, his father, Samuel Parris, had just 
before removed. This brave and good man lived to witness and share 
the prosperity of his son, and was cheered in his last days by filial 
reverence and love. At the age of fourteen, young Parris left the 
hard work of the farm to prepare for college. Having graduated at 
Hanover in 1806, and having studied law with Hon. Ezekiel Whit- 
man, he established himself in practice at Paris. " Within two years 
he was appointed county attorney, and three } 7 ears later was elected a 
member of the Fourteenth Congress, having in the mean time served 
one year as a representative, and one year as a senator in the Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts. In 1816 he was member of a convention 
for forming a State constitution. Then followed his re-election to 
Congress, a place which he resigned in 1818, to accept an appoint- 
ment as judge of the United States Court for Maine. At tnis time 
he became a resident of Portland. In 1819 he was in the convention 
and on the committee which devised a constitution for Maine, and 
under the new organization was immediately made judge of probate 



54 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

for Cumberland County. He vacated both judicial places in 1822, on 
becoming governor of Maine, "an office which he held for five years, 
by successive re-elections, the later of them almost unanimous." 
From the gubernatorial chair, he went in 1827 once more to Con- 
gress as senator from Maine. After a year's service in this capacity, 
he resigned to accept an appointment as judge of the Supreme Court 
of Maine. Eight years of service on the bench succeeded. In 1836 
he was made second comptroller of the United States treasury, and 
during the next fourteen years he lived in Washington. In 1850 he 
returned to Portland, and as he hoped, to private life. But two years 
afterwards the people of Portland insisted on his being their mayor. 
In 1854, he reluctantly consented to run as candidate for governor, 
was not elected, and was not sorry. " This rapid sketch of his pub- 
lic life presents him before us as one whom, for some reason, the 
people delighted to honor, and who also found favor in the eyes of 
those in authority, so that both the electing and the appointing power 
seemed to vie with each other in elevating him. That reason was not 
to be found in his possessing the arts of the demagogue, or in any 
unscrupulous pliancy in matters of principle. His conscience was his 
pole star ; and if he was faithful to his party, it was because he thought 
his party was right. ... In all the duties of his long and marked career, 
he was noted for high ability, clearness, and scope of mind, and rare 
fidelity to the interests committed to his charge. Conscience was his 
unfailing guide and monitor. His great aim in life was to do right, 
and his history will verify the fact that this purpose was accom- 
plished." In politics he was a consistent and unwavering Democrat 
of the Jackson school. 

As a judge, Mr. Parris was better known and more valued than he 
was as a lawyer. He was an efficient and popular magistrate, and as 
a financial officer he was able and faithful. Through his whole career 
his regard for the Sabbath and for the institutions of religion and 
benevolence was uniform and conspicuous. During his last years he 
made a profession of his Christian faith, and adorned it by a walk of 
humble yet ardent and active piety. 

• Judge Parris married, in 1810, Sai'ah, daughter of Rev. Levi Whit- 
man, of Wellfleet, Mass. This lady and six children still live. 

William Pitt Preble was born in York in 17<S3, graduated at 
Harvard in 1806 with high standing, and in 1809 was tutor in the 
same. He read law in the offices of Benjamin Hasey and Benjamin 
Orr, Esqs., of Topsham. He began practice in York, soon removed 
to Alfred, and again to Saco. On the death of Hon. Silas Lee in 
1814, he was appointed United States district attorney for the Dis- 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 55 

trict of Maine, and distinguished himself in that office. He became 
resident in Portland in 1818, and in a short time rose to the front 
rank in the profession. In 1817 he was a member of the five-ninths 
convention, as it was called ; on the elevation of Maine to a State, 
was appointed associate justice of its Supreme Court, and occupied 
that station eight years, when he was appointed by Gen. Jackson 
minister plenipotentiary to the Hague to represent the United States 
on the northeastern boundary question. He protested vigorously 
against the award of the king of Holland. On his return he was 
appointed agent of the State at Washington, to enforce her rights ; 
in 1832, on the commission to negotiate with the United States on the 
subject ; and on the issue of the Webster- Ashburton treaty in 1842, 
was chosen by the Legislature one of the commissioners to adjust the 
terms of settlement. He was one of the projectors of the Atlantic 
and St. Lawrence Railroad, did much to accomplish it, and was its 
first president. His great exertions in furtherance of the project, 
involving a winter's journey from Portland to Montreal through the 
wilderness, and a voyage to England, where he had to combat heavy 
opposition, broke down a strong constitution, and after a languishing 
illness he died October, 1857. He was of strong logical powers, clear 
and discriminating ; well informed in his profession ; of imperious will ; 
of warm temperament, easily aroused, — unfortunately for himself, and 
uncomfortably for those who experienced it. 

Judge Preble married twice : first, Nancy Gale Tucker of York, by 
whom he had two daughters and a son (Bowdoin College, 1840) ; sec- 
ond, Sarah A. Forsaith, by whom he had a son. 

Arthur Ware was born at Sherburne, Mass., February, 1782 ; 
graduated at Harvard in 1804. After graduation, he was assistant 
teacher in Phillips Exeter Academy, under Dr. Abbot, a year ; was 
private tutor for a j^ear in the family of his uncle, Prof. Henry 
Ware, of Harvard. In 1807 he was appointed tutor, and in 1811 
professor of Greek in Harvard College, and held that office four 
years. Resigning the professorship, he entered upon the study of 
law with Joseph E. Smith, of Boston, — meanwhile being an asso- 
ciate editor of the "Boston Yankee," — and was admitted to the Suf- 
folk bar in 1816. The year following he came to Portland, was 
admitted to the Cumberland bar, and opened an office. He at once 
took charge of the " Eastern Argus," and his vigorous pen gave new 
character to that print. When Maine was elevated into a State, he 
became secretary of state; and in 1822, on the resignation of Judge 
Parris, was appointed to succeed' as judge of the District Court of the 
United States for Maine. He held that office forty years with great 



56 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

ability, his opinions and decisions commanding highest respect for 
"profound research, amplitude of learning, clearness and extent of 
judicial powers." He contributed articles on important legal questions 
and topics to Bouvier's " Dictionary " ; an introduction to the first vol- 
ume of "Collections of the Maine Historical Society," and published 
an oration before the Phi Beta* Kappa Society of the college, both 
admired for thought and stj'le. He was a trustee of the college 
twenty-four years, and in 1837 received its highest honor, LL. D. He 
was a corporate member of the Maine Historical Society, held respon- 
sible positions in Portland institutions, and was president of the An- 
droscoggin and Kennebec Railroad. 

In 1831, Judge Ware married Sarah Morgridge, by whom he had a 
son, Joseph A. (Bowdoin College, 1851), and two daughters. He 
died in 1873. 

Nathan Weston, born at Augusta, July, 1782 ; graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1803. He read law in Augusta and Boston, and was admit- 
ted to the Suffolk bar ; but, with the exception of a year or two in 
New Gloucester, his professional career, prolonged and honorable, 
was pursued in his native town, his permanent residence from 1810. 
What is noticeable, nearly the whole of his professional life was spent 
on the bench, he haviug been appointed in 1811, by Gov. Gerry, of 
Massachusetts, chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, embra- 
cing Lincoln, Kennebec, and Somerset Counties, and discharging its 
duties to general acceptance until 1820, when, on the organization of 
the new State of Maine, he was appointed associate justice of its 
Supreme Court. In 1834 he was elevated to the chief-justiceship, 
and in 1841 retired from the bench. He represented New Gloucester 
in the Legislature of Massachusetts, and was a delegate to the Bruns- 
wick Convention of 1816. He was a trustee of the college nearly 
forty years. In 1843 he was honored with the degree of LL. D., hav- 
ing already been thus complimented by Dartmouth and Waterville. 
He was also a trustee of Waterville College for several 3 T ears. He 
was a corporate member of the Maine Historical Society. 

Judge Weston married a daughter of Judge Cony, of Augusta, and 
had four sons and three daughters, of whom three sons are graduates 
of the college. He died in 1872, at the advanced age of ninety. 

Joshua Wingate was born in Haverhill, Mass., graduated at 
Harvard College in 1795, and settled as a merchant in Hallowell. 
Having married Julia, the daughter of Gen. Henry Dearborn, he 
went in 1801 to Washington, as chief clerk in the War Department, 
of which his father-in-law was the head. Finding the climate unfavor- 
able, he returned, after a few years of service, to Maine, and became 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 57 

collector of the port of Bath. This place he resigned in 1822, and 
settled in Portland, where he died Nov. 6, 1843, in his seventy-first 
year. Gen. Win gate was a member of the convention which framed 
the Maine Constitution ; and while a branch of the United States 
Bank existed in Portland, he was its president. "Throughout his 
whole life he was distinguished for his integrity, independence of 
opinion, and rectitude of deportment ; while the able and satisfactory 
manner in which he discharged all the duties of the various public 
stations which he successively filled, secured for him the confidence 
of the State and national governments, and the respect of his fellow- 
citizens." Wealthy and influential, he was also enlightened and lib- 
eral. Dignity and urbanity marked his manners, while justice and 
kindness controlled him in all the relations of life. His only son, 
George R. D., died while a member of Bowdoin College. His only 
daughter, Julia, is the wife of Mr. Charles Q. Clapp. His widow, 
in person, mind, and manners scarcely touched by time, still survives. 

William King was born in Scarborough in 1768 ; son of Richard 
King, a merchant, and brother of Hon. Rums King of New York 
City, and Hon. Cyrus King of Saco. Without the advantages for 
education of his eminent brothers, he devoted himself to the pursuits 
of business ; was in youth placed in a store in Portland ; in 1791,' or 
about that date, removed to Topsham, where he engaged in trade and 
lumbering ; in a few 3-ears he removed to Bath, where he ever after 
lived, conducting for many years a large mercantile business ; became 
prominent in political action, a gentleman of eminent personal endow- 
ments, of large frame and imposing presence, distinguished natural 
powers, and wide, commanding influence ; a leading member of the Re- 
publican party of that time. He held important positions in the State 
and national governments, was in both branches of the Legislature of 
Massachusetts, was major-general of the State militia, was active in 
effecting the separation of the District of Maine from Massachusetts, 
president of the convention which framed the Constitution of the new 
State, and was elected by a large majorit}^ its first governor, — a posi- 
tion which he resigned before his term had expired, to accept his 
appointment on a commission from the United States to adjust the 
Spanish claims. His administration as governor, important as giv- 
ing direction to the policy of the new State, was firm, efficient, prov- 
ident, and wise, and has been regarded as highly honorable to himself 
and to the State. Subsequentby he was appointed collector for the 
port of Bath. 

He was trustee of the college nearly thirty years, and devised lib- 
erally by will for its welfare. He was also a trustee of Waterville 



58 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

College, which was largely indebted to his agency in its establishment 
at the first. 

He married, in 1800, Miss Frazier, of Boston. The}' had a daugh- 
ter who died in early life, and a son, Cyrus W., now living in Bruns- 
wick. Mr. King died in 1852. 

Reuel Williams was born in June, 1783, in Augusta, then embraced 
within the limits of Hallowell, where he spent a long, active, and influ- 
ential life. His childhood and youth, with advantages of education 
afforded only by the public schools of his town and the academy at 
Hallowell, afford an example of the value of early training in habits of 
promptness to duty, untiring industry, and forecast beyond his years. 
By invitation of the late Judge James Bridge, a prominent lawyer in 
Augusta who discerned the promise of the youth, he entered on legal 
study in his office when only fifteen years old, and the kind interest of 
his teacher gave him opportunities in the business of the office, with 
his own thrift, of more than paying his way. Admitted to the bar 
just as he reached his majority, he declined a tempting proposal to 
join two fellow-students to emigrate to Cincinnati, then a land of hope 
for the enterprise of a young lawyer ; fortunately for his native town, 
he decided to remain there, and thus through life identified himself with 
its interests. In due time he became prominent in its affairs, and by 
shrewd forecast, power of influence, aud ever-wakeful energy, through 
a period of nearly sixty years, contributed more perhaps than any 
other citizen to elevate what was only a suburb of Hallowell, when he 
opened his office, to an influential city and the capital of the State. 
" No work of public importance, no enterprise affecting the Kennebec 
Valley, was carried forward without his direct participation." Mr. 
Williams soon secured a lucrative practice in his profession ; became 
eminent especially in questions affecting titles to real property as under 
the Kennebec Purchase, and as agent for the Bowdoin Lands. His 
name is a familiar one in Reports of both Maine and Massachusetts of 
the period. 

Mr. Williams was active in effecting the elevation of the District of 
Maine into an independent State. He represented his town or dis- 
trict in both branches of her Legislatures for seven successive years ; 
and at a later period, his town for three years. In 1825, he was 
appointed on a commission to divide the public lands held in common 
with the mother State; in 1831, was made commissioner of public 
buildings and superintended the completion of the State Capitol ; in 
1832, was placed on the commission for settling the northeastern boun- 
dary controversy ; in 1857, was elected to fill an unexpired term in 
the United States Senate, and in 1839, to a full term; but in LSI;;. 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 59 

resigned his seat, but not his interest in affairs of the State or country. 
He became interested in railway projects involving matters of deep 
concern to leading minds, and prolonged discussion and effort ; was 
president of the Kennebec and Portland Railroad. Other enterprises 
of local or personal concern engaged his active mind and energies 
until late in 1862, his strong constitution received a shook from some- 
what prolonged and threatening illness ; and in July following, on his 
return from a visit of business to Boston, friends discovered evidences 
of failing strength, and death ensued on the 25th of the month. Mr. 
Williams was a trustee of the college, 1822 to 1860. In 1855, the 
college conferred on him the degree of LL. D. He was one of the 
corporators of Maine Historical Society. In 1807 he married Sai'ah 
Lowell Conejr, daughter of Hon. Daniel Coney of Augusta. They had 
nine children, a son and eight daughters. 

Thomas Bond was born in 1779 in Groton, Mass., and at an 
early age removed with his father to Hallowell. After graduation at 
Cambridge in 1801, he studied law with Mr. (afterwards Judge) 
Wilde, whose partner he became on being admitted to the bar. Mr. 
Bond " had a very successful business, and stood high in the profes- 
sion." As representative and as senator, he served his town and 
county several 3'ears. In 1805, he married Lucretia F., daughter of 
Dr. Benjamin Page. He died in 1827, leaving two daughters and a 
son. 

Nathaniel Hill Fletcher was born in 1769 at Boxboro', Mass. ; 
graduated at Harvard College in 1793 ; and was settled at Kenne- 
bunk, 1800, as colleague of the Rev. Mr. Little. He became sole 
pastor the following year by the death of Mr. Little. Here he 
labored until 1828, when he was released from his engagements, hav- 
ing the year previous received a colleague. He then returned to his 
native town, and spent his six remaining years on the old homestead. 
Mr. Fletcher is said to have been "quick in his perceptions, liberal 
in spirit, independent in thought and speech, a prompt and fearless 
rebuker of iniquity. In his religious opinions he was Unitarian." By 
his wife, Sally, daughter of John Stover, of Wells, he had five sons 
and three daughters. His eldest son is a clergyman. 

Edward Payson was born in 1783 in Rindge, N. H., where his 
father, the Rev. Seth Payson, fulfilled a long and useful ministry. 
After his graduation at Harvard College in 1803, he took charge of 
the academy in Portland, a charge which he held very acceptably for 
three years . His theological studies, begun in Portland, were continued 
under his father's direction until 1807, when he was licensed. A few 
months later, he was settled in Portland as colleague pastor with the 



60 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Rev. Mr. Kellogg. Three years afterward, he became sole pastor. 
Here he soon built up a large and strong society, and became widely 
known, not only as a preacher of uncommon power, but as a man of 
rare piety. Wealthy churches in Boston and in New York repeatedly 
but vainly tried to draw him away from his beloved flock. He possessed 
a delicate and diseased physical organization, and during his entire 
ministry suffered much from ill health, — a fact which should not be for- 
gotten by those who read the story of his spiritual conflicts. He lived 
and labored in Portland for twenty years with wonderful success. He 
died Oct. 22, 1828, with a faith which was indeed triumphant. Dr. 
Payson married, in 1811, Anna Louisa Shipman, of New Haven. Of 
eight children, sis survived him. His eldest daughter is the wife of 
Prof. Hopkins, of Williamstown. Another daughter married the 
Rev. Dr. Prentiss, now pastor of the Mercer Street Church, in New 
York. One son, Edward, is a graduate of Bowdoin College, 1832. 

In Sprague's " Annals of the American Pulpit," there is a letter 
from Rev. Dr. Peters, which gives his impressions of Edward Payson. 
According to my own recollections of that remarkable man, — whom 
it was my privilege often to hear, — Dr. Peters has described him 
felicitously and truly. 

" He was of medium height, good proportions, a little stooping in 
posture, hair black, face angular, features strongly marked with 
expressions of quiet benevolence and decision, eyes dark and full, 
slightly retired under a brow somewhat raised and a prominent 
forehead, placid and a little downcast in their ordinary expression, 
but keen and scrutinizing when raised and fastened on an object ... 
His power of conversation was perhaps among the most remark- 
able of his gifts. Like the ' philosopher's stone,' it seemed to turn 
everything it touched into gold. He was often facetious, playful, 
quaint, and witty. His facetiousness, indeed, was ever a near neigh- 
bor to his pietjr, if it was not a part of it. His sermons, which are 
already before the public, show the richness and fertile of his mind ; 
his deep knowledge of the Scriptures and experience of the truth, 
his faithfulness, his happy, various, and brilliant powers of illustra- 
tion, and the deeply earnest and evangelical tone of his ministry . 
His appearance in the pulpit was meek and unpretending. His voice 
was not remarkably smooth, nor was it trained to the rules of art ; 
yet it was full, animated, and distinct in its enunciations, and of 
more than ordinary flexibility and compass. His action was not 
exuberant. His manner was his own, a part of himself. Its leading 
characteristics were affectiouateness, earnestness, and sincerity. He 
administered the most pungent, direct, and uncompromising rebukes 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 61 

and denunciations, in tones of tenderness and affection. His elo- 
quence, then, was not vaunting nor studied, but simple and honest ; 
an eloquence which is ever destined more to be felt by the hearer than 
to be admired. The people did not know that he was eloquent, but 
they loved to hear him preach. Asa pastor, Dr. Pay son was affec- 
tionate, solicitous, and laborious. He possessed in the highest degree 
the affections of his people, and thsee affections were but a suitable 
return for his own." 

His works have been published in three octavo volumes, prefaced 
by an interesting and faithful memoir of the author, by his intimate 
friend, the Rev. Asa Cummings. 

Ebenezer Everett was born in Dorchester, Mass., in 1788, son 
of Rev. Moses Everett, and graduated at Harvard in 1806. Having 
been admitted to the bar, he practised law in Beverly, Mass., until 
1817, when he removed to Brunswick, henceforth his residence ; where, 
in the successful practice of his profession, he gained reputation as an 
able counsellor, and a man of incorruptible integrrty and great ex- 
actness in every duty. He was employed as a master in chancery 
and a referee, and enjo} T ed the unlimited confidence of the community. 
In 1838, he was appointed, in co-operation with Judge Mellen and 
Ex-Governor Samuel E. Smith, to revise and codify the public stat- 
utes of the State. He was cashier of the Union Bank, Brunswick, 
fourteen years from its establishment. He represented the town in 
the Legislature of 1840. He never aspired after office ; was a man of 
culture, of keen wit, and genial humor, respected and esteemed as a 
citizen. He was on the Board of Trustees of the college thiily-six 
years ; was a member of the Maine Historical Society. In 1819, he 
married Miss Prince, of Beverly, Mass., by whom he had children, of 
whom Charles Carroll (1850) now lives. He died February, 1869. 

Isaac Ilslet was born in 1765 ; was son of Daniel Ilsley, and 
grandson of Capt. Isaac Ilsley, a carpenter, who, in 1735, came from 
Newbury to Falmouth, ' ' and became a noted partisan officer in the 
Indian wars." Daniel Ilsley was also a man of note, to whom his 
fellow-citizens were accustomed to intrust their most important inter- 
ests. His son Isaac was educated in the Portland schools, and 
trained to business habits. In 1790 he was made register of deeds 
for Cumberland County. In 1791 he was appointed by President 
Jefferson collector of the port of Portland ; this office he held until 
1829, when he was displaced by President Jackson. "He conducted 
the responsible offices which he held for thirty-nine years with perfect 
correctness and integrity. The government never had a more faith- 
ful servant. In his public and private intercourse he lived without 



62 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

reproach." In early life he married Augusta, the daughter of his 
uncle, Enoch Ilsley. Of several children, Mrs. Nathan Cummings is 
the only survivor. 

Ether Shepley was born in Groton, Mass., November, 1779 ; 
graduated at Dartmouth!, 1811. He read law with Dudley Hubbard, 
Esq., South Berwick; Zabdiel B. Adams, Esq., "Worcester; and 
Solomon Strong, Esq., Northampton, Mass. Admitted to the bar, 
he came to Saco, and entered upon a successful practice in 1814 ; in 
1819 was chosen delegate to the convention which formed the Con- 
stitution of Maine ; in 1821 was appointed to succeed William Pitt 
Preble as district attorney of the United States, and held that position 
until his election to the United States Senate in 1833 ; in 1836 was 
appointed associate justice of the Supreme Court of Maine; in 1848 
succeeded Chief Justice Whitman on that bench, and continued in the 
able, faithful, and vigorous discharge of its duties until 1855, when he 
retired. He had declined all attempts to entice him, by offers of official 
station under government, from his judicial position. His last public 
office was that of sole commissioner, in 1856, to revise the public laws 
of the State. Few have left public office with reputation so unsullied, 
and a memory so honored in all relations. For thirty- three years he 
Was a trustee of the college, ever watchful, wise in counsel, and 
beneficent as a patron. He received the honoraiy degree of LL. D. 
from Dartmouth. He was one of the original members of the Maine 
Historical Society. He married Anna Foster, by whom he had five 
sons, of whom John P. (1837) alone survives, a distinguished lawyer 
in St. Louis, Mo. 

Jeremiah Bailey was born at Little Compton, R. I., 1773 ; grad- 
uated at Providence, 1794, and came immediately to Maine. He 
read law with Silas Lee, and opened an office in Wiscasset, where, in 
1853, he died at the age of eighty. During this long life he held 
various offices of honor and trust. As a representative to the Legis- 
lature and to Congress, as judge of probate for many j^ears, and 
finally as collector of the customs in Wiscasset, — from the duties of 
which he was relieved by President Pierce just before his death, — he 
showed himself to be "a man of ability and sterling integrity." 

Benjamin Hasey was born in 1771, in Lebanon, Me., where his father, 
of the same name, was minister. He was fitted by Master Moody 
at Dummer Academy for Harvard College, where he graduated in 
1790. In 1794 he settled in Topsham, for the practice of law. He 
represented the town a number of years in the Legislature of Massa- 
chusetts. But politics were not to his taste, and he declined thence- 
forth all public employ. For many j'ears he had a large practice in 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. . 63 

Lincoln and Cumberland Counties. His opinions as a counsellor were 
sound and valuable. Naturally diffident and reserved, he rarely 
appeared at the bar as an advocate. In regard to his profession 
Mr. Hase}^ was eminently conservative. The innovations of later 
years, the altered manners and practice of the bar, the absence of the 
old decorum and of forensic courtesy " fretted his nerves. The abol- 
ishing of special pleading annoyed him, and the adoption of the 
Eevised Statutes so thoroughly confused his ancient notions of the 
law that it drove him from the practice. Codification in any shape 
he could not endure. It displaced his accustomed authorities, and 
cast him afloat in his old age on what seemed almost a new profes- 
sion. He lived in the past, and believed in it, and strove as much as 
mortal could do to keep himself from the degeneracy of modern 
ideas." Though he kept his office and resorted to it as long as he 
lived, he had withdrawn from active business a good rnai^ 3 7 ears before 
he died. At his death, in 1851 , he was the oldest lawyer in the State. 
Mr. Hase} r lived a bachelor all his days, boarding for thirty-eight 
years in one family. He was reserved in manners, retiring in his 
habits, and in all his modes of thought and action as regular as clock- 
work. He was a man, moreover, of the strictest integrity. As over- 
seer and as trustee, his small, prim body was duly seen for nearly half 
a century on the Commencement stage. 

Daniel Goodenow was born in Henniker, N. H., in 1793. He 
came with his father to Maine in 1802 ; was a member of Dartmouth 
College, but left college before graduation of his class. He studied 
law in the office of Hon. John Holmes, Alfred, was admitted to the 
bar, began practice in that town in 1818, and became partner of Mr. 
Holmes. In 1838 he was appointed attorney-general of the State ; 
in 1841 was appointed judge of the District Court for the Western 
District, and held that position for seven years, the term fixed by the 
Constitution. In 1855 he was elevated to the bench of the Supreme 
Court. In 1820 he received the honorary degree of A. M. from the 
college, and in 1860 that of LL. D., and was trustee of the college 
from 1838 until his death in 1863. He was a member of the Maine 
Historical Society. " He had taken a distinguished part in the politics 
of the State, was a firm supporter of its good institutions, and retired 
to private life with unsullied reputation." 

Judge Gooclenow married twice : first, a daughter of Hon. John 
Holmes, who died leaving two sons, John H. (1852) and Henry C. 
(1853) ; second, Mrs. Henry B. Osgood, daughter of Hon. Judah 
Dana of Fryeburg, by whom he had a daughter. 

Eobert Hallowell Gardiner was a native of Bristol, England, 



64 . HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

only son of Robert Hallowell of Boston, who held responsible office 
under the Crown and retired to England on the breaking out of hos- 
tilities with the mother country. He inherited, when but five years 
old, property from his grandfather, Dr. Sylvester Gardiner, on condi- 
tion of his taking the name by which he has been known. The family 
having returned to this country in 1792, the son was placed in the 
best schools the county afforded, entered Harvard College, and grad- 
uated in 1801. After graduating and spending a year or two in for- 
eign travel, in 1803 he established himself on his estates on the Ken- 
nebec. The story of his first coming to the town which bears his name 
by water, — the only tolerable mode of convej-ance even for social 
visits at any considerable distance, — the embarrassments he met in 
organizing and even recovering his large inheritance, which, through 
neglect of many years, had fallen into a ruinous condition, his trials 
and controversies with intruders who had settled upon choice lands 
with no legal titles, and, through wise and benevolent action, of his 
relief from many perplexities, is given in a sketch of his life by Hon. 
William Willis, in the fifth volume of " Collections of Maine Histori- 
cal Society," for which the writer is indebted for many of his state- 
ments concerning him. 

" Mr. Gardiner's energies were not limited to improving the physi- 
cal condition of the territory over which he became trustee and guar- 
dian. He took a broad and comprehensive view of his duties and 
privileges, and early commenced a series of measures to advance the 
intellectual and moral condition of the people." Reared in the com- 
munion of the Episcopal Church, he contributed generously to the 
establishment and welfare of that church in the town and the State ; 
was earnest and efficient in promoting the cause of education, of which 
the Gardiner Lyceum, designed as an industrial institution, and which 
for some years was the best of its class in the State and depended 
largely on his munificence, afforded ample proof. He also gave coun- 
sel and support to other public improvements in the town. His own 
spacious mansion and grounds, the home of elegant and cultured hos- 
pitality and wide social influence, contributed to its attractions and 
its name. He manifested his interest in the college, having been a 
member and for a time president of its Board of Overseers, and for 
several years on its Board of Trustees. He was a corporate member 
of the Maine Historical Society, and for a time its president. 

Mr. Gardiner married Emma Jane, daughter of Judge Tudor of 
Boston. The}- had six daughters and three sons, of whom one daugh- 
ter and two sons (the second graduating, B. C. 1842) are now living. 
Mr. Gardiner died in 1864. 





-'■'.-., 






^-^^ 



T 



/ 






THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 65 

Asa Cummings was born in 1790, in Andover, Mass His grand- 
father, Joseph Cummings, who died in Topsfield in his one hundred 
and third year, was a remarkable man; one who, k ' after he had 
completed his orb of j'ears, could mount his horse, unaided, from the 
ground, and ride many miles. To the last his memory was strong and 
exact, his judgment clear and sound, his retorts equally quick and 
keen." This wonderful old man had a son and a daughter. The 
latter married a Lamson, settled in Exeter, N. H., and gave rise to a 
numerous posterity Asa, the son, was a soldier of the Revolution, 
and fought at Saratoga. From Andover, where he lived awhile, he 
removed about 1798 into the Maine woods. Albany, in Oxford County, 
was then a new settlement. Here the comforts, the privileges, the 
embellishments of cultivated life were nearly all wanting. But there 
was a better part, which Deacon Cummings carried with him into 
those wilds. Much he was compelled to leave behind, but his family 
altar went with him It was thirt} 7 years before the little community 
was strong enough to have a settled pastor ; yet during all this time 
they met weekly to join with the good deacon in prayer and praise. 
He died (1845) in his eighty-sixth year, leaving descendants of four 
generations, — one hundred and twenty-seven in all. It is almost 
needless to add that young Asa's boy life was hard and dreary. 
Specially such was his sojourn in a little New Hampshire town among 
the White Mountains, where he was placed for a winter to earn his 
living. On one occasion this lad of ten } r ears was sent off on horse- 
back to procure food for the- household. After an absence of two 
daj'S, and a ride of more than fifty miles through the almost unin- 
habited woods, he returned to the log-cabin with a single bushel of 
grain ; and this he regarded as pastime, when compared with his 
daily life. But amid these scenes his mind was expanding, and he 
aspired to something higher. 

At eighteen his father released him from further service, and he 
began to labor and study with reference to an education. At the age 
of twenty-one he entered Phillips Academy, Andover, where he soon 
made friends and found assistance Through the kind aid of others 
and his own strenuous efforts, he was enabled to pass comfortably and 
creditably through the usual course at Cambridge. His class, that of 
1817, contained many names which have since grown great, but it 
had no kindlier or better soul than Asa Cummings. 

He taught school for a little while in Western Dan vers, where he 
had some devoted friends, whom I have often heard him name with 
gratitude. Then, for two years, he was in the Divinity School at 
Andover. While compelled by failing health to suspend his studies, 



66 HISTORY OF BOWDOHST COLLEGE. 

he was invited to a tutorship at Brunswick. Of the large, awkward, 
homely, but ever genial, sensible, and excellent man who then came 
among them, the students of that time, and the few survivors who 
were his colleagues in office, retain, I am sure, only pleasant mem- 
ories. After one year in the college, he was settled at North Yar- 
mouth. He bad given to his ministry six useful years, when he was 
compelled by ph}-sical infirmity to abandon preaching. It so hap- 
pened that the Christian Mirror was then in want of an editor, and 
Mr. Cummings was selected. This paper, which had been originated 
and published by Arthur Shirley, passed, in 1833, out of his hands 
into the ownership and control of the Maine Missionary Society. By 
general consent Mr. Cummings was retained as editor. His reputa- 
tion in this department was already hugh, and invitations had been 
received by him to similar positions elsewhere that in some respects 
were far more eligible. " But his heart and his sympathies were ever 
with Maine, and he determined to abide by the Mirror." Twelve 
years afterwards another change was made in the ownership of the 
paper. The causes of its transfer from the Society to Mr. Cummings 
are thus briefly given by the present editor : ' ' The question of 
slavery was warmly agitated ; and as must necessarily be the case in 
a country which allows free thought and speech, there were diversities 
of opinion as to the best mode of meeting the question, and as to the 
agencies to be employed for its removal. The editor of the Mirror 
differed from some of his bi'ethren on these points, and expressed his 
opinion honestly and boldly. They, in turn, felt aggrieved that the 
organ of the Maine Missionary Society should express opinions which 
they regarded as erroneous, and the decision was finally arrived at to 
sell the paper to Mr. Cummings, that the responsibility of its position 
might fall on him alone." Thenceforward, "sustained by an unwa- 
vering conviction of the truth of his position, and by an unfaltering 
faith in God," he maintained his post, — an able, independent, and 
truby Christian editor. His place was no sinecure. His means were 
far from being abundant. The hindrances and trials which he en- 
countered were neither few nor small. Great, therefore, was the 
satisfaction of his friends, when at length they heard that a provi- 
dential accession of property had given to him and his family an ample 
competence. 

At the close of 1855 his connection with the Mirror ceased. " He 
had been its editor for nearly thirty years, and, by his eminent ability 
and rare skill, had given it a name and rank among the first religious 
papers in the land. Its volumes are his memorial." Soon after (his 
retirement, he received a letter from his editorial bi'ethren of the 



THE EARLY TRUSTEES. 67 

Portland press, indorsed by many of the citizens without distinc- 
tion of party or sect, inviting him to a public entertainment, as a 
mark of the high respect in which they held the editor and the 
man. In a grateful answer, judicious and beautiful, he declined the 
proffer. 

In March, 1856, Dr. Cummings went to Panama on a visit to 
his daughter, wife of Rev. J. Rowell. At first he was improved in 
health and spirits ; but staying in the tropics a little too long, he was 
taken sick. Still it was thought he could return. On reaching 
Aspinwall he grew worse. For him to stay there was regarded as 
certain death ; at sea, he might possibly rally. The steamer in which 
he was placed sailed June 4, and plunged at once into a rough sea. 
On the second night out this good man calmly breathed his last, and 
his remains now rest beneath the waves of the Caribbean. 

Dr. Cummings would have been distinguished as a preacher, had his 
power of delivery been equal to his power as a thinker and writer. 
His voice lacked strength and clearness, but his sermons were rich in 
thought, expressed in a simple, natural, lucid style, of great beauty. 
Several of his discourses were published. His well- written memoir of 
the eloquent, gifted, saint-like Edward Payson has been read b}~ mill- 
ions. But the great labor of his life was performed at the editor's- 
desk. This was the pulpit from which he delivered his weekly ser- 
mon to many listening thousands. In this important department of 
Christian dut} ;r and efficiency, he was equalled by few, surpassed, per- 
haps, by none. Good sense, sound judgment, independent thought, 
vigorous reasoning, a clear and beautiful style were all at his com- 
mand and in constant use to advance the great cause to which he 
had early consecrated his heart and life. In the animated discussions 
to which he was at one time compelled, he showed equal temper and 
ability. Quick to discern the weak point of his adversary, he knew 
exactly when and where to deal the fatal blow. At one of those min- 
isterial meetings in which the- course of the Mirror was discussed, 
several persons charged it with unfairness, although it was shown 
that their communications had been allowed much more than their 
share of the paper. " I see," said old Jotham Sewall, — "I see how 
it is. The trouble is not that your side is not heard. You send in your 
articles, very strong and very long, and Brother Cummings prints the 
whole ; and then he sticks in a little paragraph of five or six lines and 
tips it all over." The present able editor of the Mirror is preparing 
to give the public a volume of Dr. Gumming' s editorial papers. It 
will be a work of general and permanent value. Of its author we can 
have no better memorial. 



68 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

In person, Asa Cummings was tall, angular, and somewhat un- 
gainly. But his homely features grew almost handsome to his friends, 
lighted up, as the}' so often were, by his large brain and larger heart. 

OVERSEERS. 

At the head of the charter list stand the brothers Edward Ctttts 
of Kittery, and Thomas Cutts of Saco, names at that time eminently 
aristocratic. Richard Cutts, a son, and James Madison Cutts, a grand- 
son of Thomas, were long in high office at Washington. 

Simon Fkye was one of the first settlers of Fiyeburg. This patriot, 
legislator, judge died in 1822,' aged eighty-two. 

David Sewall of York graduated at Harvard in 1755 ; a law}^er 
from 1759 to 1777; then for twelve years judge of the Supreme 
Court ; and then, for more than thirty years, judge of the United 
States Court for Maine. He died in 1825 at the age of ninet} T . He 
was a man of the highest integrity, of simple manners, sociable and 
kind-hearted. His name is recorded among the first benefactors of 
the college, and the Sewall prize is annually awarded. 

William Gorham, judge of probate, etc., lived in the town which 
took from him its name. He died in 1804. 

Joseph Noras, from Newbury, died in Portland, 1795. 

Peleg Wadsworth was born in Duxbury, 1748 ; graduated at 
Harvard in 1769 ; in 1775 joined the army before Boston, as a cap- 
tain of minute-men. In 1779, being adjutant-general of Massachu- 
setts, he was in the unfortunate Bagaduce expedition as second in 
command. Many thought that the result would have been very dif- 
ferent, had Gen. Wadsworth been in Lo veil's place. In 1780 he was 
appointed to the command of the entire coast of Maine, and had his 
headquarters at Thomaston, where, unfortunately, being left in winter 
with only a small guard, he was surprised, taken prisoner, and carried 
to Castine. After a confinement of four months he made his eseape. 
In 1784 Gen. Wadsworth removed from Plymouth to Portland, and 
became one of its most active and useful citizens. In 1792 the Cum- 
berland District chose him as its first representative in Congress ; and 
this place, which was then truly one of honor, he continued to hold 
until 1806, when he declined to stand longer. Possessing in the town 
of Hiram a large tract of land, bestowed on him b} T the government for 
Revolutionary services, he settled upon it in 1807, and there, in 1829, 
he died at the age of eighty-one. "His wife was Miss Bartlett, of 
Duxbur} r or Ptymouth, a lady of fine manners and all womanly virtues, 
who was alike his friend and comforter in his hours of trial, the grace 



OVERSEERS. 69 

and ornament of his house in the days of his prosperity. They had a 
large family. Two sons, Henry and Alexander, went into the navy : 
the former perished bravely before the batteries of Tripoli ; the 
latter rose to high command, and lived to a good age. Zilpha Wads- 
worth became the wife of Stephen Longfellow and the mother of 
another Henry Wadsworth, who has given immortality to the name of 
that heroic uncle who fell before he could himself write it on the page 
of fame. The house built by Gen. Wadsworth in 1785 was the first 
edifice of brick erected in Portland. "When he left, it became the 
residence of his son-in-law, Mr. Longfellow, who added a third story. 
It is a plain, unpretending structure, but how rich in memories ! 
When, in the course of events, it shall be on the point of passing into 
foreign hands, let grateful Portland make it her own, and keep invio- 
late forever the house which sheltered a patriot, warrior, and civil- 
ian, which was the home and the office of her best, if not greatest 
lawyer, and which was the honored birthplace and cradle of a poet 
world-renowned. 

William Widgery was another of those original and striking char- 
acters that marked an age gone by. Nobodj' knows when he was 
born or where. It was war time when he came, a poor boy, to New 
Gloucester. He soon engaged in the privateer service, and rose to be 
lieutenant of an armed vessel. On the return of peace he opened an 
office in New Gloucester for the practice of law. With no legal train- 
ing but such as the deck could give, and in spite of lawyers and bar 
rules, he persevered and carried the day. He was one of the Massa- 
chusetts convention that adopted the national Constitution, but that 
instrument could get neither his voice nor vote. He was sent often 
to the Legislature ; and his speeches there, whether to the purpose or 
not, were frequent and loud. About 1800 he went to Portland and 
engaged in commerce. In 1813 he was placed on the bench of Com- 
mon Pleas, with Greene and Dana, and actually sat there nine years. 
He died in 1822, leaving a handsome estate. "Mr. Widgery," says 
Willis, " was a man of great energy and of infinite humor, and the 
success which attended all his plans is sufficiently indicative of his 
tact or force of character." His first wife was Miss Randall of 
Lewiston. The second was the Widow Dafforne of Boston, whose 
daughter (Eliza) by a former husband married Nathan Kinsman. 
His daughter Elizabeth married Elias Thomas and became the mother 
of a large family. His grandson, John W., graduated at Bowdoin 
College in 1817. 

Edjiocd Bridge was a patriot of the Revolution. From 1781 to 
1815 he was high sheriff of Lincoln County. He died in 1825 at 
Dresden, at the age of eightj'-six. leaving an honored name. 



70 HISTORY OF BOWJ)OIN COLLEGE. 

Henry Dearborn was born in 1751 in Hampton, N. H. He studied 
medicine, and practised for three years in Nottingham. Then came 
Lexington. The young doctor marched at once with sixty volunteers, 
and was appointed a captain under Stark. Of course he was in the 
thick of the fight on Bunker Hill. He accompanied Arnold in his ter- 
rible journey through the pathless forest, was taken prisoner during 
the assault on Quebec, and after four months' close confinement was 
released on parole. When exchanged, a year later, he went to Ticon- 
deroga a major in Scammel's regiment. He was praised by Gates 
for gallant conduct in the actions of Sept. 19 and Oct. 7, 1777. At 
the battle of Monmouth he was lieutenant-colonel of Cilley's regi- 
ment, which, after Lee's strange retreat, charged the enemy by 
Washington's own order and drove him back. In 1779 he went 
with Gen. Sullivan against the Mohawks. He took part in the siege 
of Yorktown and witnessed the surrender of Cornwallis. After the 
return of peace he settled as a farmer on the Kennebec. Washington 
made him marshal of Maine. The people twice elected him to Con- 
gress. In 1801 Jefferson called him to his cabinet as Secretary of 
War, which high office he held for eight years. Then, for two or 
three years, he was the collector of customs in Boston. In February, 
1812, he was made senior major-general of the army of the United 
States. In the following spring he captured York in Upper Canada, 
and soon afterwards took Fort George at the mouth of the Niagai'a. 
Shortly after this he was virtually set aside on the ground of ' ' ill 
health." Feeling injured, he asked for a court of inquiry, but asked 
in vain. In 1822 Gen. Dearborn was sent as United States minister 
to Portugal. He died in 1829. 

Gen. Dearborn was for many years a ver}' conspicuous man. A 
supporter and pet of the administration, he found, as might be 
expected, little favor among the Federalists. Yet none could justly 
question his general ability, his courage as a soldier, or his intimate 
acquaintance with military affairs. By man}* his recall was regarded 
as needless and unjust. Gen. Dearborn's third wife was the widow of 
James Bowdoin. 

Samuel Thompson, generally known and well remembered as 
" Brigadier Thompson," was born in Biddeford in 1735. His 
father removed to Brunswick and lived on the Peterson farm at 
New Meadows, keeping tavern at the same time. Samuel succeeded 
both to farm and inn, and soon became a man of note. At the veiy 
beginning of hostilities with England, he figured for a moment quite 
characteristically. In the spring of 1775 Capt. Mowat of the Brit- 
ish navy came into Portland (then Falmouth) Harbor with a war 
ship called the " Canceau." His position and intentions were sup- 



OVERSEERS. 71 

posed to be hostile. The people of the countiy around, who had 
nothing to fear, were anxious that he should be attacked and de- 
stroyed ; while the inhabitants of the town, which lay at his mercy, 
very naturally inclined to more conciliatory measures. It was while 
things were in this state that Col. Thompson went from Brunswick 
to Falmouth with a company of fifty men all bent on serving their 
country. With no standard but a small spruce-tree stripped of its 
lower limbs, and no uniform but a sprig of the same evergreen on 
each man's hat, the patriots encamped beneath a clump of pines on 
Munjo3 r 's Hill. It so happened that Capt. Mowat, the Rev. Mr. Wis- 
wall, and the ship's surgeon, soon after, all unconscious of the lurk- 
ing danger, walked up the hill. Hardly had they begun to enjoy its 
delightful prospect when they were pounced upon by the zealous 
colonel and made prisoners of war. The lieutenant in command of 
the ship threatened to burn the town if they were not released. The 
leading men of the place interceded with Thompson, who very reluc- 
tantly gave them up. The captured officers went back on their parole 
and broke it. This affair, which seemed laughable at the time, was 
connected, in the popular apprehension, with very serious conse- 
quences. The infamous destruction of Falmouth, a few months later, 
b}* this same Mowat, though authorized b} 7 his superiors, was always 
ascribed to the resentment of a little soul on account of a very slight 
indignity. While the war lasted, Thompson continued to be active, 
but his special achievements are unknown to me. He afterwards 
became conspicuous in conventions and legislatures, where he never 
hesitated to speak his mind, though his blunders and solecisms often 
provoked a smile. Though a person like the brigadier would not 
shine much in society now, he was undoubtedly a celebrity in his own 
way and time. He belonged, evidently, to a class of men not uncom- 
mon then, — illiterate and yet sensible,' coarse, free-spoken, profane, 
perhaps, yet often brave and useful amid those scenes of trial and 
hardship and conflict in which their lot was cast. 

John Dunlap, son of Rev. Robert Dunlap, was born in 1737 in 
Dracut, and came with his father to Brunswick in 1747. The family 
was poor and John had to look out for himself. In 1758 he served 
in the provincial contingent under Abercrombie, near Lake George. 
Then he became a famous trapper and hunter, taking many a beaver, 
which were abundant at that time in the woods and streams of Maine. 
With money thus severely earned he went into navigation. In short, 
he became rich. By his first wife, Miss Dunning, he had a daughter 
who died unmarried ; John, who became a shipmaster ; and David, 
mentioned elsewhere. The children of his second wife, Mary Toppan 



72 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

of Newbury, were Richard, Robert T. (Bowdoin College, 1815), and 
Marcia, wife of Dr. Lincoln. 

Francis Winter, a graduate of Harvard College in 1765, was set- 
tled, 176S, in that part of Georgetown which is now Bath. A man of 
eloquence and learning, bat of views too liberal for the people and the 
time, he was dismissed in 1787. He lived until 1826, respected as a 
tried patriot of the Revolution, and useful as a magistrate, legislator, 
and citizen. 

Nathaniel Thwing was a judge in the Court of Common Pleas for 
Lincoln County, and lived in Woolwich 

Alexander Campbell was a judge of the Common Pleas. He lived 
in Steuben. 

Paul Dudley Sargent was one of the original forty-two. He was 
then living in Sullivan. Born on Cape Ann, he had lived awhile in 
Boston, and had commanded a regiment in the War of Independence. 
His wife, Lucy Sanders, was a grand-daughter of Rev. Thomas Smith 
of Falmouth, and daughter of Capt. Thomas Sanders of Gloucester, 
a distinguished naval officer in the Colonial service. Col. Sargent died 
in 1828, leaving a large family. 

Daniel Davis in 1782 rode from Boston into Maine on horseback 
in search of a place where he could practise law. He fixed on Port- 
land, there being at that time in the entire district only five lawyers 
beside himself. Mr. Davis, though not liberally educated, possessed 
abilit}' and learning, and rose early into notice. In 1796 he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner,- with William Shepherd and Nathan Dane, to 
treat with the Eastern Indians. He represented town and county in 
the Legislature, and was United States attorney for the district. Dur- 
ing this period he was active and useful in the affairs of the college. 
On being appointed solicitor-general for Massachusetts, he removed to 
Boston. From 1801 to 1832 he was the principal prosecuting officer 
of the State, and met the obligations of his office with fidelity and 
success. He was a man of mark at a time when great men were far 
from being scarce. Mr. Davis was not without faults, but he had 
many redeeming qualities. His wife was Louisa Freeman of Quebec, 
and he had a large family. 

Daniel Coney of Augusta, born in 1776, began life as a merchant. 
He was the first adjutant-general of the State of Maine. 

Joshua Fabyan was a Scarboro' farmer and a justice of the peace. 

Nathaniel Wells was on the governor's council, and for some 
years in the Senate of Massachusetts. 

Fifteen of the forty-two overseers named in the college charier were 
clergymen. Three of them — Johnson, Kellogg, and Turner — 



OVERSEERS. 73 

became trustees. Silas Moody of Arundel, John Thompson of 
Berwick, Nathaniel Webster of Bidclet'orcl, Paul Coffin of Bux- 
ton, Benjamin Chadwick of Scarboro' (Dunstan), Samuel Fox- 
croft of New Gloucester, Caleb Jewett of Gorham, Ebenezer 
Williams of New Casco, and Ezekiel Emerson of Georgetown, 
were all, I believe, good ministers and good men. Jonathan Ellis 
graduated at Yale in 1786 ; ordained at Topsham in 1789 ; dismissed 
in 1810 ; was for some time secretary of the board. Two yet remain 
who claim special remembrance here. 

Moses Hemenway was born in 1735 in Framingham ; graduated at 
Harvard in 1755 ; was the minister of Wells from 1759 till just before 
he died in 1811. He was confessedly one of the great men of that 
day, and b} r far the ablest thinker and writer among the ministers of 
Maine. His theological learning was extensive and accurate. In 
profound investigation, patient thinking, and close reasoning he was 
unsurpassed. Such men as Hopkins and Emmons knew and acknowl- 
edge his power as a controversialist. A good linguist, he never lost 
his familiarity with the classic authors of Greece and Borne. As a 
preacher he was both faithful and able, while his judicious counsel was 
greatly valued b} 7- the churches. His theology was Calvinism in its 
milder form, and he resisted strenuousty what he regarded as the dan- 
gerous innovations of the New England school. This great man, so 
learned and so strong, had } T et the simple heart and manners of a 
child. He was below the middle size, was rather careless of his 
attire, went with head inclined sidewa} T s, and had a stooping gait. 
Of personal appearance he was undoubtedly too regardless ; but the 
quickness and sharpness of his retort made it a little hazardous to 
advise on this point, as good Dr. Deane once found to his cost. The 
stoiy deserves to go down. Dr. Deane : '.' My dear brother, do be a lit- 
tle more particular ! A nice black coat and a full-bottomed wig would 
add to your dignity as a man and to your influence as a minister." 
Dr. Hemenway: "Perhaps it would. I do not know how I should 
look in a wig ; but it is undoubtedly wise in you, Brother Deane, as it 
certainly is Scriptural, to bestow more abundant honor on the part that 
lacheth." 

Samuel Eaton was no prodigy of learning, no colossus of logic or 
of divinity. Still his long connection with the college, his frequent 
appearance in Brunswick, his singular appearance and manners, his 
odd sayings, and his undoubted virtues made him with all the earlier 
students a prominent figure in the scene, and secured for his name and 
image a lasting place in their memories. How few, alas, of those to 
whom that vision was familiar are left to recognize in my slight sketch 



74 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

the well-remembered lineaments of the queer old parson, whom they 
could never see nor even think of without a smile ! 

Mr. Eaton was born in Brain tree, and graduated at Harvard in 
1763. The next year he succeeded his father as minister of Harps- 
well, and kept his post fifty-eight years. The parish which he served 
so faithfully is a long, narrow promontory, with a small archipelago of 
islets. To visit his widely scattered parishioners and patients (for he 
was to some extent their physician also) must have been a task often 
of peril as of hardship. In questions of difficulty it was to him they 
went for advice. In their disputes, not infrequent, he was usually 
the umpire. With these various and ever-recurring demands upon his 
time and talents he complied cheerfully. To the large influence de- 
rived from these secular duties and relations was superadded his spe- 
cific authority as a Christian minister, — an authority which he was 
careful to keep unimpaired. Well might Parson Eaton seem a very 
great personage to his simple-hearted, piscatory flock. 

Peculiarities apart, Mr. Eaton was a man of good native powers 
and of genuine common-sense. He could be logical, was often witty, 
and was always good-tempered. "He was a man of fearless inde- 
pendence, of strict integrity, and of unquestioned piet}\" 

It was during the last twenty years of his long life that Mr. Eaton 
used to figure occasionally at Brunswick, to the great entertainment 
of the students. Imagine a rather stout and plump man, of dignified 
carriage, wearing a spacious broad-skirted coat with deep cuffs, wide 
pocket flaps, and large square collar ; a waistcoat flaring in front and 
falling almost to the knees ; breeches ; high shoes secured by large sil- 
ver buckles ; the whole surmounted with a capacious wig and a cocked 
hat, — and before you stands Parson Eaton as we were wont to see 
him. Is it strange that such a spectacle drew all eyes, as, with hat in 
hand and with an air of dignity, he walked up the broad aisle, bowing 
courteously to right and left? His first demonstration, as he rose in 
the pulpit, was a long, loud throat-clearing, — Ahem ! Then, with eyes 
raised obliquely towards the students' gallery, — his mouth twisted in 
the same direction, — and with a sharp, percussive accent on each 
pausing word, he would thus begin : " Let us sing' — unto the praise 
of God' — and with an e} r e to our own mutual ed-i-fi-cas-si on' — the" 
— etc. Such a commencement, it will perhaps be thought, was not 
very well adapted to "the use of edifying." ^till I think he was 
always heard with respectful attention. He was known to be a man 
of excellent sense, character, and life. His prayers, though some- 
times startling in their peculiarities, were generally fervid, often 
pathetic, and his sermons were sound and sensible. Mr. Eaton died 



OVERSEERS. 75 

at the age of eighty-six. Sprague, in his " Annals of the American 
Pulpit," has a graphic sketch of Samuel Eaton from the pen of Prof. 
Packard. To that let me refer for many of the anecdotes which used 
to amuse us, and for a full description of this latest clerical represent- 
ative and relic of old times and manners.* 

George Thachkr graduated in 1776 at Harvard College. After a 
year or more of practice in York, he removed to Biddeford, where he 
lived during nearly his whole professional career. He had a large prac- 
tice, and was a popular and successful advocate. He was a learned 
law} T er and a man of general science, which he often used with effect 
in illustration and argument. He had a large library, and was an in- 
defatigable reader. He was distinguished also for his social qualities. 
With a vein of wit and satire peculiarly his own, and which never 
failed, he always amused and delighted and often instructed his audi- 
tors. "There was a spice of iron}' in his humor that marked his 
character with a degree of eccentricity which he was always able to 
turn to good account." In his private life he was remarkably benevo- 
lent and hospitable. The public estimation of this talents and virtues 
was abundantby shown. Before the adoption of the Federal Constitu- 
tion he was a delegate to Congress ; and after that event he was suc- 
cessively elected until 1801, when he was appointed a justice of the 
Supreme Judicial Court. At the separation of Maine he removed to 
Newburyport, retaining his seat on the bench until 1824. That year 
he returned to Biddeford and died. 

Ammi Ruhamah Mitchell, a son of Judge David Mitchell, was born 
in 1762 in North Yarmouth (now Yarmouth). He studied medicine 
in Portsmouth. When our government at the close of the war sent a 
seventy- four- gun ship as a present to Louis XVI., Dr. Mitchell ac- 
companied its surgeon, Dr. Maubec, to Brest, where he stayed some 
time with professional advantage. Settling in his native town, he 
soon had a large practice. He was efficient and useful as a civilian, 
nad, as a Christian, much respected and revered. He was killed by 
being thrown from his carriage. 

Salmon Chase from Cornish, N. H., was a graduate (1785) of 
Dartmouth College. In 1789 he settled in Portland, where he prac- 
tised the law, and where he died in 1806 at the age of forty-five. 

* The following gentlemen named in the charter are not included in the preceding 
sketches: Hon. Isaac Parsons of New Gloucester; he was in the Senate of Massa- 
chusetts. Dr. Robert Southgate of Scarboro', a physician and also judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas. John Wait, Esq., of Portland. Jonathan Bowman, Esq., 
of Dresden, judge of the Court of Common Pleas and of Probate. Dummer Sew- 
all, Esq., of Bath, treasurer of the college, 1799-1805, 



76 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

"He was not distinguished as a belles-lettres scholar; but in legal 
science, in mathematical and physical learning, he had few superiors. 
He rose to high rank in his profession, but was much more distin- 
guished as a learned and safe counsellor than as an advocate . In the 
social circle few were able to cope with him in argument ; but he was 
not equally successful when he exercised his talents as an advocate 
at the bar." He could not talk in court. However well prepared, 
the slightest incident would throw "all his ideas into the utmost 
disorder." He was, notwithstanding, so good a lawyer as to be called 
familiarly " the great gun of the Cumberland bar " 

William Symmes graduated at Harvard College in 1779. He was 
a son of Rev. Mr. Symmes of Andover, Mass., where his first pro- 
fessional years were honorably passed. He practised law in Portland 
from 1790 until 1807, when he died. He " was a well-read lawyer 
and an able and eloquent advocate. He was also a fine classical 
scholar, of cultivated literary taste, and uncommonly learned as a his- 
torian." His communications to the newspapers of the day, on topics 
of the highest interest, were numerous and valuable. 

Matthew Cobb came from Barnstable where he was born in 
1780; went into business first at Biddeford ; settled in Portland in 
1798, and was at one time in partnership with Asa Clapp. He was 
one of the few rich men who lived through the hard times of embargo 
and war, and left something behind them when they died. His two 
sons were graduates of the college, and are still remembered with 
honor. His only daughter, Mary, married Charles Dummer, Esq. 

Jacob Abbot was of the old Andover stock, and was born there in 
1746. He lived for some time in Wilton, N. H., where there was an 
Abbot colony. But Lieut. -Gov. Phillips wanted a good man to look 
after his townships on and near Sandy River, so he sent Mr. Abbot 
down. The result was that he settled in Brunswick in 1806. He was 
sensible, substantial, and useful, while his vigor lasted. As I knew 
him he was a gentle and sage old man, — a patriarch, calmly waiting 
for leave to go. When he went (it was in 1820) the aged Parson 
Eaton preached his funeral sermon. His wife was Lydia Stevens. 

Jacob Abbot, son of the preceding, and his fac-simile as near as 
could be, was born in Wilton, and lived successively in Andover, 
Mass., in Hallowell, Brunswick, Weld, and Farmington. He was a 
large land-holder, and a man greatly respected and beloved. His five 
sons graduated at Brunswick, and three of them are now men of mark. 
He had also two daughters. 

Robert D. Dunning became an overseer in 1805. Mr. Dunning, a 
highly respectable citizen of Brunswick, was born in 1780. He mar- 




'jtj Ct_ cx^ <— ' <==>* 



OVERSEERS. 77 

ried a daughter of Capt. John O'Brien, who survived him. Rev. 
ADdrew Dunning (Bowdoin College, 1837) is a son. One son is an 
officer in the United States Assay Office, New York, and another is in 
the mint at Philadelphia. The house in which Mr. Dunning lived, 
and which after his premature decease continued to be occupied as a 
boarding-house by his excellent sisters,- Margaret and Susan Dunning, 
long since disappeared. In memory, however, it still stands, a loved 
mansion. There lived our esteemed " Uncle Johnny." Thither, duly, 
as the hour of breakfast, dinner, or tea arrived, we turned our willing 
steps. There we found — what students, alas ! do not always find — a 
cheerful and well-spread board ; and there, as twilight deepened into 
evening, we had many a pleasant chat. 

Isaac Lincoln was born in Cohasset, Mass., Jan. 26, 1780. His 
father was Deacon Uriah Lincoln. He was fitted for college by Kil- 
bourne Whitman of Pembroke, and graduated at Cambridge in 1800. 
For a } T ear or two he taught school in Hingham, pursuing at the same 
time his professional studies with Dr. Thomas Thaxter. At the com- 
pletion of his medical course he was invited to Topsham, where he 
settled in the summer of 1804, and entered at once on an extensive 
practice. In May, 1805, he was chosen a member of the Board of 
Overseers, a place which he still retains. In neither of the college 
boards has any other man held a membership so long. In 1820 he 
married Marcia L., daughter of Capt. John Dunlap, and took up his 
residence in Brunswick. On the establishment of the medical school, 
Dr. Lincoln was made a member of the medical faculty, and still 
retains the place. Although no partisan, he grew up in the school of 
Federalism, and never disguised his sentiments. In 1848 the Whigs 
of Cumberland nominated him for Congress, but the Democrats 
carried the day. Almost from the beginning, Dr. Lincoln has been 
intimately connected with the college. The beloved and trusted plry- 
sician of the first two presidents, his skill and kindness soothed their 
last days. For many years he was almost exclusively the physician of 
the college, and many a Bowdoin graduate must recall with gratitude 
the cheering look and tone, as well as the judicious treatment, which 
brought hope and health again to his lonely sick-room far from home. 
Time has dealt gently with the doctor. He shows very few marks of 
age or of infirmity. His only daughter, Mary, is the wife of Mr. John 
G'. Richardson, of Bath His son, John Dunlap (Bowdoin College, 
1844), is associated with hirn. The ficlelitj' and ability with which Dr. 
John Dunlap Lincoln discharges the duties of an extensive practice 
need no commendation from me. 

Reuben Nason was a good scholar in a distinguished class at Cam- 



78 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

bridge, that of 1802. When I first heard of him he was at Gorham, 
and had charge of the academy ; then, I think, the most prominent 
school in Maine. This place he resigned to become the minister of 
Freeport. But he was not well fitted for pastoral duty, nor much at 
home in the pulpit. After a few years he went back to Gorham, and 
resumed the care of boys and girls. Here he continued a good many 
years, and sent many pupils to Brunswick. At length he left Gorham, 
went to Clarkson, N. Y., took charge of a school, and there died sud- 
denly in 1835. By his first wife he had a daughter, Apphia, who 
survived him about a year. His second wife was Miss Coffin of Bid- 
deford. Of their eight children, one son, Reuben, graduated at Bow- 
doin College in 1834. In person Mr. Nason was not attractive. His 
figure was short, ungainly, almost humpbacked. His face and brow 
retreated rapidly from a far-projecting chin, and he had a heavy eye- 
lash which he seemed to lift with difficulty. Though uneven and often 
injudicious in his discipline, he was an excellent Latin and Greek 
scholar, taught well, and did much toward raising the standard of 
classical study in Maine. I have heard with grief that his later days 
at Gorham were made uncomfortable through increasing irritability 
of temper, — an unfortunate diathesis, which no doubt was needlessly 
and wantonly aggravated by others. When I best knew him, — it was 
in the frosty and smoky summer of 1816 that I assisted him in the 
academy and lived in his family, — he seemed happy enough, and 
tried to make me feel so too. I found him very social and full of 
anecdote. Some of his stories, indeed, came more than once ; yet I 
enjoyed them all. His narration was a little slow and heavy, but his 
own delighted appreciation of the point was perfectly contagious. At 
that moment he would bend forward, stretch out his leg, shake his 
yellow bandana, and grin and snicker till 1 found myself laughing 
quite as heartily over the fifth repetition as at the first hearing. I 
remember Mr. Nason with affection and respect. He was a good 
man, and the blessing, I doubt not, of many a grateful pupil rests 
upon his distant grave. 

Levi Cutter. For nearly forty years Mr. Cutter was an overseer 
of the college. At the time of his death and for a good while previous 
he was the vice-president of the board. There was no member more 
constant. There are few members, if any, who would be more missed. 

Mr. Cutter was a grandson of the Rev. Ammi Ruhamah Cutter, the 
first minister of North Yarmouth, and was born in that place in 1774. 
He was but two years old when his father died. He early showed energy 
and capacity, and even taught a school at the age of fourteen. He 
went into business ; trusted his property on the sea, and lost it, — not 



OVERSBERS. 79 

by shipwreck, but by robbery. For nearly sixty years, and to his 
dying hour, Mr. Cutter was one of the original, unfortunate, and we 
must add, ill-treated claimants under French spoliations. His first 
commercial enterprise having thus failed, he went to Portland in 1806 
as secretary of an insurance company. During the hard years of 
embargo, non-intercourse, and war, he was the cashier of the Cumber- 
land Bank. In 1817 he again went into mercantile business, as one 
of the firm of N. & L. Dana & Co. But in that time of general disas- 
ter which followed the great speculating fever, Mr. Cutter was among 
the sufferers. Though he then ceased to be (strictly speaking) a busi- 
ness man, he was active and useful almost to the end of his days. In 
1834 he was chosen mayor of Portland, and held the office by succes- 
sive elections for seven years. He " was eminently distinguished for 
his thorough knowledge of business, his enlarged philanthropy, and 
his generous public spirit." 

Amid these activities of commercial and of civil life, he was also an 
influential and respected member of the religious community. In the 
church to which he belonged for sixty-five years, and in which he was 
long an humble yet honored officer, and in many of the great enter- 
prises of associated benevolence, he was ever conspicuously and yet 
modestly useful. Mr. Cutter died in March, 1856. His first wife was 
Lucretia, daughter of Hon. David Mitchell, of North Yarmouth. This 
good woman died in 1827. Of their ten children, six still live. Two 
sons, William and Edward F. , are graduates of Bowdoin College. Two 
of the daughters are married to merchants in Massachusetts. One of 
them is the widow of Rev. Mr. Tenbroeck ; another is the widow of 
Col. J. D. Kinsman. In 1833 Mr. Cutter married Mrs. Ruth Jenkins, 
who survives him. 

Woodbury Storer was yet a youth when he came to Portland from 
Wells. He was a portly and gentlemanly man ; '■' led a life of activ- 
ity and usefulness, held many responsible offices, and brought up a 
large family of well-educated and respectable children." He died 
in 1825 aged sixty-five. His first wife, Anne, was daughter of Ben- 
jamin Titcomb. One. of their daughters married Barrett Potter, 
Esq. ; another married William Goddard. Their son, Woodbury S. 
Storer, still lives in Portland. Mr. Woodbury Storer's second wife 
was a daughter of James Boyd of Boston. Four sons by this mar- 
riage are named elsewhere in this "Memorial," and there are two 
daughters. 

Peleg Tallman, elected an overseer in 1802, was one of the marked 
men whenever he appeared on the college stage. He was born in 
1764 at Tiverton, R. I., and followed the sea. He was in the frig- 



80 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

ate "Trumbull" in 1780, when she fought the British ship "The 
Watt," and lost his arm in the engagement. In 1785 he settled in 
Bath, but still went to sea. Some ten years later he commanded a 
letter- of-marque of twenty guns and one hundred men, in which he 
followed the St. Domingo trade, fighting his way when necessary. He 
was a man of great courage, persevering energy, and his bold enter- 
prise was crowned with wealth. In 1812 he was a representative in 
the Congress which made war on Great Britain. Though a fierce 
Democrat, this was too much for him. Consigning President Madison 
and the two houses of Congress to the care of a very uuamiable per- 
sonage, he turned his heel on Washington and went straight home. 
This strong-willed and stern old seaman died (1842) in Bath at the 
age of sevent}^-eight, leaving four sons and four daughters. 

Rev. George Eltashib Adams was born in 18 (| 1 at Worthington, 
Mass., son of Eliashib Adams and Anna (Leland) Adams; fitted at 
Andover ; graduated at Yale College in 1821 ; graduated at Andover 
Theological Seminary in 1826, having been engaged in the mean time 
nearly two years in teaching ; then for three years was professor of 
sacred literature in the Theological Seminary at Bangor. He was 
installed at Brunswick Dec. 30, 1829. He married, first, in 1826, 
Sarah Ann Folsom, of Portsmouth, N. H., who died February, 
1850 ; second. Dec. 30, 1851. Helen M. Root of North Reading, Mass. 
Of three children by this marriage, two survive. An adopted daugh- 
ter is the wife of President Chamberlain. From 1829 to the midsum- 
mer of 1870, a large proportion of the forty classes who graduated 
from the college constituted an important and interesting part of the 
congregation to which he preached. His attractive person, his bear- 
ing as a gentleman, his liberal culture and fine taste, his generous 
interest in whatever affected the welfare and good name of the college, 
his gentle courtesy and uniform friendliness, and especially his emi- 
nently devout spirit and his standing among the clergy of the State, 
conspired to give him access to confidence and respect. In 1870, 
apprehending the near approach of such infirmity as age brings with 
it, and feeling the pressure of an important parochial charge, he sought 
relief, and, amidst the tears and regrets of his people, he removed to 
Orange, N. J., where with renewed vigor he undertook, as a supply, 
the charge of a new Congregational church and society. His pastoral 
relation, however, to his Brunswick people was not dissolved except 
by his own death in Orange, December, 1874. At the earnest request 
of the church he had so long served, his remains were interred in the 
Brunswick cemetery. In 1849 he received the degree of D. D. from 
the college. 



BENJAMIN VAUGHAN. 81 



BENJAMIN VAUGHAN. 

Among those whose names are agreeably associated with the 
early years of the college was Dr. Benjamin Vaughan. Though 
not a member of either board, he was a constant friend of the 
institution, and his advice and aid were often sought and readily 
given. Mr. Vaughan was the son of a rich planter in the island 
of Jamaica, where he was born in 1752. His parents soon after 
went to London, and placed this son at Warrington in that famous 
academy of the Dissenters where Enfield, Barbauld, and Priestley 
taught. While here, he was a member of Dr. Priestley's family, 
and formed with that great man " a friendship and correspond- 
ence which were terminated only by the death of the latter." To 
Mr. Vaughan Dr. Priestley afterwards dedicated his " Lectures on 
History," a valuable work, formerly used as a text-book at Bruns- 
wick and in other colleges. Mr. Vaughan was educated at Cam- 
bridge, though, being a Dissenter, he could not conscientiously take a 
degree. " After leaving the University he studied law at the Temple, 
at London, and medicine at the University of Edinburgh. The latter 
science he pursued with success ; and though he did not practise it as 
a profession, he never ceased to study it, nor ever withheld his gratu- 
itous advice." It was an eventful and exciting period for England 
and Europe when Mr. Vaughan came on the stage of action. To 
state that he was intimate with Price and Priestley, and the trusted 
friend of our own immortal Franklin, sufficiently indicates the views 
and feelings with which he must have contemplated the great issues of 
that day. He was much interested in the American Revolution ; and 
during the negotiations for peace between England and her late colonies, 
he rendered valuable aid, — possessing, as he did, the confidence not 
only of the American envoys, but of the English ministry. His corre- 
spondence with the American ambassador (see Vols. IV., VIII., and 
X. of Franklin's Works, Sparks's Edition) gives a pleasing idea of the 
relations between them. In one of the letters from Passy he intro- 
duces to Mr. Vaughan Count Mirabeau, a few years later the mighty 
orator of the National Convention, but then a young author, who had 
written a piece on hereditary nobility which he was not allowed to 
publish in monarchical France. Franklin asks his friend to recom- 
mend this young man, who " has some agreeable talents," to an hon- 
est English bookseller. More interesting and important, as showing 
Franklin's estimate of his friend, is the fact that he sent to him the 
manuscript of his autobiography with the request that he and Dr. 



82 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Price would read and correct it. In 1792 Mr. Vaughan was elected 
a member of Parliament, where he supported zealously the Whig 
cause. But the French Revolution, which, in common with all good 
men, he had hailed with delight, soon took a sad turn. A violent 
reaction came on in England, exposing to popular odium all who 
could not go with it. From the blind frenzy which drove such a 
man as Priestley from his native land it was natural that his pupil and 
friend should wish to escape. Mr. Vaughan came to this country in 
1797, planting himself on the banks of the Kennebec in the then new 
town of Hallowell, where his pleasant home was for many years a 
seat of elegant hospitality and a centre of wide attraction. Near 
him lived his brother Charles, who was at one time an overseer of 
the college ; and his brother-in-law, John Merrick, long an active 
member of the overseers, and still living with his son-in-law, Rev. Dr. 
Vaughan of Philadelphia, in vigorous and venerable age. Five miles 
down the river was the beautiful and genial home of Mr. Robert H. 
Gardiner. Under such influences the rising settlement could not but 
prosper. The society of Hallowell and its vicinity became distin- 
guished for its intelligence, refinement, and cordiality. Of this 
society, by the tacit courtesy of all, Dr. Vaughan was long the 
acknowledged head. Learned, affable, and unaffectedly benevolent, 
he won universal respect and love. If the doctor had a weakness, 
(and who is exempt?) it was his ambition to prove that his favorite 
town was the coldest place in the United States. For this somewhat 
questionable honor there was a protracted but friendly rivalry 
between Hallowell and Brunswick. The former carried the day, or 
rather the night, which was generally the period of greatest severity. 
In his zealous desire to see it cold enough for the congelation of 
quicksilver, the good doctor sometimes sat up till morning, running 
out bareheaded every half-hour to inspect the thermometer. His 
winter bulletins were copied far and wide in the papers, untill Hal- 
lowell gained a reputation similar to that afterwards enjoyed by 
Franconia in New Hampshire. Whether its growth, as some as- 
serted, was actually checked by the character thus given to it, — 
which, however kindly, was certainly rather " frosty," — is more than 
I can say. Besides Charles, Mr. Vaughan had a brother William, a 
banker, who remained in London ; Samuel, a Jamaica planter ; and a 
brother John, well known in Philadelphia as a man of learning and 
philanthropy. He died in 1835, aged eighty-four. The first Eng- 
lish edition of Dr. Franklin's miscellaneous writings was edited by 
Mr. Vaughan, and published in London in 1779. It contained that 
famous "Parable on Persecution" which brought upon Franklin the 



COLLEGE KEMINISCENCES. 83 

charge of plagiarism, the whole history of which has been so recently 
and pleasantly told b}^ Mr. Edward Everett. 

Mr. Vaughan married, in 1781, Sarah Manning, daughter of Wil- 
liam Manning, Esq., governor of the Bank of England, by whom he 
had seven children, all of whom have died ; Mrs. Vaughan died in 
1834, and Mr. Vaughan in the year following. 



COLLEGE REMINISCENCES. 

[The writer, to whom was committed the charge of completing what Mr. N. Cleave- 
land left unfinished at his death in 1877, prepared in 1879, for what was called the 
Philosophical Club, composed of the Faculty and other friends, his reminiscences of 
the college. The paper was repeated by request of the undergraduates, and an invita- 
tion to read it to graduates in Portland indicates that it had excited interest. It was 
read to one of the trustees of the college, a summer resident in town ; and by him and 
other friends it was suggested that it would properly have a place in the history of the 
college. The writer deems it due to himself to give this explanation of what might 
otherwise subject him to the imputation of unseemly egotism and vanity, — of which 
he very likely has his share, but he hopes has sense enough to hold in proper restraint. 
The paper is given as it was read, although at the expense of some repetition of what 
appears elsewhere in the volume.] 

The college reminiscences of a graduate, admitted Freshman sixty- 
seven years ago, who, with the exception of the interval between his 
Bachelor's and Master's degree, has been constantly connected with the 
institution, ma}^ not be without interest, even though the first-person 
pronoun will be somewhat conspicuous. 

I was appointed to a tutorship September, 1819 ; but a few personal 
recollections of the college date back to the summer of 1807, when 
the former church edifice near by was dedicated, and myself, a child, 
accompanied my father, then a clergyman in'Wiscasset, who partici- 
pated in the services on the occasion. The first Commencement of the 
college, which occurred the year before, was of itself memorable, as 
being the first occasion of the kind in the then District of Maine, and 
attracted prominent personages from the District and from Massachu- 
setts. It was, however, made noticeable by a long and violent storm, 
which caused the postponement of the public exercises one day, and 
had not abated its fury on the second da}^. The exercises were held in 
the church building, yet unfinished and affording but poor shelter from 
the pouring rain. President McKeen presided in the pulpit with an 
umbrella over his head ; what the audience did in that shower bath 
has not been recorded. The novelty of the occasion, it has just been 
mentioned, attracted a large company of visitors ; wealth, position, 
fashion , and beauty honored the infant college on its first gala day. 
Brunswick has not since witnessed, if tradition may be trusted, such 



84 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

and so many brilliant equipages ; where and how the small villages of 
Brunswick and Topsham harbored that influx of strangers has not 
been fully reported. The adventures under the pelting rain and tem- 
pest of those days through gullied and muddy streets in the moonless 
nights ; mishaps of overturns in the Egyptian darkness (Gen. Knox's 
carriage, with its company of gentlemen and ladies, was upset down 
the bank on the side of the bridge, — a lady in our neighborhood has 
confirmed the tradition quite recently) ; foot passengers groping in 
uncertainty, and often losing their way ; houses crowded with guests, 
floors by night covered with sleepers or by those trying to sleep ; the 
Commencement balls (for that on Commencement eve proper was not 
hindered by the storm, and the postponement of the exercises justified, 
it was decided, one on the second evening also), thronged with guests, 
escaping from the merciless tempest without, — all together made a series 
of scenes, of misadventure, fun, and jollity, such that many declared 
they would repeat it year by year. It was a tradition for years. 

The writer may be allowed to quote a passage from an address before 
the alumni at the Commencement of 1858, in which he endeavored to 
present the college as it was at the first Commencement ; for the main 
features of the picture were scarcely changed six years later, when he 
entered : — 

"The son of a Massachusetts home, destined for the college, was 
perhaps committed with bed and bedding to the custody and tardy 
progress of an Eastern coaster lying for freight and passengers at the 
T Wharf, Boston ; and after a week's — he might congratulate himself if 
it were not a two- weeks' — vo3'age, he and his reached this far-off place 
of exile. A letter posted in Boston, heralded along its slow and winding 
way by the rumbling of. the lumbering coach and the echoes of the 
driver's horn at every village, after four clays arrived at its destination 
in the semi weekly mail. Or did the Boston parent of a son about to 
graduate, or some zealous friend of learning and of the rising college, 
purpose to be present at Commencement, — after more ado of prepara- 
tion than a voyage of these da}'S by ocean steamer to Liverpool, his long 
and toilsome journey in his private carriage, of four or five da}'s, afforded 
more of incident and variety than a journey now to Washington or 
Niagara. The passage of the impetuous, at times perilous Fiscataqua 
in a scow introduces him to the endless forests, the hills, rocks, and 
gridiron bridges of Maine, evil report of which has reached his ear. 
He makes his slow progress over the long, rugged, toilsome miles of 
Cape Neddick and Wells, — relieved indeed by enchanting views of the 
broad Atlantic which burst, as by enchantment, on the e}'e at York, 
and then of the magnificent beaches and inrolling waves breaking in 



COLLEGE EEMINISCENCES. 85 

long sheets of foam (all now lost to railway travelling * ) ; he passes the 
fine falls of the Saco, and the dense gloom of Saco woods ; admires 
the charming site of Portland, its thrift and promise ; then on this 
hand catching pleasant views of Casco Bay, of which the eye cannot 
tire (the wayfarer of to-day loses all that) ; at length, wearied and 
dusty, after the last long ten miles, slowly emerging half a mile or 
more on the plain south of us, 'he gets sight of a single three-story 
edifice of brick, a plain unpainted chapel of wood, a church and spire 
yet unfinished, a president's house of most modest pretension in build- 
ing, and a few humble scattering dwellings. This was Bowdoin Col- 
lege as it was at the Commencement of 1806." 

I said that my first sight of the college was in 1807. In 1810 I, 
a boy often, was at Commencement, and in 1812 was admitted Fresh- 
man. The college buildings were four : the president's house, which 
stood near what is now the front entrance of the grounds ; Massachusetts 
and Maine Halls ; and the chapel, of wood, two-storied, the trimmings 
only painted, which stood in front of Maine Hall, on the right of the 
intersection of the walk from the present chapel and that which leads 
to Massachusetts Hall. It had a portico and entrance facing the west. 
On one of these visits, that in 1810, by the kindness of Mr. Bradford, 
a trustee, a parishioner of my father, I was introduced into the college 
library ; a great collection, it seemed to me, occupying one end of the 
second story of the old chapel, and counting more than 1,000 volumes. 
It must have been, I think, in 1807, Prof. Cleaveland showed my father, 
who led me by the hand, the cabinet of Bowdoin College in a case in an 
apartment of Massachusetts Hall on the lowest floor, which had been 
President McKeen's parlor, and is now embraced in the lecture-room. 

The general organization of the infant college was after the model 
of Harvard. Most of the active members of the boards of trust and 
oversight, the professors and tutors, were, for the first ten or twelve 
years, Harvard men. For the accommodation of the students, as an 
economical arrrangement (although the latter failed to appreciate the 
motive), board was provided in " commons," as it was called, in the 
hall in the L of the tavern that stood for twenty or more years in the 
northwest corner of the present college grounds, the landlord of which 
was Col. Estabrook, a respectable citizen of the town. No student 
could board out of commons except on the certificate of a regular 
physician ; various ills used to invade the college dormitories, and 
some portion, although not the most lucrative part, of the excellent 
Dr. Lincoln's practice was in cases the remedy for which was a certifi- 

* When this was penned the Boston and Maine Kailroad had not been extended into 
Maine. 



86 HISTOEY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

cate that the health of A or B would be promoted by his securing his 
sustenance elsewhere than at the commons table. One of my class, 
for withdrawing without permission from the board thus provided, 
and who was too hale and hearty (for he was the Hercules of the 
class) to plead infirmity, was suspended. The table was presided 
over by the tutors ; the students sat in the order of classes, and 
alphabetically, Seniors at the head. Grace was said by a tutor, or, in 
absence of a tutor, by a Senior. The table was apt to be a subject of 
criticism, especially from those who fared better than at their own 
homes. Col. Estabrook was the caterer, and his daughters assisted 
the father in serving, all of whom were invariably treated with respect. 
But the authorities were not long in discovering that the college gained 
by the arrangement less than they expected in economy or comfort. 
The method was abandoned in my Junior year. 

A change in the mutual bearing of teacher and pupil may be men- 
tioned, not indeed confined to college, but one of the general changes 
in manners. There is now less of observance, greater freedom in 
intercourse than in former days. We, as well-bred students now, 
always touched the hat when we passed an instructor, and we 
received a salute in return ; although we fancied that Prof. Cleave- 
land, from aversion to such demonstration, would turn one side, if it 
were possible, to avoid the salute. I have in my mind's eye the dig- 
nity and grace with which President Appleton uniformly raised his hat 
to return our bow. Scarcely a generation had gone by at Harvard, 
when it was a tradition that tutors and Faculty, as well as students, 
uncovered if President Willard appeared in the college grounds. At 
chapel, the bell, which in my day was on Massachusetts Hall, ceased 
its toll when the president left his door (his residence being, as already 
stated, within the grounds near the present front entrance) , thus giv- 
ing students and tutors time to reach their seats before his entrance. 
"When he entered the door, we rose from our seats and stood until he 
entered his desk. Should an officer enter afterward, we paid him the 
same token of respect. I recall distinctly Prof. Cleaveland's hurried 
entrance and steps through the aisle to his seat on the left of the desk ; 
for (as his house was farther removed) his attendance was a little 
tardy ; but we arose, if he would allow us time. In the same way we 
received our teachers in the reciting- room. 

No one, probably, has heard of tutor's Freshmen. Freshmen occu- 
pied the rooms on the ground floor. Those in the room below a tutor 
were tutor's Freshmen, and were required to answer his call for some 
college service, as the summoniug a student to the tutor's room, or 
bearing a message to some of the Faculty. The Freshman was sum- 



COLLEGE REMINISCENCES. 87 

moned by three stamps on the tutors floor. It was not regarded as a 
menial service, but, in a measure, as a privilege. It gave greater 
nearness to good counsel, and parents considered it favorable for over- 
sight, and in the light of a safeguard. I can testify to that : for I was 
Tutor Brigham's Freshman, and besides his faithful oversight, he once 
called me to read to him a paper in the " Spectator," as an exercise 
in the standard of that clay. The first year of nry service in the tutor- 
ship, in consequence of President Appleton's sickness (an additional 
tutor being appointed, and the regular tutor's room being occupied) , 
I was obliged to take a third-story room over Tutor Asa Cummings ; 
and his Freshman was doubly honored, for he had to obey my occa- 
sional behests as well as his. I gave my three stamps, Brother Cum- 
mings below replied with his three, and in due time Patten (1823) was 
at my door to do nry bidding. 

On nry admission, I had scarcely found my seat in chapel in the 
alphabetical order, when I was greatly surprised at an evening service 
by president, tutors, and students resuming their seats after service, and 
the president, in his peculiarly formal and commanding tone, announ- 
cing, " Declamator primus ascendat" and Dunlap, from the seat before 
me, rising and advancing to the small platform in front, on the side 
near the desk, declaiming a selected piece. Once or twice at evening 
prayers, the three upper classes in rotation thus exhibited. The 
speakers paused, after declamation and the students had retired, to 
receive the comments of the president. Subsequently, on the appoint- 
ment of our first professor of rhetoric and oratory, declamations were 
held before the college in chapel, Wednesday, at 2 p. m., and so con- 
tinued for several years. 

I may add that during my college life, and for some time at least 
under President Allen, at Sunday-evening prayers, a Bible lesson 
was conducted by the president, in which the whole college partici- 
pated, varied occasionally by a lecture or discourse. A course of 
theological lectures also was given by President Apple ton, Wednes- 
day, 2 p. m., at which attendance was required of all the students. 
These lectures were published after his death constituting a portion 
of his works. President Allen also delivered lectures on theological 
and Biblical topics. 

Commons Hall was erected in 1828, as a boarding-house for stu- 
dents, who managed it themselves for several years. 

Among the reminiscences of those early years, it may be of interest to 
refer to the course and style of instruction. I was not examined for 
admission at the regular time, the day after Commencement, but at the 
opening of the college year, in the evening near the clo,se of September, 



88 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

in the president's study, by the president, Prof. Cleaveland, and Tutors 
Brigham and Southgate, in the Greek Testament, Virgil, Cicero, and 
the four fundamental rules of arithmetic. My first recitation was in 
Sallust, which was followed in the Latin department by the Odes of 
Horace. Our Greek, as also through the Sophomore and Junior years, 
was " Grasca Majora," and our mathematics was " Webber's Arithme- 
tic." Our class was the first to study Hebrew, but without points, 
"Willard's Grammar" and the psalter, thus following the curricu- 
lum of Harvard. Our teacher was the learned and accomplished Rev. 
Dr. Jenks, then pastor of one of the Bath churches, who came from 
Bath once a week to inculcate Hebrew and correct our themes. The 
Hebrew did not amount to much, although the Commencement of 
1814 was dignified by what was called a Hebrew oration, by King, of 
the graduating class. King was a tall, raw-boned, rather ungainly 
man ; he gained the nickname of Melech, the Hebrew word, as then 
pronounced, for King. Melech after graduation went South, and is 
one of the very few of our alumni who has disappeared from all 
access from his Alma Mater, and even from the place of his birth. 

Classical teaching in my day was altogether inefficient. The first 
professor was more skilful in exploring the wild lands of the college 
on the Piscataquis, and in introducing choice fruits in this and neigh- 
boring towns, than in inspiring students with love for Greek. It should 
be remembered, however, that the classical teaching of that day was 
very inferior. President Appleton took our class in the Sophomore year 
for a short time in the " Satires " and " Epistles" of Horace, and the 
class of 1818 in the Junior Greek, " Medea" of Euripides, and made 
in each case, you maybe sure, something of it. Hedge's "Logic" 
was a Sophomore, and " Locke on the Human Understanding " a Junior 
study, both committed to a tutor. In the Senior year, Stewart's " Ele- 
ments of the Philosoplry of the Human Mind " comprised, with Locke of 
the 3-ear before, our metaphysics ; and " Paley's Evidences *' and " But- 
ler's Analogy " our course in Christian evidences, which under President 
Appleton left ineffaceable impressions. We read forensics before the 
class under President Appleton on subjects suggested by our studies. 
Enfield's' " Natural Philosophy," " Chemistry," and "Mineralogy" were 
all under charge of Prof. Cleaveland. Chaptal was the text-book in 
chemistr}', soon followed by Henry. The professor began his lectures 
on that branch, so far as could be done, with a few retorts, a gas appa- 
ratus presented to the college by Prof. Dexter of Cambridge, and a few 
other articles. That gas apparatus had peculiar interest ; for it was 
made in the laboratory of Dr. Beddoes, of the Pneumatic Institution, 
Bristol, England, and at its construction young Davy, afterwards the 



COLLEGE REMINISCENCES. 89 

eminent Sir Humphrey, was an assistant. At first the professor had 
a scanty cabinet, for mineralogy had not fairly seen the full light of 
day. This new science, when I entered college, had been added to 
the curriculum ; but the professor soon, with surprising diligence (his 
night studies often breaking upon the small hours), published a text- 
book in one volume which I think my class was the first to use, 
which soon, in a second edition, extended into two large octavo vol- 
umes, and made his name and that of the college a familiar one 
throughout the scientific world. We students were proud when we 
heard of diplomas of membership coming to him from learned socie- 
ties at home and abroad, and (what we relished less) invitations from 
Harvard, Dartmouth, Princeton, I think also, to a professorship. We 
were fearful that he would yield to such seductions ; and I recall the 
great satisfaction I felt when he told me — and I repeat his words — 
that he should, he believed, " stay by old Bowdoin." 

In the Senior year " Burlamaqui on Natural and Politic Law" was 
a text-book, recited to a tutor. Mr. Cleavelancl sent an advertise- 
ment of our course to the Boston Sentinel, edited by Major Kussell. 
It was announced in that print that Burlamogus was one of our text- 
books. Mr. Cleaveland, who knew the major well, wrote him that we 
had substituted Burlamaqui for Burlamogus. 

Political economy was first introduced by Prof. Newman ; at first by 
lectures, and then by his own publication on that branch, which, sev- 
eral 3'ears after, Amasa Walker, of considerable repute in that depart- 
ment, told me was the best book that had been published on the sub- 
ject. Prof. Newman had published his " Rhetoric," which went through 
sixty or more editions in our country and several in England. 

When I entered college the prevailing orthoepy, were it heard now, 
would seem archaic and unrefined. President Appleton was a man of 
high culture, and moved in the most cultivated circles, but he read 
and spoke of naloor, natooral, edoocation, envy ; so we all did. Now 
and then we heard from some one of a more. southern latitude, nature, 
etc., and we called that the " chewing" mode. It was regarded as a 
Southern fashion. Sometimes it was carried, by those who took pains 
to show that the} T were not of the vulgar and rusftic class, to an amus- 
ing excess. In ray tutorship I was asked by a Massachusetts lady, 
who took the highest wave of the coming style, if I was a " chutor " in 
Bowdoin College. The new mode, however, was to prevail. It was 
the transition period we soon found. - At the first chapel of the second 
term the president gave decided indications that he had meanwhile 
been disciplining his organs of speech in the new way ; and he pro- 
nounced — although with some effort, we thought — such words as I 



90 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

have mentioned according to Walker, the new standard. Now it was 
nature, education, and we never heard more of envy. 

A word or two of the style of instruction of our primitive period. 
And let me remark that reminiscences of the teaching at Harvard, 
lately given by Dr. Peabody in the ' ' Harvard Register," were in all 
respects the same : in the languages limited much to construing and 
grammar and syntax, — and by construing I mean taking word by 
word and giving the sense, not permitting the student to " phrase it," 
a refuge sometimes resorted to by a shirk who could not have con- 
strued the passage. Scarce anything was done in the way of interpre- 
tation by the teacher, or of discussing the literature of the author or 
his times. In 1825 I was at Cambridge, Prof. Smyth and myself hav- 
ing gone thither to inquire into the manner of teaching in the best ap- 
pointed of our colleges ; I was present at the recitations of the eminent 
Dr. Popkin in Pindar, and of Tutor (afterwards Prof.) Noj'es in Homer, 
and the same was their method. Subsequently, as I was informed, con- 
struing was required at Exeter Academy under Dr. Soule, as being 
recommended by the method at Harvard. The method of translation 
— i. e., reading a paragraph and then translating — was early adopted 
with us ; a method to which the celebrated William Pitt in his ma- 
ture life affirmed that he owed, more than to any other training, his 
remarkable fluency and felicity in parliamentary debate. As to the 
teaching in ethical and kindred subjects, Prof. Hedge, father of the 
present Dr. Hedge of Harvard, it used to be said, in his branch en- 
joined on his class the importance of reciting in the words of the 
author, raising a smile when in Hedge's "Logic" the author was him- 
self. During my college course I did not hear a lecture or a discus- 
sion of the subjects we studied, excepting in brief occasional remarks, 
and those rare. In natural philosophy, astronomy, mineralogy, and 
chemistiy, however, we had courses of lectures. I need not remark 
how much advance in the class-room, in the particulars referred to, 
has been made. The science and methods of instruction have greatly 
advanced in all our institutions, and Bowcloin has not been left behind. 

A student of these da}?s would look with dismay on the discomforts, 
as he would regard *them, of the most liberally furnished rooms of 
those }^ears. Without carpet, paint, or wall paper, our rooms in win- 
ter were at once study and sleeping apartment ; in summer they were 
varied by the use of what we called a study for each occupant, — a 
closet of small dimensions with table and chair, where the student 
could shut himself in from visitors ; an open fireplace for fuel, which 
he bought at his best bargain from the wood-sled, which, driven from 
the outskirts of the town to the rear of the college hall, stood with 



COLLEGE EEMINISCENCES. 91 

invitation. The green youth, who perhaps scarcely knew the dis- 
tinction of woods, made his sharp trade of measure and quality and 
price, and secured, it might be after much " dickering," popple, or 
bass, or white maple for genuine rock maple, sometimes soggy or pow- 
der-posted for dry or sound. Billy Mitchell, it is likely, — for he was 
the choice wood-cutter, he was so diligent and honest, — after cutting 
the wood, carried it by armfuls to the student's room, to be piled in the 
entry at his door if he occupied a corner room ; or if it was a middle 
room, to be deposited in the wood closet. Mitchell was industrious ; 
his axe was to be heard from sunrise to late in the evening, if the 
moon favored. To correspond with my description of the corner 
rooms, it should be said that Maine Hall was constructed on a differ- 
ent plan from the present one. 

During the first twenty years of the life of the college, students 
recited in their private rooms in rotation b} 7 " weeks, except that in 
summer the recitations were held in unoccupied rooms, if there were 
such, on the ground floor or in the third story of Massachusetts Hall. 
Seniors had the distinction of reciting at the morning hour to Prof. 
Cleaveland, in his lecture-room, and the rest of the day in the chapel. 
Alphabetical order of sitting was not enjoined. First come first served 
was the rule, — an inconvenience in winter to some. In a cold winter's 
morning we were summoned at sunrise to chapel, which, it may be 
mentioned, knew no artificial heat for at least the first twenty or thirty 
years. As we left the chapel, the longest or fleetest legs had the ad- 
vantage of securing chairs nearest the fire blazing on the hearth ; while 
the shortest legs, as the speaker had abundant experience, must be 
content with the chair that was left in the centre of the semicircle. 
The blackboard was not known then ; that was introduced by Proctor 
— afterwards Prof. — Smyth in 1824. That novelty, let me here say, 
made a sensation. When he had tested the experiment in the Sopho- 
more algebra, and with great success, a considerable portion of the 
Juniors requested the privilege of reviewing the algebra under the new 
method at an extra hour, — a wonder in college experience ; and that 
blackboard experiment, I am sure, led to his appointment as assistant 
professor of mathematics a year after. Of this also I am sure, that 
he had then first detected a mathematical element in his mental equip- 
ment. His forte had been Greek. The distinguished teacher who 
fitted him for college at Gorham used to call him his Greek giant. 
Prof. Smyth, by his teachings, and more by his works, gained wide 
reputation for himself and the college. 

The blackboard caused an important change in the manner of teach- 
ing generally, but especially in mathematical branches. In arithmetic, 



92 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

a Freshman study, and algebra, to which we were introduced at the 
opening of the Sophomore year, each student had his slate, and when ' 
he finished his work he took the vacant chair next the teacher's and 
underwent examination of process or principle involved. In geometry 
we kept a manuscript in which we drew the figures, and demonstrated 
from that. I have been shown the very neat manuscript kept at Har- 
vard by the late Dr. Lincoln, the father, and bearing date 1800 ; and 
we have in the library the manuscripts of the late Seba Smith (1818), 
afterwards widely known as Major Jack Downing. It may surprise 
my hearers that I professed to teach the algebra of the Sophomore 
class in Webber's Mathematics, — the first tutor, I believe, to whom 
the duty was intrusted That was the class of 1824. Franklin Pierce, 
of the class, in his earlier years of college life more fond of fun than 
of surds and equations, took his seat by my side for a quiz with his 
slate and solution of a problem. When asked how he obtained a cer- 
tain process, he replied very frankly, "I got it from Stowe's slate." 
The blackboai'd, under the keen inspection of the teacher, makes such 
transfers of processes and results less easy. It will cause more sur- 
prise when I say that conic sections in Webber, a Junior branch, fell 
under nry charge. The manner of reciting was simply to explain the 
demonstration in the text-book. 

I have already stated that during my college and tutorial life, reci- 
tations were held in the private rooms. It was a step in advance 
when the two middle rooms on the ground floor of each entry of Maine 
Hall were appropriated for reciting-rooms and the use of the two 
rival societies, Pencinian and Athensean, for their meetings and their 
libraries. Folding doors in the partition between the two, on occa- 
sion, could be opened or slid back, and so a considerable hall be made. 
This change was made in 1821, after the burning of the interior of 
that building, and by the arrangement, the place of recitation became 
fixed and the societies accommodated as we shall soon see. 

It will be interesting, I suppose, to refer to the surroundings of the 
college during nay days. 

The college campus was scarcely one fourth its present area. The 
president's house was within our present grounds near the present front 
entrance, and his garden included the Thorndike Oak, — coeval, as 
you know, with the actual life of the college. The campus had no 
vegetable growth except the scant} 7 herbage of a sand plain and a row 
of the balm-of-Gilead trees in front and on its northern border, to the 
present entrance on the side. Experience had shown that our forest 
trees will not live in sand ; for the grounds were early planted — such 
was the tradition — according to a plan furnished by a Mr. Parris, of 



COLLEGE REMINISCENCES. 93 

Boston, who had a name as architect and landscape gardener, with 
forest trees in geometrical figures, of which a single representative 
remains in an elm on or near the north side ; and for nearly thirty 
3*ears the campus was barren of tree or shrub, with the exception of 
the Gileads. The whole area, moreover, in the rear of Maine and 
Winthrop Halls had not then been erected, and from Maine south to 
my house was open to the pines. Two militia general musters were 
held on that wide expanse of common in my remembrance ; one in my 
college days, signalized by a mock battle, Major-Gen. King the com- 
mander in chief, who was accompanied by Gen. Boyd, United States 
Army, who had just come out from the war of 1812, and as was 
reported, suggested the plan of action after one in which he was 
engaged, on the Canada frontier. We watched the affair from the 
college windows. The second muster was in 1829 or 1830, which I 
have occasion to remember, as I was on the field and served under a 
commission as chaplain of a regiment. 

As to the other surroundings of the college of the earlier time : The 
church edifice was a respectable structure, in the best style of the day. 
It was fortunate for both college and town that they had at command 
the services of Mr. Samuel Melcher, a man of genius and taste, as shown 
in several of the edifices of that period. He was a man of ambition 
and enterprise, once walking to Boston for the purpose of observing 
new st3'les in the metropolis and intervening towns. That was proof 
of enterprise and vigor. The story was current that he once drove in 
a chaise to Bath, accomplished his errand, and, forgetting the faithful 
animal he had securely hitched, left him at the post and walked home. 
He was the architect of the church edifice, of the first Maine, of Win- 
throp, and Appleton Halls. The original Maine, architecturally, had 
an aspect decidedly more agreeable than the present halls. 

On Maine Street in front of the college grounds were but three build- 
ings on the western side from the church southward : a one-stoiy un- 
painted dwelling near the site of the store now opposite the church ; 
Blaisdell's blacksmith shop, near the present residence of Mr. Martin, 
whence the ring of his diligent anvil was to be heard in winter months 
from earliest dawn until 9 p. m., and never idle in summer; and the 
two-storied building now occupied by a boarding club near the dwell- 
ing of Mrs. Pennell and Mrs. Perry, then plastered on the exterior, 
begrimed by the dust of the plain, and tenanted by the Mullens, 
an Irish family, whose services were in request in spring and before 
Commencement, when with pail, soap and sand, and mop they were 
called to wash our unpaiuted college floors. I recall no occupied 
building on that side to Mere Brook. A frame stood midway below, 



94 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

■which was subsequently removed and became the residence of Col. 
Estabrook, and now of Prof. Chapman. The only dwelling on the 
eastern side of the twelve-rod road, or Maine Street, from the church 
to Mere Brook was the president's, and a two-story building on the 
bank of the brook. Cleaveland Street, then as until later years with- 
out a name, had four residences on its northern side ; on its southern 
one only, which stood opposite the Pierce house, unpainted, of one 
story, — the mansion of "Aunt Nelly," the college sweep for many 
years. With the exception of the one-story dwelling and cabinet 
shop of Mr. Lappan, for years the church sexton and undertaker, on 
or near the present laboratory, an open common embraced the whole 
area to the residence of Prof. Cleaveland and the woods below. East 
Brunswick was not then, and the pine forest was unbroken for a mile 
or two below except by the Bath and Harpswell roads. 

Changes in the village have made what when the speaker entered 
college had few attractions, one which visitors now admire. Outside 
Maine and Federal Streets were few dwellings ; not a tree except a 
large maple or elm in front of the residence of the late Dr. Lincoln, 
and very scanty shrubbery, and what there was of the common class. 
The mall was an unsightly, unreclaimed (and supposed to be irreclaim- 
able) bog, and continued so for thirty years ; and so was Pleasant 
Street in spring and fall, — a mere lane, with I think no building 
until you came to the rising ground and terrace on which, on the right, 
was Mr. John Dunning's house, recently Mr. Jackson's, and now Mr. 
Allen's. Above and beyond Mr. Gilman's was an oak grove ; and the 
western skirt of the village, now clustered with dwellings from Mr. Gil- 
man's to Mrs. Jos. McKeen's, — i. e., the area west of Maine Street, 
or as it used to be called, Twelve-Eod Road, — was for the most part 
forest. At the junction of Maine and Mill Streets (Berry's furniture 
store occupies a portion of that lot) was the most attractive residence 
of the village, — Mr. Jotham Stone's, with lawn and shrubbery and 
garden ; all swept awaj r by the conflagration of that portion of the vil- 
lage, December, 1825. At the corner, on Mr. Stone's premises, stood 
a building at once store and post-office. Mr. Stone was postmaster ; 
a gentleman of some taste in shrubb ery and gardening, — or perhaps 
that pertained more especially to his lady, — but he was of limited 
culture. The story was current in college, that among the few books 
for sale on an upper shelf were, according to his reading, "Priest's 
Lectures on Histoiy," or as we read it, "Priestley's Lectures," — a 
text-book in the college curriculum; and "Slabs in Scratch of a 
Wife," the more familiar reading being " Coelebs in Search of a Wife," 
— not a text-book indeed, but one of Hannah More's works, quite 
popular at that time. 



COLLEGE REMINISCENCES. 95 

On the river, what attracted our notice more than the small factory 
or mills on both sides, was the "sluiceway," as it was called, con- 
structed for convejing sawn lumber from the upper dam a quarter or 
half a mile above, now obliterated, to the river on the Topsham side 
for transportation to Bath. There was interest attached to the work, 
as the story was that in opening the ledges for its passage, curious 
rocks, perhaps indicating mineral treasure, were thrown open, which 
were cautiously submitted to the inspection of Prof. Cleaveland, which 
put him on investigation ; and as a result, of more importance than if 
gold or silver or lead were revealed, made him the father of Ameri- 
can mineralogy. 

Changes in Massachusetts Hall are among the reminiscences of the 
speaker. When President McKeen came to office, the presidential 
mansion, if it could be so styled in its best estate, was not ready for 
occupancy ; and the hall, as has been said, was his temporary resi- 
dence. The porch on the eastern side was the kitchen of the family, 
subsequently Prof. Cleaveland's furnace-room. The two eastern 
rooms of the main building on the ground floor, now constituting the 
apartment we are in, were sitting-room and parlor. The western 
half, or a part of it, was the college chapel. The few students occu- 
pied rooms above, and were summoned to praj'ers and exercises by 
raps of the president's cane on the stair banisters. Not long after, 
a bell was placed in the cupola of the hall. 

In my first year, the western half of the second story was fitted to 
receive the Bowdoin gallery of paintings ; and in my day the philo- 
sophical and mineralogical lectures in summer and the annual exami- 
nations of classes were held in that hall. The ground floor was made 
a lecture-room at the farther end of the present apartment, and the 
rest of that floor was divided into rooms for apparatus, minerals, chem- 
icals, etc. In 1817 or 1818 a philosophical lecture-room was prepared 
on the second floor, southeast corner, which we graduates greeted at 
Commencement as a welcome indication of progress. When the medi- 
cal school was established in 1820, greater changes still were made for 
its accommodation, the third floor being devoted to the new depart- 
ment, and the chemical lecture-room enlarged to embrace the eastern 
half of this floor. The cabinet of minerals was placed in the western 
half of the second stoiy, and the paintings were removed to the east- 
ern half, which was fitted up for them. When the present chapel was 
erected, the paintings were transferred to its northern wing, and the 
whole second floor of Massachusetts Hall became the sole possession 
of the mineralogical cabinet. 

The earlier Commencements exhibited noticeable differences from 



96 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

those of later years. Stage-coaches and extras came crowded to the 
great festal day. Visitors, however, came for the most part in pri- 
vate conveyances. Wagons were not then known. We estimated 
the probable concourse by the close array of chaises, with ah occa- 
sional phaeton, that lined the college fence its whole length from the 
tavern I have spoken of, in the northwest corner of onr present 
grounds, down towards the woods. Booths were erected at available 
points for pies, gingerbread, and small and stronger drinks. There 
was a notable difference in costume. The aristocracy of knee- 
breeches and silk hose had not given place to what Jefferson had 
styled the democracy of pantaloons. The graduating class appeared 
in this dress of the nether limbs, and in silk robes borrowed from 
neighboring clergy ; president and professors in like array, with the 
addition of the Oxford cap. The Commencement platform showed 
an imposing array of personage's of distinction in church and state, 
more appreciated then than now. I recall the notable appearance of a 
clerical gentleman who graced the platform for several years, the 
relic of what was fast becoming a bygone age, — ■ the broad-skirted 
coat with heavy cuffs and flaps, slashed doublet or waistcoat reach- 
ing almost to the knees, knee-breeches, shoe buckles, a full-bottomed 
wig, and a cocked hat, — Father Eaton, of Harpswell. 

I am reminded of a ludicrous incident in this connection. Chesley 
(1819), a stout fellow, rotund in person and voice, and of sufficient 
conceit, in a college performance made reference in a peculiar way 
to Magnus Taurus, which figures in a Kentucky Indian legend, and 
hence obtained the nickname of "Magnus Taurus." One forenoon, 
a few days before his Commencement, Magnus Taurus, anticipating 
the Commencement costume, came marching up from town in knee- 
breeches, white hose, and Commencement robe. As he came in sight 
around Massachusetts Hall, the cry was raised from the college win- 
dows "Heads out!" and so "Magnus Taurus" (much, it was sup- 
posed, to his gratification) was received with demonstration. 

Thej student of earlier years had not the resources for healthful 
physical recreation of the present da}*. We had football and base- 
ball, though the latter was much less formal and formidable than the 
present game. That was long before gymnastic training. John 
Neal, Esq., of Portland, was the first to direct our attention to ath- 
letic exercises, having come down for the purpose. Boat clubs had 
not been heard of. We had favorite walks down to " Consecrated 
Rock," at the river bank in front of Mr. Daniel Stone's residence, the 
name given from a traditionary flirtation in which Thorndike of the 
first class was an actor ; or we often continued our walk down the 



COLLEGE REMINISCENCES. 97 

river-side to what was called ttie "intervale." Near the present rail- 
road bridge was our bathing-place. It soon ceased to be such, and 
we found a very convenient place for a swim half a mile above the 
falls ; but that has been rendered unsuitable by changes caused by the 
currents of the river. From the " intervale" we returned by a pleas- 
ant wood-path, which issued in the rear of Prof. Cleaveland's. Some 
of our explorers discovered a bubbling spring of clear, cool water in 
a dell in the forest below Prof. Cleaveland's, which soon was much 
frequented. Some, sentimentally inclined, named it "Paradise." 
Labor was given to the spot in clearing, terracing, and constructing 
seats. The class of 1818 celebrated July 4 there. Scarce a sum- 
mer's evening passed without parties visiting this retired nook, and 
the ciystal, ever-flowing, and healthful waters. The intrusive railroad, 
not respecting taste or sentiment, has entirely obliterated all that. 

Our blueberry plains are left for us, though abridged considerably 
from what they were ; as much frequented in the season hy berry 
pickers, but not, as in those days, by the wild pigeon. They were 
quite a resort for that beautiful visitor, a temptation to sportsmen, and 
the early morning recitation suffered from the seduction. The lawyer 
Hemy Putnam, Esq., grandfather of the Putnams, publishers in New 
York (who lived in the house now Mrs. Dr. Lincoln's), who loved the 
sport more than the law, and was zealous of anything that should 
repel the pigeon from his summer haunt, was watchful against any 
mad fire setters on the plains. He was noted for his pigeon stand and 
booth of brush, and his game. 

Early years had no saloons with their temptations. The first 
engraving of the college, in 1821, shows a man trundling a wheel- 
barrow on the open common south of Maine Hall. It is -a fair repre- 
sentation of " Uncle Trench," with gingerbread, plain and sugared, 
and his root beer, making his way from his home a mile or so down 
the Maquoit road, to tempt us with the products of his bakery and 
home brewing. It is forenoon ; he rests his barrow in the shade of 
the hall, and soon is relieved of his cargo. We liked the quiet, pains- 
taking old man for his sweets and for his own sake. On our return 
from our salt-water bath at the bay, we stopped at his humble dwell- 
ing in the pine and fir woods at the roadside, to rest from our walk 
and refresh with his bread and beer. Maquoit Bay was shallow for a 
satisfactory bath, and we occasionally took twice the walk on the Bath 
turnpike to New Meadows, where, when the tide was full, we found 
all we desired for plunge or swim in water salt as the ocean. 

When I entered college the Peucinian was the prominent society. 
The Athensean was indeed of an earlier date, but had been dis- 



98 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

banded. The rival society was revived in my Junior year. Meetings 
of the Peucinian were held in alphabetical rotation in our private 
rooms. Contributions were levied on neighboring rooms for tables 
and chairs, and members gathered around the tables. I recall no 
exception to the order and gravity of the meetings, and the exercises 
of essay, forensic, and debate were regarded as a source of valuable 
discipline. A prominent professional gentleman of this State, a gradu- 
ate of 1845, has quite recently assured me that he recalled the meet- 
ings of the Peucinian as among his best means of discipline and 
improvement. Their libraries were their pride ; that of the Peucin- 
ian in my Freshman year was contained in a single case in the room 
of the librarian. The annual election of officers was as momentous to 
us as a presidential election now, but with none of the corrupt doings 
of the latter, nor with the unfortunate conflicts of societ}- cliques of 
the present day ; the custom having been borrowed from that of the 
nation in its better days, of the secretaryship being the stepping-stone 
to the presidency. At this election a new librarian was of course 
elected, and that involved the transfer of cases and books, it might 
be, from the fourth story of one entry to the same story in the other, 
There was, however, public spirit enough for hearty co-operation in 
the cumbersome duty. 

These societies celebrated their anniversaries in the autumn. Nov. 
22 was the anniversary date of the Peucinian, and was the most 
important event of the college year, next after Commencement, and 
was anticipated with expectation. I was present at that in nry first 
year, November, 1812 ; not as member, for that honor could not be 
attained until the Sophomore j^ear. The only suitable apartment 
for the public exercises was a hall in the L of Mr. John Dunning's 
house, now Mr. Allen's, then among the considerable edifices of the 
village. Thither members decked with the society medal and blue 
ribbon, president and officers with broad blue scarfs, and the elite of 
the town tramped from Maine Street, through the dark, muddy lane, 
and listened to the oration by the president of the society, and a poem, 
if the Muse had inspired any one with the gift of song. At the cel- 
ebration I have just referred to, the orator was Nathan Dane Appleton 
of 1813, and the poet was Nehemiah Cleaveland of the same year. 
I recall what I thought was a happy turn of the poet : he could not 
well accommodate to his rhythm the name of our river, Androscoggin, 
and he escaped from his dilemma by leaving it, as he said, to Indian 
poets to weave the unmanageable word into their song. After exercises, 
members had a supper served in the best style of the favorite boarding- 
house of the village in the parlor below* 



* 



COLLEGE REMINISCENCES. 99 







The great ceremonial of the year with these societies was the annual 
meeting of what were the general societies the afternoon before Com- 
mencement day. The first in which the speaker realized the distinction 
of membership was in 1814. To make as much of themselves and the 
occasion as might be, the society met in a room provided in the town ; 
on the occasion I have just referred to, a room had been secured in a 
long, one-storie d, red house, which stood on the site of what is now the 
O'Brien Block./ We marched, — members in their scanty paraphernalia, 
medals and blue ribbons, officers in more sumptuous array of scarf and 
medals, — headed by such music as the times afforded, to the church for 
the public exercises. The same occasion in 1808 was memorable in 
the histoiy of the Peucinian b}* the oration by Charles Steward Daveis, 
which attracted much attention, was published in the Boston Anthology, 
a periodical conducted by Joseph Stevens Buckminster and others. 
The motto was " iwfisv Ei b - ' ' Ad! t vaq" and the editor announced the pro- 
duction as coming from what some thought the Boeotia of our laud ; but 
added that the contribution might lead such to think that the region 
whence it came might be nearer Attica than they were themselves. 

The only other society of those early days worth recalling was in 
Theological, which was disbanded in a few years, and its library now 
constitutes an alcove in the college library. 

The accession of President Allen in 1820 seemed to open new 
promise for the interests of the college. He was a graduate of Harvard 
of the distinguished class of 1802 ; had spent some years after gi'adua- 
tion in subordinate positions in the college ; had published the most 
copious biographical dictionary which had appeared ; and was a man 
of culture and ability. His wife was daughter of President Wheelock 
of Dartmouth College, and on her mother's side of Huguenot descent. 
She was of great personal attractions in social life, and had brought 
her husband considerable estate. The new president came to Bruns- 
wick in his two-horse carriage, in a st}de new to the college and town. 
The president's house was enlarged, and an annex containing his study 
was added for his reception. But the chief source of new hope for the 
college was the fact that it was the j^ear of new life for Maine, which 
from an appendage of Massachusetts now became a separate, inde- 
pendent State. The Constitution of the new State requiring of any 
institution that would receive legislative patronage to surrender itself 
to the control of the State, at the urgency of the new president, the 
boards of the college acquiesced and yielded the charter, an action 
which the college found reason in subsequent years to regret ; but by 
a decision of Judge Story its great error was retrieved. One of the 
most influential promoters of the separation of Maine from Massachu- 



100 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

setts and the rearing of a new State, and the author of that clause in 
the State Constitution, was Gen. William King. He had become dis- 
affected with the college on account of legal measures under President 
Appleton to secure the interests of the college, which were involved, 
it was supposed, by the financial embarrassments of the treasurer, on 
whose bond Gen. King, his brother-in-law, was principal indorser. Gen. 
King could not brook the act of the president, — who, however, acted as 
was his dutj, entirely under the advice of Hon. Benjamin Orr of emi- 
nent standing in the bar of the State ; and in a spirit of retaliation was 
active in establishing Waterville College, which, from what was stjded 
by an act of incorporation in 1813 " Maine Literary and Theological 
Institution," was by the new Legislature of Maine made a college, 
February, 1821, and is now Colby University. But on the accession 
of President Allen, and his agencj 7 in promoting the surrender of the 
college to the State, Gen. King with his political friends greeted the 
promising change in the aspects of the college, and exerted his influ- 
ence as the first governor of the State in promoting its interests. 
The Commencement of 1821 witnessed an unwonted display of what 
seemed the public favor in behalf of the college. The governor with 
his aids and an escort of cavalry honored the occasion ; concord 
seemed restored, and new hopes were excited. The medical school, 
a project of the new president, was established with a legislative 
endowment ; the services of the eminent Dr. Nathan Smith, who 
founded Dartmouth Medical School, and had become a professor in 
the medical department of Yale College, were secured to open the 
school, and he had engaged the }'Oung Dr. "Wells, a graduate of 
Harvard of 1818, who had just taken his degree in medicine in the 
Harvard School, to be his assistant as demonstrator in anatomy. 
Dr. Wells is remembered as the charm of a social circle, and brill- 
iant in the lecture-room. His career was soon cut short hy a disease 
of the brain, caused by excessive enthusiastic labor when he had, 
against prejudice and opposition as a New England man, won brill- 
iant success in the anatomical theatre in Baltimore. The new im- 
pulse the college had received was shown b} 7 increased numbers, the 
establishing of two new professorships (of rhetoric and orator} 7 and of 
mental philosophy), and the introduction of a new member to its corps 
of instructors in Prof. Upham, who became a power in the literary and 
religious history of the institution. 

I stated that the college library, when I first saw it in 1810, con- 
tained a thousand or eleven hundred volumes. The Hon. James Bow- 
doin, who had but a little while before returned from his United States 
ministry to Spain, died in Boston, 1811. The college received its 



COLLEGE REMINISCENCES. 101 

name in memory of his father, Governor Bowcloin of Massachusetts ; 
and the son was thus moved to make liberal bequests in its behalf, and 
among them the valuable library and gallery of paintings which he had 
collected in Europe. In my Freshman year, 1812, the libra^ and 
paintings came to the college. The library was rich for that day in 
works of science and general literature. I used to hear Prof. Cleave- 
land say that it was richer in science than that at Harvard, when he 
knew it a few j-ears before. When Dr. Allen acceded from the pres- 
idency of Dartmouth University, the life of which was quenched by 
the famous argument of Daniel Webster and the decision of Chief Jus- 
tice Marshall, — a decision which all colleges in the land, and our own 
especially, next to Dartmouth, regarded as establishing their immu- 
nity from legislative interference, — he (Dr. Allen) induced a lib- 
eral donor of that defunct institution to transfer his gift of five 
hundred volumes to Bowdoin ; and thus the college obtained several 
vain able, curious, and rare books. A few years after, a deposit was 
made in the library of 1,200 volumes from Mr. Samuel Vaughan, a 
Jamaica planter ; brother of the distinguished Dr. Benjamin Vaughan 
of Hallowell, an earnest friend and patron of the college in its early 
life, also of Mr. John Vaughan of Philadelphia and Mr. Charles 
Vaughan of Hallowell, and brother-in-law of Mr. John Merrick : all 
familiar and honored names, dear to the college in the first quarter of 
the century. The volumes were sent to a cooler climate to rescue them 
from cockroaches. A nephew. Rev. Dr. John A. Vaughan, a graduate 
of 1815, inherited them, and himself gave them to the college. The 
speaker has occasion to remember that deposit, and to become ac- 
quainted with the outside and titles of its contents ; for he spent some 
weeks of a winter term and vacation in the room now occupied by Mr. 
Johnson in Winthrop Hall, in cataloguing them. The catalogue was 
printed, and I should like to see a copy of that work, but for years 
have lost sight of it. Not long after, the British government selected 
Bowdoin as one of thirty institutions to receive the munificent dona- 
tion of the publications of the Record Commission, one hundred and 
twenty folio volumes and several in octavo. Still more recently, the 
library, through the agency of Hon. Abbott Lawrence, our minister to 
England, received as a gift all the versions at their command which 
the British and Foreign Bible Society had published ; and by the kind- 
ness of Dr. William H. Allen, president of Girard College, of the class 
of 1833, the versions issued by the American Bible Society ; and the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, through Rev. 
Dr. Rufus Anderson of the class of 1818, gave those published by that 
board. I doubt whether any college library is richer in versions of the 



102 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Scriptures. Another considerable donation to the library was from the 
Hon. Judge George Thacher. of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, 
a resident of Saco, who, on the separation of Maine from Massachu- 
setts, removed to Newburyport, thus retaining his seat on the Massa- 
chusetts bench. Among other donors to the library in its early history, 
it is pleasant to mention Dr. Benjamin Vaughan, Major-Gen. Knox, 
and Madam Sarah Bowdoin, relict of Mr. James Bowdoin. 

I can only refer to changes which have made the barren, unsightly 
grounds and the conveniences of the college now attractive to the 
visitor : the considerable enlargement of the campus, by which the 
southern portion to College Street and the pine grove in the rear were 
enclosed ; the belt of trees, due in a degree to the agency of Rev. Dr. 
Chickering, then of Portland, who interested himself in the matter, 
and with a landscape gardener from Boston devised that feature of the 
place ; the chapel erected 1846-1854 or 1855, from a fund the college 
received as residuary legatee of the Bowdoin estate ; the enclosing of the 
Delta ; erection within its area of Adams Hall ; and last of all, the 
changes in Massachusetts Hall through the munificence of Mr. Chand- 
ler (1834), by which the roof was raised a few feet, the second and 
third stories thrown into one for the Cleaveland cabinet, the eastern 
projection elevated a story, thus giving a tasteful entrance to what, 
with the chapel, constitutes the pride of the college. 

I fear I have wearied my hearers with some of these details. You 
will excuse the garrulity of one who is sometimes called an old man, 
and whose long connection with the college of his jealous devotion 
may allow him the pleasure, perhaps the luxury, of reviewing the now 
distant past, and who when his memory and tongue have the liberty 
scarcely knows when or where to stop. 



APPENDIX I. 

OPINION OF JUDGE STORY IN THE CASE OF ALLEN V. McKEEN. 

A college, like Bowdoin, is an eleemosynary corporation, a private 
charit} 7 , and none the less so because chartered b}' the State, nor 
because it has been partly, or even wholly, endowed by the State. 

The government has certainly the visitatorial power, an incident 
necessarj 7 to all such corporations. This, however, is only a power 
to arrest abuses and enforce the statutes of the charity ; not a power 
to revoke the gift, to change its uses, or to devest the rights of the 
parties entitled to the bounty. The founder may part with his visit- 
ing power and vest it in others. When trustees are incorporated to 
manage a charity, the visitatorial power belongs to them in their cor- 
porate capacit} 7 , and when it is thus vested, there can be no amotion 
of them from their corporate capacity ; no interference with them in 
the just exercise of their authority, unless it is reserved by the statutes 
of the foundation. For any abuse of trust, the remedj 7 lies in a court 
of chancery. 

When the charter of Bowdoin College was accepted and acted on by 
the trustees and overseers named in it, they acquired a permanent 
right and title in their offices, which could not be devested, except 
in the manner pointed out in the charter. The Legislature which 
granted could not resume their grant, nor touch the vested rights and 
privileges of the college, except so far as the power to do so was 
reserved by the sixteenth section. That section sa} r s that the Legis- 
lature " may grant further powers to, or alter, limit, annul, or restrain 
any of the powers by this act vested in the said corporation, as shall 
be judged necessary to promote the best interests of the college." Under 
this reservation, the Legislature cannot meddle with the property of 
the corporation, nor can it extinguish its corporate existence. It can 
merely enlarge, alter, annul, or restrain its powers, and even these it 
can meddle with only for the best interest of the college. Though sole 
judge of what that interest is, it could certainly do nothing plainly 
destructive of that interest. 

But the present case does not rest upon the effect of the sixteenth 
clause. The Act of Separation gives a complete guaranty to the 
powers and privileges of the boards, under the charter ; so that they 
can be altered, limited, or annulled only through judicial process, 



104 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

unless that act has been modified by the subsequent agreement of the 
Legislatures of the two States. 

Has such modification been made, and if so, what is its extent? 
The Massachusetts resolve of June 12, 1820, gives the consent of that 
Commonwealth to any modification of the protecting clause, not affect- 
ing the rights or interests of Massachusetts, which those who have 
authority to act for the corporation may make therein, with the con- 
sent of Maine. Massachusetts, it seems, did not make an uncondi- 
tional surrender of her rights and interests under the charter ; and she 
certainly had rights, privileges, and interests which might be affected 
by certain alterations in the charter. She had founded the charit}', 
and had given lands for its use. She had a right and interest in the 
perpetual application of these funds to their original object. As 
founder, she had the visitatorial power ; and, having delegated this 
power to certain trustees and overseers in perpetual succession, she 
had a right and interest in having that power exercised by those very 
bodies, and by no others. 

This resolve authorizes no modifications of the college charter 
which shall divert the funds of the founder from their original objects, 
or shall A r est the visitatorial power in other bodies than the trustees 
and overseers marked out in the original charter, and certainly does 
not justify the transfer of their powers to any other persons not in 
privity with them. Nor does it authorize the Legislature of Maine 
to assume to itself the powers of the trustees, or to appoint new trus- 
tees and overseers, as that would affect the rights and interests of 
the founder. 

It is also more than probable that this resolve contemplated only 
certain alterations to be made uno jlatu, and not subsequent changes 
from time to time, and through all future time. Be this as it may, it 
is very clear that Massachusetts has not agreed to any alterations 
which Maine on its own authority might make, but to such only as the 
president and trustees and overseers of the college may make with the 
consent of the Legislature of Maine. If this Legislature has made 
laws altering the college charter, without making the validity of such 
laws dependent upon the adoption of the boards, before or after, those 
laws have not been assented to by Massachusetts, and are unconsti- 
tutional and void. 

To repeal or modify the protecting clause, the Legislatures of both 
States must concur ad idem. But the Maine Legislature has passed 
no correspondent resolve in totidem verbis, nor has it, in terms, 
assented to the resolve of Massachusetts. To constitute such an 
agreement as was contemplated, both parties must assent to the same 



APPENDIX I. 105 

thing. If Massachusetts and Maine have not agreed to the same 
identical thing, the casus foederis has not arisen. Nay, more, it is 
greatly doubted whether any modification can be made in any of these 
fundamental articles, unless the specific modification has been ex- 
pressly assented to by both States. Neither Legislature can agree ab 
ante to any modifications which third persons may make. 

The Maine act of June 16, 1820, is in the very form contemplated 
by the Act of Separation, for it presents a specific alteration for the 
consideration and assent of Massachusetts. The act is to take effect, 
provided the .Legislature of Massachusetts shall agree thereto. But 
that specific modification has not been agreed to by Massachusetts. 
In no just sense can this act be construed as an adoption of the 
Massachusetts resolve. This miscarriage of the parties was probably 
unintentional, but not on that account the less fatal. 

Not, however, on this ground, though deemed impregnable, does the 
case rest. Grant that the Maine act of June 16, 1820, is constitu- 
tional, and has become part of the college charter, a very important 
question still remains ; to wit, What is the actual extent of legislative 
authority over the college as conferred by that act? "The words are, 
' ' That the president and trustees and overseers of Bowdoin College 
shall have, hold, and enjoy their powers and privileges in all respects, 
subject, however, to be altered, limited, restrained, or extended by 
the Legislature, etc., as shall, etc., be judged necessaiy to promote the 
best interests of said institution." The word " annul," which occurs 
in the sixteenth section of the original charter, is omitted in this act, 
showing that the authority to annul was designedly withheld from the 
Legislature. Even the words of the sixteenth section, in their actual 
connection, exclude any authority to annul the charter ; for to anni- 
hilate the college would not be exactly the way to promote its best 
interests. Under this act the powers of the existing boards may be 
extended, limited, or altered, but they cannot be transferred to others. 
No authority is given to the Legislature to add new members. If the 
Legislature cannot put itself in the place of the charter boards, neither 
can it confer such authority on others. I am not prepared, there- 
fore, to admit that the act of March 19, 1821, enlarging the boards, 
or the act of Feb. 27, 1826, making the governor, ex officio, a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees, can be maintained as constitutional 
exercises of authority. 

The act of March 31, 1831, is, in its terms, an act of positive and 
direct legislation, It legislates the presidents of Bowdoin and Water- 
ville Colleges out of office. The Legislature thus exercises that 
power of amotion from office which the original charter gave exclu- 



106 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

sively to the boards. Massachusetts has consented to no such 
transfer of this power, for the alteration affects her rights and 
interests. The Maine act of June, 1820, gave no such power to 
the Legislature or anj r one else. 

It is alleged that the act has become binding on the college by the 
assent and adoption of the boards. The boards have not adopted it, 
they have merely acquiesced. This is not the same as approval. Yet 
if it were, that approval could not give effect to an unconstitutional 
act. 

Again, President Allen held an office under a lawful contract with 
the boards, by which contract he was to hold the same during good 
behavior, with a fixed salary and certain fees. This was a contract 
for a valuable consideration. The act of 1831, so far as it seeks the 
removal of President Allen, seems unconstitutional and void. 



APPENDIX II. 

FROM THE REPORT OF THE VISITING COMMITTEE OF 1836, SIGNER BY 
EBENEZER EVERETT. 

In regard to the students' petition for the abolition of the ranking 
system, the committee say that they " have not been convinced by the 
arguments of the memorialists." " That certain incidental inconven- 
iences result is no doubt felt by the instructors, as well as by the 
students ; but we are reluctant to believe that under the practical oper- 
ation of the system, the only or even the strongest actual motive to 
exertion in a course of college studies is to gain the good opinion of 
the instructors for the sake of college distinctions. We believe — 
anything in the memorial to the contrary notwithstanding — that the 
love of learning for its own sake, zeal for the approbation of parents 
and friends, its effect on their future prospects in life, and still more 
an honest sense of duty, are strong and powerful motives operating 
much more on the minds of those most concerned than the former. 
But as these motives are not always present, nor equally active, some 
immediate motive, even in reality of less weight, is needed to be sup- 
plied as an occasional stimulus. It cannot be the wish of the memo- 
rialists that no such present inducements to a diligent use of time and 
opportunity should be presented to them. For these purposes there 
seem to us to be but two general alternatives, — praise and censure. 
Both arealike distinctions, — one of the ascending and the other of 
the descending grade. Each is liable to the same objections, as oper- 



APPENDIX II. 107 

ating unfairly on students of different capacities from misapprehen- 
sions in the application. Between these two alternatives, it would 
seem that all must choose the more generous inducements, which effect 
the object by rewarding the deserving without a direct censure on the 
others, to that which inflicts the more direct and therefore deeper 
wound. To doubt that emulation may be an innocent inducement to 
exertion would be to complain of almost every situation in which a 
man designed for extensive usefulness in after life can be placed. It 
is, no doubt, implanted in our dispositions for wise purposes, and is 
only dangerous when carried to excess. A college life is one of pro- 
bation and discipline, and the minor collisions and jealousies which 
sometimes intervene among the students should be viewed as exer- 
cises to enable them to attain that command, not only of their actions 
but also of their emotions, which is so necessary to their success in 
any high undertaking, and, what is still better, as an occasion of self- 
discipline and improvement of the heart. The error lies in mistaking 
the design of these distinctions by giving them an undue importance 
in their own e3 T es ; and the remedy lies with the students themselves, 
by cherishing the higher motives, and giving the factitious ones the 
humble office of reminding them of duty when forgotten." 

EXTRACT FROM THE REPORT OF THE VISITING COMMITTEE IN 1839, BY 
JUDGE PREBLE, IN RELATION TO THE PETITION FOR THE ABOLITION 
OF THE RANKING SYSTEM. 

" The committee understand the petitioners to ask that no distinc- 
tive reward should be bestowed on superior scholarship, superior tal- 
ents, and superior attainments ; that all appeals to the principle of 
emulation in our nature should be discarded ; and that, so far as the 
world at large is concerned, the dunce and the scholar — aspiring 
mediocrity, commanding talent, genius, even — should be placed on 
the same dead level. A sjstem like this is at variance with the first 
principles of our free institutions. Doubtless it is painful for the man 
of power and wealth to see the laurels won from his own son by the 
son of his less conspicuous and more humble neighbor. Aspiring 
mediocrit}^ always has combined and always will combine to deprive 
talent of its just honors and rewards, and if possible throw it into 
the shade. It is the levelling down of intellect instead of the level- 
ling up." 



108 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 



APPENDIX III. 



SETTLEMENT OF THE BOWDOIN ESTATE, ETC. 

James Temple Bowdoin, when six or seven years old, came to this 
country ; studied at Andover Academy ; graduated at Columbia Col- 
lege ; went into business in Boston, and had a store on Long Wharf ; 
failed ; went to New York ; thence to England, where he obtained 
office ; went into the army ; served in Egypt ; grew tired of the ser- 
vice ; came to this country in April, 1805 ; naturalized, probably ; 
went soon after to England. 

It appears that he was living about 1819 with his family in Flor- 
ence ; that wishing to increase his income, he applied to the courts 
of Massachusetts for^leave to cut the trees then standing on Nashawn, 
etc. James Bowdoin and the college being residuary legatees, it was 
necessary to obtain their consent. 

By the will of Mr. Bowdoin the college was made residuary legatee 
in reference to the valuable property which he bequeathed to his 
nephews, James Temple Bowdoin and James Bowdoin Winthrop. In 
case of their dying without male issue, or whenever such issue should 
fail, the estates would revert to the college. The legac}^ to young 
Winthrop, afterwards known as James Bowdoin, was a large and 
valuable tract of land in Bowdoinham, now Richmond. In 1823 the 
right of the college in this contingent remainder was sold to Mr. 
Bowdoin for $2,000. The sale was made by a committee duly author- 
ized by the boards, and consisting of Benjamin Orr, Reuel Williams, 
Sanclforcl Kingsbiuy, and John Dole. In this transaction Mr Williams 
appears to have acted at the same time as the fiduciary of the college 
and the stipendiary of Mr. Bowdoin. The college must have felt poor 
and sorely bestead when it parted with a valuable inheritance for such 
a mess of pottage. Mr. Bowdoin, who never married, died ten }-ears 
afterward, leaving a property which would have made the college rich 
had it simply held on to its rights. 

The share of Temple Bowdoin was the old mansion house in Beacon 
Street, and valuable lands in Dukes Count}', including the island of 
Nashawn. As early as 1819 Mr. Bowdoin, who was then living in 
Floi'ence, applied to the courts of Massachusetts for liberty to cut the 
wood on the Elizabeth Islands. Due notice was given to the college, 
which took action in regard to the proposition. Distinguished lawyers 
were consulted and employed ; there was considerable correspondence 



APPENDIX III. 109 

between the parties in interest, but it all resulted in nothing. In 1823 
the committee which bartered away the five-mile lots in Richmond 
was authorized by the boards to make a similar bargain with Temple 
Bowdoin ; but I find no evidence that the} 7 had any negotiations with 
him at that time. Mr. T. Bowdoin appears from his letters to have 
been greatly dissatisfied with the course taken by his cousin J. Bow- 
doin, andb} T the college managers, in reference to his petition of 1819. 
If any offers were made to him, he probably rejected them ; at any 
rate, the college interests were not sacrificed. But as Mr. Bowdoin 
continued to live in Europe, and was known to have a male heir, the 
slight chances of the college gradually passed out of thought. On the 
31st of October, 1842, Mr. J. T. Bowdoin died at Twickenham in 
England. A newspaper notice of the event drew the attention of Presi- 
dent Woods, who applied through the treasurer to Mr. Reuel Williams 
for information. Mr. Williams replied that Mr. Bowdoin and his son 
had lately been in America, and had taken the necessary steps for 
breaking the entail, and consequently the college had " nothing to 
expect in that quarter." On a visit to Boston soon after, the presi- 
dent, in conversation with one of the Bowdoin heirs, was informed that 
Mr. James Bowdoin never meant that his property should leave this 
country ; an ardent Jeffersonian Democrat, he had no love for England, 
and would have left nothing to Temple Bowdoin had he supposed 
that he would remain an Englishman, and the same was indicated by 
the expression of the will. On this hint, President Woods requested 
Mr. Jeremiah Mason to look into the subject. That great lawyer 
gave it as his decided opinion that the college was entitled to its remain- 
der both in equity and law. Mr. Charles G. Loring, whose conscience 
would allow him to engage in no cause which he did not believe to be 
just, was willing to act for the college. The mode advised by Mr. 
Mason was, that the college should take and keep actual possession 
of the propeiiy, leaving it to the opposite party to eject them as it 
could. As the English claimant could be shown to be an alien, his 
position would be embarrassing whether he should attempt to dispos- 
sess the college by force or by law. 

Through the urgency of the president and the energj* of the college 
treasurer, Mr McKeen, the plan was carried out. Great was the aston- 
ishment of neighbors and passers-by to find one morning in March, 
1843, that the vacant Bowdoin lot on Beacon Street had been enclosed 
during the previous night, and already contained an inhabited shanty. 
As soon as the object of the transaction was known, much indigna- 
tion was wasted in the upper circles of conversation, and the news- 
papers were unsparing in condemnation of the college. Legal gentle- 



110 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

men denounced the proceeding as a specimen of sharp and dishonorable 
practice, which might do in New Hampshire, bat was totally at vari- 
ance with the high-minded and courteous usages of the Suffolk bar. 
It was mildly urged in reply that the docking of the entail was an 
attempt by mere legal technicality to rob the college of its just rights, 
and they who had done this could not complain if they were met by 
technicalities in return. 

Not in Boston only was the proceeding censured. In Maine several 
of the most influential friends of the college regarded it as futile ; and 
learned judges, themselves trustees, pronounced it all moonshine. To 
persist in the contest under such circumstances called for both faith and 
courage. It was not long before the agents and friends of Mr. Bowdoin 
entered with force the premises, demolished the structures, and drove 
off the college tenant. As the sagacious counsellor for the college 
expected and hoped, there had been a forcible entry, a dispossession 
by violence ; and steps were taken for bringing the riotous actors 
before the proper tribunals, and for restitution of actual possession. 

In this stage of the business, the college received proffers for an 
amicable settlement. The vigorous warfare had brought the enemy 
to terms. From the first, the counsel for college had regarded it as 
eminently a case for compromise ; though they were too prudent to say 
so aloud, even to their client. If the court should decide that Mr. 
Bowdoin was not an alien, the college would be cut off entirely. If 
his alienage were proved, the estate would go to the Commonwealth, 
and its disposition would be in the hands of the Legislature. It would 
indeed be strange if that body should not give it to the residuary lega- 
tee of James Bowdoin's will ; still, it would bring into the question a 
new and disagreeable element with all the uncertainties that belong to 
political action and intrigue. An arrangement was accordingly made : 
the college consented to relinquish its claim on receiving three tenths 
of the entire property ; sale of the property was immediately made, 
and $31,696.69 were added to the college fund. 

In this short record of a transaction so important to our poor college, 
I have been compelled to omit much that was curious in itself, and 
much that was singularly characteristic of the prominent actors. In 
addition to the distinguished men already mentioned, the college was 
favored through the whole affair with the faithful and filial services of 
Mr. Peleg W. Chandler, and with the able advice of Simon Greenleaf 
and Benjamin R Curtis. Above all, the efforts of President Woods, 
whether in collecting information, in exploring the intricate problems 
of contingent remainders, in urging to action the timid and the dis- 
heartened, or in consultations with those great masters of the law, were 
efficient, untiring, and invaluable. 




^^//A^. 



..in. 1 , !•: i- i i»i" ; g | <>{ ii 






ACADEMIC FACULTY. 



PRESIDENTS. 

Joseph McKeen was born in 1757 in Londonderry, N. H. His 
father John and his grandfather James were among the first set- 
tlers of the place, to which they came from the North of Ireland 
about 1718. Some forty years earlier the family, to avoid the brutal 
cruelty of Claverhouse's dragoons, had fled from Argyleshire to Ulster. 
Yet even there, as Presbyterian dissenters, they found themselves in 
unpleasant relations with the Established Church, and, as foreigners 
and Protestants, they came often into conflict with the native Celtic 
population. Such considerations were quite sufficient to induce those 
sturdy Scotchmen, the McKeens, the McGregors, the Nesmiths, and 
others, to exchange the fertile and pleasant valley of the Lower Bann 
for the cold, hard hills of New Hampshire. To the town which they 
founded, these hardy adventurers gave the name of a place, where 
some of them had fought and suffered during those terrible hundred 
and five days which made the siege of Londonderry the most memo- 
rable event of the kind in all the British annals. In this remarkable 
colony James McKeen was the leading man. John inherited his 
father's abilities and virtues, and passed them on to his more distin- 
guished son. Joseph McKeen graduated at Hanover in the class of 
1774, at the age of seventeen. During the following eight years of 
Revolutionary turmoil he was quietly teaching school in his native 
town, excepting a short period of voluntary service in the army under 
Gen. Sullivan. From Londonderry he went to Cambridge, and as a 
private pupil of the celebrated Prof. Williams spent some time in the 
prosecution of his favorite studies, — mathematics and astronomy. 
Dr. "Williams of Windham, who had fitted him for college, was his 
instructor in theology. After a few terms spent in assisting Dr. Pear- 
son at the Phillips (Andover) Academy, he began to preach It was 
not long before the large and wealthy parish of lower Beverly — whose 
last minister, Joseph Willard, had been stolen from them by Harvard 
College — sent for and secured him. This was in 1785. The duties 
imposed by a large congregation, made up of merchants and farmers 
and traders and mariners, were discharged with impartial fidelity and 
to general acceptance. The society was not without its divisions 



112 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

political and religious. McKeen was not quite orthodox in the opin- 
ion of some of his parishioners, nor so liberal in his theological views 
as others would have liked. But he was candid, upright, prudent, 
and conciliatory. He soon showed himself to be a man of great abil- 
ity and learning, and of excellent judgment. 'Under his faithful and 
peaceful ministry the discordant elements subsided, and for the most 
part seemed to coalesce. In those days a few great cities had not 
acquired the art of absorbing all the wealth and talent of the country. 
Among Dr. McKeen's parishioners were several men of more than 
common ability and influence, master spirits of the once far-famed 
Essex Junto-men, whose influence was felt in State, and even in 
national councils. It was no common tribute to the good sense of 
their pastor, that such men as Nathan Dane and Israel Thorndike 
and Robert Rantoul and the Cabots not only reverenced him as their 
spiritual guide, but sought and prized his opinions on those matters of 
politics and business which had been the study of their lives. In the 
warm conflicts of the time he sympathized with the Federal party, 
but he was not blind to its faults, nor unfaithful. It was in the 
smarting hour of its first great defeat, when man} T of Mr. McKeen's 
parishioners were indulging in the bitterness of what seemed to them 
a righteous anger, that he preached his celebrated Fast Day sermon, 
afterwards published. It was a rebuke, most manly and Christian, 
addressed to those who speak evil of rulers. 

Thus faithful in his pastoral and pulpit duties, he still found time to 
prosecute his faA r orite studies. Some evidence of this may be found 
in the early transactions of the American Acadenry. On one occa- 
sion, long remembered in Essex County, his mathematical science 
was most humanely employ ed. A man was on trial for house-break- 
ing. On the question whether it occurred by night or by day, his life 
depended. A nice calculation by Dr. McKeen in regard to the pre- 
cise moment of dawn saved the culprit from the gallows. 

It is not strange that the trustees of Bowdoin College, when looking 
round for a man competent to start and carry on their new enterprise, 
soon fixed their eyes on Dr. McKeen. The separation from his peo- 
ple was painful on both sides, as such separations always must be. 
He took his family to Brunswick, and began housekeeping in Massa- 
chusetts Hall, the only building then on the ground for officers or 
pupils. The small projecting room on the eastern side, w r hich has 
since witnessed the birth of so many noxious gases and poisonous 
compounds, was then an innocent kitchen. It was a very compact 
establishment. One of the rooms served as a chapel. The oaken cane 
whose punctual raps used to summon all college to prayers is still in 



PRESIDENTS. 113 

existence. The expectations which had been formed of his presi- 
denc} r , say Mr. Parker and Dr. Ellingwood, "were not disappointed." 
" His discreet management of the college in its infancy contributed in 
no small degree to lay the foundation of its future prosperity." 

This testimony of men who knew him well, I have in substance 
heard confirmed by man}*" who had been the pupils or associates of 
President McKeen during the short period of his life in Brunswick. 
It was short indeed. He carried one class through the four -years' 
course, and conferred upon its six pioneers their bachelor's degree. 
Before the next Commencement came, he had ceased to live. His 
sickness had been long and distressing, and had been borne with 
Christian fortitude and submission. 

I never saw President McKeen ; but I have distinct impressions 
of the man, derived from conversations with those who had known 
him intimately, — conversations dating back to a time when he was 
yet fresh in memory. He was tall, of robust frame, and of athletic 
vigor. He had a countenance that was both winning and command- 
ing. The engraving does him only partial justice, having been made 
up from a simple profile outline. In manners he was gentlemanly, 
easy, affable, — a man whom everybody liked and respected too, for he 
could not have been more correct in his deportment or more upright in 
conduct had he been ever so stiffly starched. He was mild and yet 
firm. He was dignified jet perfectly accessible. He was serious 
and yet habitually cheerful. Such was the admirable union of quali- 
ties that fitted him for his high station. 

On all those great questions which involve man's responsibility and 
duty to his neighbor, his country, and his Maker, Dr. McKeen was 
earnest and decided in opinion and feeling, but at the same time per- 
fectly tolerant. In theology he belonged to the milder school of the 
moderate Calvinists. No one who knew him could doubt the sincerity 
of his Christian profession, or the genuineness of his piety. 

In 1785 Mr. McKeen was married to Alice Anderson, a faithful 
companion while he lived, and his faithful widow for twenty-seven 
years. They had three sons and two daughters. Alice, the } r ounger, 
married William J. Farley (Bowdoin College, 1820), and died with- 
out issue in 1827. Her sister Nancy married David Dunlap, well 
known in Brunswick as a wealthy and respectable merchant and citi- 
zen. She survived her husband but a short time, and died (1849) 
leaving one child, Alice McKeen, now the wife of Hon. Charles J. 
Gilman of Brunswick, a representative in Congress. Of his three 
sons, Joseph, John, and James, mention is made in their respective 
places. 

8 



114 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Jesse Appleton was born in 1 772 at New Ipswich. He was fifth in 
descent from Samuel Appleton, the pioneer, who came over in 1635. 
His father, Francis Appleton, had emigrated from old Ipswich. In 
his family plan, Jesse was set down for a mechanic ; but the boy had 
higher aims, and through the generous aid of an elder brother was 
enabled to go to college. He graduated at Dartmouth in 1792 with 
the best repute for scholarship and character. Then for two years he 
was an instructor of youth in Dover and in Amherst. "In both 
places he was successful as a teacher, and popular in his general inter- 
course. His amiable disposition, his winning manners, and keen but 
delicate wit, always discreetl} 7 employed, gave him favor wherever he 
was known." 

The celebrated Dr. Lathrop of West Springfield was his theologi- 
cal teacher, and thus became his friend and model and guide. Mr. 
Appleton was licensed in 1795, and from the first was regarded as a 
preacher of more than common power and promise. Two years after- 
ward he received simultaneous invitations to settle in Leicester and in 
Hampton : the former a fertile and growing place near Worcester, 
Mass., the latter a compai-atively poor town on the New Hampshire 
seaboard. Had secular considerations ruled exclusively in his decis- 
ion, he could hardly have chosen as he did. His ministry at Hamp- 
ton lasted ten years, during which his reputation was constantly 
rising. His systematic and unremitted application enabled him, while 
with scrupulous fidelity he performed all the pastoral duties of a wide 
country parish, to write with great care one sermon each week, to pre- 
pare many able articles for the religious periodicals of the time, and 
successfully to pursue the theological, the philosophical, and the clas- 
sical studies which he enjoyed so highly. He became an active and 
useful trustee of the Phillips (Exeter) Academy. Young as he was, 
many students for the ministry placed themselves under his guidance. 
In 1803, the theological chair at Cambridge became vacant by the 
death of Dr. Tappan ; and Mr. Appleton, though only thirty 3'ears 
old, was an all but successful candidate for the high station. When, 
four years later, the prospects of our j'oung college were suddenly 
blasted b} r the lamented death of Dr. McKeen, the selection of Mr. 
Appleton as his successor was hailed with a unanimit} 7 of approval 
which showed an exalted estimate of his talents and character. He 
went to Brunswick late in the autumn of 1807, and was inaugurated 
in December. 

I was at Brunswick when he came, witnessed the first impressions 
made b} r the new president, and shared in them as a boy, not unob- 
servant, might share. For two }-ears, while fitting for college, I saw 





REV JESSE APPLETOE, D.D 

SECOND FBESU3ENT OF BOWDOW CGLZL 



Ungraded for the* HowdmiiMkmorkd/. 



PRESIDENTS. 115 

and heard him often, with increasing respect not entirely free from 
awe. Then as an undergraduate, and especiall}^ as a pupil, I learned 
to admire the scholar and teacher, and deeply to venerate the man. 
A little later I was associated with him in the government and instruc- 
tion of the college, and for nearly two years met him weekly in the 
pleasant familiarity of the Faculty meeting, and saw him often in his 
stud}' and in his family. Many years have elapsed since 1 marked 
the sad steps of his decline, watched at his dying couch, and saw him 
breathe his last ; but the impress which he made on all who came into 
contact with him was not a fleeting one. No image in my memory 
is more distinct than that of President Appleton, as I saw him in 
those eight years of my early life. Nor has it lost anything in the 
light of later reflection and comparison. I may say, rather, it has 
gained both in beauty and greatness. In the pulpit, where I first 
beheld him, his aspect was most impressive. An early and unusual 
baldness, while it revealed the fine contour of his head, gave also to 
his brow an air of dignified and thoughtful serenity. His face when 
he was speaking became highly expressive, and his mild blue eye 
would kindle to a glow. He had a good voice, and an elocution 
exceedingly earnest and emphatic. His language was alwa} T s concise, 
exact, transparent, — the fit medium of his strong and lucid thought. 
He had great faith in reason. It was to the understandiug that he 
chiefly appealed, and few can do it so effectively. There was no diffi- 
culty in following his argument, which he made as clear to the hearer 
as it was to himself. There was no parade of dialectic skill, no dis- 
play of technical or abstruse terms to make a show of learning, no 
endeavor to seem profound by being obscure.' Like Paul, he " rea- 
soned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come " ; and his 
preaching, like that of his great Master, was convincing and persua- 
sive. 

In the beautiful address of Rev. Dr. Sprague commemorative of the 
Rev. Joseph Lathrop, lately delivered, I find the following passage : 
' ' The doctor used to speak of many of them in terms of warm regard ; 
but there was one in whom I always thought he especially gloried, and 
of whose fine intellectual and moral qualities he could never say 
enough, — I refer to the late lamented President Appleton. He 
regarded him, as well he might, as one of the lights of his age ; and 
the letters which President Appleton addressed to him, some of them 
letters of inquiry on perplexed subjects, show that he did not outlive 
his reverence for his teacher, or grow weary of sitting at his feet. 
The death of the president occurred a few months after my ordination ; 
and when I read to Dr. Lathrop the sermon preached at his funeral, on 



116 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

the text ' One star differeth from another star in glory,' he listened to 
it with intense interest, and expressed the opinion that a brighter star 
rarely sets on earth to rise in heaven than he who formed the subject 
of that discourse." 

It was the high privilege of the Senior class to have President 
Appleton as instructor, with "Butler's Analogy" and " Dugald 
Stewart's Philosophy" as text-books. His style as a teacher bore 
hardly any resemblance to the diversified comments and diffusive 
eloquence which charmed the pupils of President Dwight. Clear, con- 
cise, exact, Dr. Appleton made everything perfectly plain, while every 
lesson opened some new inquiry and put us in the way of thinking for 
ourselves . 

No college officer could surpass him in zeal for the welfare of the 
institution under his care. The intellectual progress and moral condi- 
tion of the students were with him an object of intense and incessant 
solicitude. I thought then, and still think, that his administration would 
have been more successful, and that he consequently would have been a 
happier man, could hopefulness and confidence have held the place in 
his mind which seemed so often occupied by mistrust and fear. In 
entering on his duties at Brunswick, it is not strange that he accepted 
those ideas of government and discipline which had always prevailed 
in the colleges of New England, — ideas which have now so generally 
given way to milder and wiser modes of action. From the Faculty 
record of that day, — a record which shows no want of accord among 
the members, — it is not easy to avoid a feeling that the cases of sum- 
mary punishment bore an undue proportion to the whole number of 
students. However this may be, very few, I am sure, of those who 
fell under the censure of President Appleton ever thought of ascribing 
his course of action to any other motive than an imperative sense of 
duty. 

Dr. Appleton rarely if ever ventured an extemporaneous speech. 
In conversation he was ready and fluent, copious and easy, abounding 
in anecdotes which he told delightfully, and occasionally evincing a 
witty felicit}^ of retort which would have been formidable in an}' one 
not so discreetly kind. But in public, even before the small public of 
the college, he seldom spoke anything which he had not previously 
written. 

His farewell address to the graduating class was delivered always 
on Commencement Da} T , and brought the exercises to a fitting close. 
It was indeed the prominent and by far the most interesting feature 
of the occasion. For that all waited through the long and tedious sit- 
ting. To that all listened with admiration, and not a '"ew with profit. 




T.BADGERPATNT? 



' 







^>r_- 



^-3 



c 



PRESIDENTS. 117 

Soon after his death these addresses were published, and that book 
was the first product of the Brunswick press. The little volume should 
be reprinted. The 3 T oung men of our college are not likely to find 
man} 7 things of the sort that are better done. 

In person, Dr. Appleton was tall, slender, and narrow-chested. A 
close student, he rarely sought exercise or the outward air. With 
such a frame and such habits, it is not strange that disease fastened 
on his lungs, and that its course was sure and rapid. He died Nov. 
12, 1819. 

A selection from his sermons and lectures, with a memoir by his 
son-in-law, Prof. A. S. Packard, was published in two volumes. 

It is much to be regretted that we have no satisfactory likeness of 
President Appleton. The engraving gives some idea of his appear- 
ance, but is far from doing justice to to a head and face which were 
wonderfully fine and impressive. 

He married Elizabeth Means of Amherst, N. H. From this happy 
union came Mary, who married John Aiken of Lowell and Andover, 
and still lives his widow ; Frances, the first wife of Alpheus S. Pack- 
ard, now Collins professor and librarian, who died June, 1839 ; Jane, 
who married Franklin Pierce, the twelfth President of the United 
States, and died December, 1863 ; William, Bowdoin College, 1826, 
who died in 1830 ; Robert, merchant, died in Boston in 1849 ; John, 
died in infancy. 

William Allen was born in 1784, in Pittsfield, Mass. His father, 
Thomas Allen, was the first settled clergj^man in that beautiful fron- 
tier town, and a man of much note in his day. In the Revolutionary 
time he was a glowing patriot. Twice he went out as chaplain of a 
regiment. When Baum with his Hessians advanced upon Benning- 
ton, Mr. Allen with many of his parishioners joined Gen. Stark ; and 
his warlike speech to that hero is preserved in the pages of Lossing 
and Irving. That it was not mere bravado, he proved soon after in 
the thickest of the fight. The second day after the battle he preached 
from his own pulpit. At a later period, when parties had sprung up, 
and Massachusetts was strongly Federal, and the clergy were of that 
party almost to a man, the Rev. Thomas Allen was conspicuous as a 
stanch partisan of the other side. 

William Allen graduated at Cambridge in the celebrated class of 
1802. After two years of theological study with the Rev. Dr. Pierce 
of Brookline, and with his own venerable father, he was licensed to 
preach. In December, 1804, he became a regent or proctor in Har- 
vard College, and so continued for six years. His duties in the college 



118 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

police being light, he devoted much of his time to the preparation of 
the "American Biographical and Historical Dictionary," which he 
brought out in 1809. The work had an extensive sale, and was re- 
garded as a valuable contribution to American literature. At the 
close of his connection with the universit}* - he appeared as the orator 
of the Phi Beta Kappa Society. 

In October, 1810, he was ordained pastor of the church in Pitts- 
field, — succeeding his father in the sacred office. Here for seven 
years he discharged the duties of a Christian minister with fidelity 
and ability and marked success. 

In 1816 the Legislature of New Hampshire passed its celebrated 
act amending the charter of Dartmouth College, and establishing in 
its stead the Dartmouth University. Mr. Allen was a son-in-law of 
the ejected President Wheelock ; he accorded in political opinion with 
the ruling party ; he had already become favorably known as a 
preacher, scholar, and author. To him was offered, very naturally, 
the presidency of the new university, an office which he took and dis- 
charged acceptably during the two }-ears of its existence. The decis- 
ion of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1819, restoring the 
old order of things, of course disbanded the University. 

In the autumn of that year died the excellent Appleton. Among 
the distinguished men named as fit to be successors, President Allen 
soon became prominent. The senior professor of the college, who 
had been associated with him at Cambridge, favored his election ; and 
while the reputation of Mr. Allen justified such a choice, considera- 
tions of expediency were not without influence. In the peculiar cir- 
cumstances and relations of the college and Commonwealth at that 
time, it is not strange that the trustees and overseers regarded it as 
an additional and important qualification in President Allen that he 
would, politically speaking, be acceptable to the dominant party in the 
new State. 

President Allen was inaugurated at Brunswick in May, 1820. The 
important changes which, with read}' co-operation on his part, were 
made in the constitution of the two boards, have been duly chronicled 
elsewhere. One of his first efforts under the new order of things was 
the establishment of a medical school in connection with the college. 
To this end he obtained the sanction and aid of the State. With the 
able assistance of his friend, Nathan Smith, M. D., of Hanover, N. H., 
he had this important department full}' organized and in actual opera- 
tion before lie had been a year in his seat. For ten years the presi- 
dency of Dr. Allen was unmarked b}' any special incident. AVhile he 
kept up his habits as a student, he was vigilant and efficient as a 



PRESIDENTS. 119 

college officer. By example, by precept, by action when necessary, he 
inculcated order and good morals and the obligations of religion. 
Under his administration the number of students was increased, and 
many young men were graduated with a promise of ability and useful- 
ness which they have since more than fulfilled. 

The State act of 1831 and the ejection under it of President Allen 
have been mentioned in another place. By what means the change of 
sentiment and feeling which that act evinced had been brought about 
it would be useless to inquire. That it was founded rather on personal 
animosit} 7 and part} 7 prejudice than on any supposed dereliction from 
duty may be safety inferred from the roundabout course by which 
the removal of President Allen was attempted. Restored to his office 
in 1833 by the decision of Judge Story, he continued for six years 
louger to perform its duties. 

In 1838, at the commencement of the academic year, Dr. Allen 
sent in his resignation of the presidency, to take effect in 1839. After 
accepting the resignation, the two boards unanimously adopted and 
entered on their records a resolution expressive of high respect and 
regard for the retiring president. 

From Brunswick, President Allen removed to Northampton in 
Massachusetts. After so many j^ears of responsibility and care, — and 
we must add, of vexations also, — he now found himself in a condition 
to take his ease amid scenes and society alike delightful. But though 
he undoubtedly enjoyed highly this pleasant home of his old age, it 
was through no indolent indulgence. Resuming the studies of his 
early years, he devoted himself to the preparation of the third edition 
of his "Biographical Dictionary." This great work, involving a vast 
amount of research and labor, he completed and gave to the public 
early in 1857. It is by far the most extensive collection of American 
names which had then appeared. 

During his residence at Brunswick, President Allen published a vol- 
ume of " Addresses to the Graduating Classes" ; a " Memoir of Dr. 
Eleazar Wheelock"; "An Account of Remarkable Shipwrecks"; 
"A Collection of Psalms and Hynins," many of which were original ; 
a second and enlarged edition of the " Biographical Dictionary" ; and 
a work called " Junius Unmasked," ascribing the authorship of those 
famous letters to Lord George Sackville. He also published numer- 
ous discourses given on special occasions. In 1853 he gave to the 
press a short memoir of his friend and classmate, the Rev. Dr. Cod- 
man ; and in 1856 appeared " Wunnissoo ; or, The Vale of the Hoosa- 
tunnuk," a poem " with valuable and learned notes." 

Dr. Allen is still a vigorous man, with slight indications of age, if 



120 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

we except his venerable and snowy locks. This very winter (1858) 
the Northampton paper informs us that he has been conspicuous among 
the skaters of that village, and that none of his youthful or middle- 
aged playmates of either sex surpassed him in agility and grace. 

In 1812 Mr. Allen was married to Maria Malleville,* only child of 
the second President Wheelock. The connection was singularly 
happy. Lovely in person and in mind, in manners and in character, 
Mrs. Allen was admired by all who saw her, and beloved by all who 
knew her. She died at Brunswick in the summer of 1828. 

Dr. Allen married again, in 1831, Sarah Johnson, daughter of John 
Breed, Esq., of Norwich, Conn., who died in 1848. Dr. Allen, after 
a brief illness, died July 16, 1868. A commemorative discourse was 
delivered on the Sabbath succeeding his funeral in the First Congre- 
gational Church, Northampton, by Rev. Dr. William B. Sprague of 
Albany, N. Y., which was published with notices of the funeral 
service. 

Leonard Woods was born Nov. 24, 1807, in Newbury (now West 
Newbury), Mass. It was soon after this event that his father, Rev. 
Leonard Woods, left the " New Town" parish, to become the first pro- 
fessor of Christian theology in the new school at Andover. From 
Phillips Academy he went first to Hanover. After a short sojourn 
there he left Dartmouth for Union College, where he graduated in 
1827. In 1830 he had completed the Andover course, and was 
licensed to preach. During the year 1831 Mr. Woods was an assist- 
ant teacher in the Theological Institution. While thus employed, he 
translated and published an edition of " Knapp's Theology." In 
1833 Mr. Woods received ordination from the Third Presbyter}' in 
New York. From 1834 to 1837, he conducted as editor the Liter- 
ary and Theological Review, in the city of New York. In 1836 he 
became professor of Biblical literature in the Theological Seminary at 
Bangor; and from this place, in 1839, was called to preside over 
Bowdoin College. 

It needs but a comparison of the dates which begin and end this 
brief outline to show that Mr. Woods had early risen to a high place 
in public estimation. It was a rare reputation for profound and ele- 
gant scholarship, for power and beaut} r as a writer, and for great con- 
versational ability, which he brought with him to Brunswick. If in 
other respects his qualifications were yet to be tested, there was noth- 

* Mrs. Allen's maternal grandfather was Gov. Suhm of the Danish West Indies. 
Her great-grandfather, Thomas Malleville, was also governor of the Danish islands. 




^aved ^y J. c .Buttoe iom a.I>3gaecre<*S2 e 



^~z^~-f^p^. 



B.EV LEONARD "WOODS, D.D 



PRESIDENTS. 121 

ing in his past to forbid the brightest hopes, but all good omens rather. 
In behalf of the "youth" thus high advanced, his venerable father 
addressed a letter to the trustees, which they recorded in their book, 
and which commends him to their kindness and bespeaks their en- 
couragement. " I hope," writes the doctor, " he will prove a bless- 
ing to the college. If uniform dutifulness from a child, if a habit of 
diligent, persevering study, and scrupulous fidelity in discharging the 
duties of the private and public relations which he has heretofore sus- 
tained can give any assurance that he will be faithful in this new rela- 
tion, that assurance you have." That he did not shrink from labor 
appears from the fact that one of his first suggestions to the board 
was that they should assign to the president a larger share in the 
instruction than had for some time been customary. 

In the autumn of 1840 President Woods, by permission of the 
board, sailed for Europe. He was absent about a year, giving much 
attention to institutions of learning. The English universities, and 
Oxford in particular, were carefully studied and made lasting impres- 
sions. 

In the early spring of 1843 a newspaper paragraph, accidentally 
seen, made known to President Woods the death of James Temple 
Bowdoin. As the college had a reversionary interest in the estate 
which that gentleman received from his uncle, James Bowdoin, the 
president took immediate measures to ascertain its rights. In the 
prosecution of this claim to a successful issue, and in carrying out the 
singular process through which it was accomplished, the president 
evinced energy and perseverance. It gave for the time a new direc- 
tion to his studies, until the great lawyers, whose consultations he 
attended, were surprised to find him as much at home as themselves 
in the nice questions and problems which are presented by the law of 
"contingent remainders " and "docked entails." The "constancy, 
fidelity, and prudence" which he exhibited on this occasion were duly 
acknowledged by the two boards.* 

Another college enterprise in which President Woods took deep 
interest was the erection of the chapel. This oft-delayed and long- 
protracted work owes much to his persistent effort, and the noble 
structure will be a lasting memento of his taste and perseverance. 

As an author President Woods came forward early. His transla- 
tion of Knapp has been mentioned. For a few years he contributed 
largely to periodical literature. Since that time the public has only 
seen enough from his pen to make it wish for more. After the death 

* Appendix No. 3. 



122 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

of Daniel Webster he delivered in Portland, at the request of its 
municipal authorities, a discourse on that great man, which was pub- 
lished, and which ranks among the best productions of its class. His 
address at the funeral of Parker Cleaveland, afterwards elaborated 
into a memoir and published by the Maine Historical Society, is an 
admirable delineation of the learned professor, and a truly felicitous 
specimen of biographical writing. For some time past President 
Woods has been engaged upon a history of Phillips Academy, Ando- 
ver, and especially of its engrafted scion, the theological seminary. 
The work was begun and left unfinished by his father. In prosecut- 
ing it the son has resorted to the original sources of history. All the 
papers and correspondence of the men who originated and established 
these successful schools have been submitted to his inspection, and he 
can tell us, if anybody can, what it was that the Phillipses and Pear- 
son and Woods and Morse and Spring and others thought and meant 
and hoped for when they were laying the foundations of these insti- 
tutions. We trust that the appearance of this long-expected work 
will not much longer be delayed. 

President Woods is popular with the students, and has been so 
from the first, nor is it strange that they should highly appreciate the 
affability and kindness which mark his whole intercourse with them. 
I have indeed heard it alleged that he sometimes carries these amiable 
virtues too far. Between kindness and severity there is undoubtedly 
a happy medium, if it can only be found. But in the management of 
the young, is it not better to err — if err we must — upon the softer 
side ? The pupil whose love is gained will not long withhold his obe- 
dience. "I cannot help doubting," says the biographer of one who 
knew how to blend strictness with indulgence, "if in any department 
of human operations, real kindness ever compromised real dignity." 

I have heard another complaint against President Woods, in which 
his warmest friends readily join. The}- say that a scholar so accom- 
plished, a writer so pleasing, should more frequently give to college 
and to the public the ripe results of his study and meditation. The}' 
recall the baccalaureate addresses of former presidents, and wonder 
that the present incumbent should depute to anybody else a task 
which belongs to him, and which he can so well perform. They con- 
sider him, in a word, too much of a recluse. They would drag him 
from the luxurious retirement of his study into the arena of life and 
action. The}'' would have him study less and speak more. 

President Woods, being unmarried, after his return from Europe 
took lodgings in a pleasant house and family near the foot of Federal 
Street. It was evidently too far from college to be convenient, but 



PRESIDENTS. 123 

of course the arrangement was temporary. He would soon need a 
house, and the college was bound to give him one. How many pleas- 
ing hopes and plans in regard to this coming event were one after 
another laid to rest by the inactive of the chief actor, it would not 
be eas}^ to estimate. When this all failed, other steps were taken. 
Professors and tutors petitioned to have their president nearer to 
them. Visiting committees reported that he ought to be nearer, and 
even the boards resolved that it was desirable he should be nearer. 
I do not know whether President Woods ever said anything or did 
anything in reference to these movements. I do know that he still 
lives at the foot of Federal Street.* 

Dr. Woods had designed to retire from the presidency when he 
should reach his sixtieth year. This purpose was confirmed by indi- 
cations of the infirmity which in a few years developed itself, to the 
grief of his friends, and accordingly he resigned his position in 1866. 
In the year following, at the instance of the Maine Historical Society, 
of which he had from the year of his accession to office been an 
active and influential member, he received a commission from the gov- 
ernor of the State to collect materials in Europe for the early history 
of the State. Important facilities were afforded him from the Depart- 
ment of State, Washington. Bearing with him also letters from our 
most eminent historical students, he spent a year or more in prosecut- 
ing his inquiries, gaining access to public and private collections, and 
cordially received by eminent men in England and on the Continent of 
Europe. The fruits of his commission appeared in the first and second 
volumes of the " Documentary History of Maine," the second contain- 
ing the ' ; Discourse on Western Planting," by Hakluyt, the manuscript 
of which had been lost to the world for three hundred years, until dis- 
covered by the rare address and persistent efforts of Dr. Woods in a 
private collection, and of which he was fortunate enough to secure a 
copy. After his return he devoted himself to the work of reducing 
to order and making available for public use the historic riches he had 
accumulated. With great diligence he was approaching the end of his 
enthusiastic labors, when a fire, August, 1873, consumed most of his 
library and manuscripts. He never recovered from that disaster. He 
had felt premonitions for some time of a tendency which developed 
itself at last in a paralytic shock, which was repeated a year or two 
later. His conflict with a form of disease he had dreaded, the gradual 
decay of brilliant powers, and the end which came Dec. 24, 1878, are 
portra} T ed with pathos and exceeding beauty by Prof. Park in his 

* What follows, relating to the president, is from the editor. 



124 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

memorial discourse. Agreeably to the wish of Dr. Woods, the inter- 
ment was made in the cemeter} 7 of the Theological Seminary, Andover, 
where his dust mingles with that of his family ; and an impressive 
monument is erected, for which provision was made in his will. 

The death of Dr. Woods was appropriately notice by discourses 
before the Maine Historical Society and the college in a public ser- 
vice during the week of Commencement in 1879, by Prof. Charles C. 
Everett, D. D., and by Prof. Edwards A. Park in the chapel of the 
seminary in Andover, both of which have been published. 

Rev. Dr. Harris (1833), professor of theology in the seminary at 
Bangor, at the suggestion of Dr. Woods himself was elected to suc- 
ceed him, and was inaugurated at the Commencement of 1867, the 
first alumnus to hold that position. He also took charge of the de- 
partment of mental philosophy, for which he had decided predilec- 
tions, and discharged its duties with vigor and success. He habitually 
at Sunday-evening prayers gave familiar discussions of topics in reli- 
gion, morals, and the conduct of life, of great value, always command- 
ing attention by his facility, power of illustration, and proofs of wide 
culture . He sustained the dignity of the station honorably to himself 
and the college four } 7 ears, when a call to the professorship of system- 
atic divinity in Yale College, in which he would be exempt from the 
peculiar and often trying responsibility of a college presidency, and for 
which the studies and duties of his life had eminently fitted him, was 
too tempting to be resisted. 

Gen. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain (1852) was elected to the 
presidency with entire unanimity of the boards and the general expec- 
tation and approval of the friends of the college. Dr. Harris had 
devised an extension of the college curriculum which President Cham- 
berlain was active in promoting, introducing a special scientific depart- 
ment, and also adding a sj^stem of military discipline and science under 
an officer of the United States army. At the Commencement of 1880 
the whole course of instruction, which during the year, by request 
of the boards, had been revised by the Faculty, was remodelled, and 
the scientific course as a distinct department was abolished.* 

* For more detailed sketches of Presidents Harris and Chamberlain, see their 
classes, 1833 and 1852. 




6Z^-^-^d 





JOHN KB BUT M 






PROFESSORS. 125 



PROFESSORS. 

In the first years of the college, nearly all who took part in its man- 
agement were men from other colleges. As we come down, we find 
the offices of government and instruction falling more and more into 
the hands of Bowdoin alumni. In regard to all such, I have thought 
it the better way not to separate them from their classmates. What- 
ever is said of them will be found under the year to which they 
belong. 

John Abbot was an elder brother of Benjamin Abbot, LL. D., of 
Exeter, and of Abiel Abbot, D. D., of Beverly. He graduated in 
1784, and was a tutor in Harvard College from 1787 to 1792. He 
studied for the ministry, but want of health prevented him from 
preaching. He then engaged in business, and was employed as the 
cashier of a bank in Portland when appointed a professor in Bowdoin 
College. After fourteen years in this service he resigned, and was made 
a trustee and the college treasurer. Having become at length disqual- 
ified for public duty, from mental rather than physical infirmity, he 
relinquished his post and left Brunswick. For a few years he resided 
with his nephew, the Rev. John A. Douglass of Waterford, Me. 
Many evidences of mental aberration finally justified his consignment 
to the McLean Asylum, where he remained till a short time before his 
death, which occurred in 1843 at the old, ancestral Abbot home, in 
Andover, and at the ripe age of eighty-four years. 

For more than a quarter of a century Mr. Abbot was an officer of 
the college. With him, as professor, librarian, or treasurer, every 
undergraduate of that time held direct and frequent communication. 
His peculiar habits and manners no less than his unquestioned vir- 
tues left an impression on our minds not easily effaced. I cannot sa}' 
that he shone as a teacher. His early reputation for classical scholar- 
ship, if measured by the standard of that day, was probably not unde- 
served ; but amid other and possibly more congenial pursuits, his 
learning had become somewhat rusty, and he was not the man to 
renew, still less to heighten its lustre. Unfortunately for him, and still 
more unfortunately for some at least of his pupils, he was easily 
imposed on. I say unfortunately ; for however amusing at the time 
might be those practical jokes which so long furnished the staple 
material of laughter, in the anecdotal traditions of the college, to the 
actors in those scenes they doubtless became in maturer years a source 
of perpetual and unavailing regret. 



126 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

As treasurer, Mr. Abbot did a great deal of work. The condition 
of the college property, much of it being iu wild land, imposed duties 
such as rarely devolve on the fiscal agent of a literary institution. In 
discharging these he visited the distant and pathless forest, spending 
weeks sometimes in exploration and survey, beyond the outer limit 
of the settlements. To guard and nurse the scanty fund was equally 
his duty and pride. Whatever might be thought of his judgment and 
financial skill, none questioned his zeal or his fidelity. 

He had a taste for farming and horticulture, and did much for 
Brunswick by the introduction of superior varieties of fruit. 

Mr. Abbot had some of those habits into which the solitary bachelor 
is apt to fall. A sort of absent-minded awkwardness often brought 
him into embarrassments which were perplexing to him and amusing 
to others. To those who saw much of him, these things must always 
recur with the very mention of his name. But the smile which they 
used to provoke never impaired our regard. Through them and above 
them all shone ever a gentle and kind spirit. Let his early connection 
with the college, and his well-tried devotion to its interests, be held in 
long and grateful remembrance. 

Though his mental faculties had become unbalanced, his closing 
years were not unhappy. A harmless and cheerful delusion still 
prompted him to labors of usefulness. His old hobb3 r of planting and 
grafting was resuscitated, and carried him into many grand and costly 
schemes of improved gardening. In the asj'lum at Somerville, where 
he was under the respectful care of Dr. Luther V. Bell, himself a 
distinguished son of Bowdoin, though he sometimes complained of 
restraint, he was generally in a state of ecstasy. The gallantry and 
the visions of his 3'outh returned, and his wedding-day was alwa}^s 
near at hand. 

Pakker Cleaveland was born in Rowle}^ By field Parish, Jan* 15, 
1780, a winter long afterwards remembered in New England for the 
depth of its snow and the severitj' of its cold. His father, of the same 
name. — a sensible and excellent man, and a judicious physician, — 
was the son of Rev. John Cleaveland of Ipswich, and fifth in descent 
from Moses Cleaveland of Woburn, — the emigrant patriarch of the 
American Cleav elands. He was prepared for college in By field at the 
old Dummer school, and was sent to Cambridge by its amiable and 
learned preceptor, the Rev. Isaac Smith. His first essay in teaching 
was made in Boxford, Mass., daring a winter vacation. He afterwards 
taught a district school in Wilmington. In 17D9 he graduated with a 
high reputation for ability, and went immediately to Haverhill, Mass., 




v s«* 



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PARKER C LEAVE LA7ITD , L.L.D. 



PROFESSORS. 127 

where he took charge of the town school. At the same time he entered 
his name in the law office of Ichabod Tucker. After a few months 
spent in Haverhill as schoolmaster and law student, he went to York 
in the District of Maine, and took charge of the central town school, 
where he taught for nearly three years with marked success. During 
this period, still having in view the legal profession, he assisted Mr. 
Daniel Sewall, clerk of the courts, in his official duties. In 1803 he 
was summoned to Cambridge as a tutor. Two years later his reputa- 
tion as a scholar and instructor had reached the curators of the young 
college in Maine, and he was appointed its first professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy. He went to Brunswick in the autumn 
of 1805, and entered on that routine of active duty and punctual, effi- 
cient performance which down to his last hour experienced no inter- 
mission. The sciences of chemistry and mineralogy, then almost in 
their infancy, soon arrested his attention and gradually became the 
chief objects of his pursuit. In 1816 he brought out his work on 
mineralogy : a work which was warmly welcomed through all the 
domains of science and education, and which made the college as well 
as the author far more widely known than before. The second edition 
of this work has long been out of print ; but a third edition, though 
promised and much desired and impatiently waited for, has not yet 
appeared. In the winter vacation of 1818 Prof. Cleaveland gave a 
course of chemical lectures in Hallowell. During the three succeeding 
winters he gave two courses in Portland and one in Portsmouth, N. H. 
These lectures were attended by the best society in those towns. No 
better test of the lecturer's peculiar abilit} 7 could perhaps be given 
than the fact that, though highly scientific and instructive, these exer- 
cises commanded throughout the undivided and gratified attention of 
those large and popular audiences. His fame as a lecturer soon 
brought him applications from other places, but they were all declined. 
The establishment of the medical school in 1820 added largely to 
Mr. Cleaveland's official labors, and fortunately increased somewhat 
his pecuniary means. About this time he was invited to a professor- 
ship at the College of William and Mary in Virginia. Soon after, the 
chair of chemistry and mineralogy at Cambridge was tendered him, — 
a far more alluring offer. For a time the supervisors and friends of 
Bowdoin College were alarmed at the prospect of such a loss, and did 
what they could to retain him. The question was finally decided in 
favor of Brunswick. During the long period of his connection with 
the college, Mr. Cleaveland has instructed every class that has received 
its honors.- About 2,000 young men, graduates of the academic and 
medical departments, have attended his recitations and lectures. 



128 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Could they — the living and the dead — be called to the stand, there 
would be, we think, but one voice in regard to the ability and the fidel- 
ity of those instructions. As a lecturer, especially, Mr. Cleaveland 
has been eminently distinguished. He is always clear, exact, concise. 
■ He indulges in no rhetorical flourishes, no needless episodes. The 
subject is prominent and not the man. His illustrations, whether 
addressed to the eye or the ear, are always appropriate. Invariably 
methodical, skilful, cautious, his experiments never fail. More than 
this need not be said here ; to have said less would have seemed an 
injustice not only to those whose youthful minds were trained to order 
and power under his precise and lucid teachings, but to many others, 
of every profession, who have heard him and admired him, — them- 
selves mature in learning and judgment. 

Mr. Cleaveland has received many degrees of honor and certificates 
of membership from learned bodies abroad and at home. For these 
we refer to catalogues and title-pages. Though his ardor and industry 
as a college officer and teacher have experienced little if any abate- 
ment, it must be acknowledged that he has failed to maintain the 
distinguished position which he once held before the public eye. Nor 
is this strange. His bump of caution is of prodigious size. Unlike 
some of his brother and contemporary savants, he is eminently a 
" keeper at home." So far from venturing across the Atlantic, he would 
not cross a river except by bridge, and then only after a careful investi- 
gation of its strength. As to steamboat and railway travel he is more 
innocent of it than many a child unborn. These well-known facts 
while they give comfortable assurance that his valuable life will never 
be sacrificed to the insatiable demons of carelessness and speed, show 
also, in part at least, why he has won no fame on the broad but 
dangerous field of geological survey, and why his name has never 
figured in the doings and sayings of scientific convocations But 
though the Bowdoin man may sometimes indulge a momentary regret 
that the idiosyncrasy of our oldest and most venerated professor has 
perhaps kept him from standing, where his talents and attainments 
should have placed him, among the foremost of the great scientific 
celebrities, this at least we are bound with gratitude to remember, 
that at his chosen post of duty he has remained ever steadfast, useful, 
and honored. 

In 1806 Prof. Cleaveland was married to Martha Bush. Mrs. 
Cleaveland died May 2, 1854, aged sixty-six years. Of their eight 
children five survive. Two of the deceased are mentioned in their 
respective years as graduates. Of thirteen grandchildren seven are 
living. Prof. Cleaveland died suddenly October, 1858. The following 



PROFESSORS. 129 

passage is taken from the report of Dr. Woods's address at his funeral, 
in the Christian Mirror of Oct. 26, 1858 : — 

' ' A few years since there appeared to be a momentary failure of his 
powers ; but he soon rallied, and from that time till within a few weeks 
his plrysical and mental powers have been in such perfect action that 
he seemed to have taken a new lease of life, and almost to have begun 
a new career of duty. Within a few weeks past more alarming symp- 
toms began to appear. But though his years by reason of strength 
had become almost fourscore, he still kept on, and walked to his 
laboratorjr to hear his recitations ; and after his disease had become 
so far developed as to require him to stop several times on the way to 
rest himself and get breath, when his limbs had become swollen and 
his chest suffused, and his sight almost gone, and he could no longer 
walk, he would ride. After further failure, and he could not get out 
before breakfast to hear his class, the hour was changed to a later one. 
At last, when he could not hear the whole recitation he persisted to 
hear what he could, and went as far with the exercise as his strength 
allowed. Though thus driven from one resort to another, he did not 
quit the ground, but still kept on. The day before his death he was 
prevented from attending recitation, for the third time only since the 
term began. When urged to rest, as he was met the day before his 
death while riding out to recruit a little that he might be able to attend 
his recitation, he replied with great emphasis that ' there had not been 
an absence in his class since he had been sick, and that he should not 
be absent himself if he could help it.' 

" After a night of comparative rest he was getting ready to go to his 
recitation, when his discharge came from the only power from which 
he could accept it. He died with his harness on. No rust had gath- 
ered on his burnished ,armor. His lamp was trimmed and burning. 
Well done, good and faithful servant, will be the spontaneous verdict 
of all who have followed this aged teacher to the last. ' Well done,' 
will be the verdict of the thousand graduates of this college when 
the} T shall learn how true he was to himself, how faithful even unto 
death. ' Well done, good and faithful servant,' we cannot doubt, has 
been already the verdict of that higher tribunal before which he has 
gone to appear." 

William Jenks, Harvard College, 1797, was born in 1778 in New- 
ton, Mass. After graduating, he remained in Cambridge for several 
years, engaged in teaching, and also acting as lay-reader in the Epis- 
copal Church. In 1805 he was settled over a Congregational society 
in Bath. He was soon chosen an overseer of the college, and in 1811 

9 



130 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

became a trustee. In 1812 he was invited to Portsmouth, N. H., as 
successor to Dr. Buckminster, and would have gone had not the col- 
lege stepped in to detain him. He was appointed professor of the 
Oriental languages and of English literature, with a small stipend, and 
with the understanding that he was to retain his relations with the 
parish until the college should be in a condition to claim him wholly. 
That time never came. His connection with the college, which from 
its very nature was unsatisfactory on both sides, came to an end four 
years later, when Dr. Jenks left Bath for Boston. There he was for 
several years pastor of a church. 

He was a man of unwearied industry. From 1832 to 1838 he was 
occupied with the " Comprehensive Commentary," a work in six huge 
volumes, which purported to be the quintessence of all previous com- 
ments on the Bible. In 1847 he brought out in royal quarto an 
" Explanatory Atlas of the Bible." Though neither profound nor 
brilliant, he was a man of extensive erudition and of much linguistic 
lore. All loved him for his amiability and respected him for his unaf- 
fected goodness. Long after he had ceased to preach, his venerable 
form and big ear trumpet were familiar objects in the pulpits of Boston. 
He died in 1866. 

Samuel Phillips Newman was born in 1797 at Andover, Mass. 
His father, the Rev. Mark Newman, for many years the principal of 
Phillips Academy, long survived his son. His mother was a daughtei 
of William Phillips of Boston. This superior woman died while he 
was young, but left a deep impression on his heart. After graduating 
with honor in the Cambridge class of 1816, he spent a year or more as 
private instructor in a family near Lexington, Ky. In 1818 he became 
a tutor in Bowdoin College, pursuing at the same time his theological 
studies under the guidance of President Appleton. In 1819 he was 
chosen professor of ancient languages. On the establishment in 1824 
of a new professorship, Mr. Newman was transferred to the chair of 
rhetoric and orator}^. After twenty-one years of faithful service at 
Brunswick, he yielded to an application from the Massachusetts Board 
of Education, and assumed the charge of a normal school, then just 
established at Barre. Upon this work he entered with his wonted 
abilrty and fidelity. But his health, which had long been declining, 
soon broke down under the pressure of new responsibilities and labors, 
and perhaps also through the loss of occupations and enjoyments to 
which he had long been accustomed. He returned to his birthplace, 
where he died early in 1842. 

Prof. Newman was far from being: a common man. His iutel- 




SAMUEL P , TTEWMAIT, AM 

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PROFESSORS. 131 

lect was active and of wide capacity. He was a systematic reader 
and thinker. His knowledge was various 'and solid, and what he 
knew he could convey easily and clearly. His treatise on rhetoric, 
published soon after he became professor of that branch, was an origi- 
nal and able work, and gave to its author an extensive reputation. In 
several colleges and in a multitude of schools it has been and still is 
a text-book. It has been republished in England, and has passed 
through more than sixty large editions in this country. Mr. New- 
man also prepared and published an elementary work on political 
economy. 

As a critic he was discriminating and candid ; as a writer simple, 
perspicuous, pure. His delivery, though not remarkable for energy 
or grace, was yet impressive. He was, says one who had the best 
opportunity to know, ' ' a most valuable officer of instruction and gov- 
ernment ; ever faithful, self-denying, prompt and firm in the discharge 
of dutjr, prudent and sagacious, enjoying the confidence alike of his 
pupils and his associates." Mr. Newman had a decided business 
talent. He understood, and very naturally he enjoyed, the manage- 
ment of affairs and of men. From the time of Dr. Allen's removal 
to his restoration, Mr. Newman acted as president of the college by 
appointment of the boards. Indeed, during the whole period of his 
professorship at Brunswick he was probably the most influential mem- 
ber of the college government. 

Though licensed to preach, he did not often appear in the pulpit. 
His occasional performances in that way were alwa3 T s excellent and 
acceptable. All who knew him still love to remember how true and 
tender he was in the domestic relation, how warm-hearted in his 
friendships, how amiable and engaging in social life, how full of sym- 
pathy with every form of suffering. I hardly need to add that reli- 
gious principle and unaffected piety gave consistency and completeness 
to his character. His Christian hopes, as life drew towards its close, 
seemed to be converted into calm assurance and perfect peace. 

Mr. Newman was married in 1821 to Caroline, daughter of Col. 
William Austin Kent of Concord, N. H. They had five daughters. 
Of these the eldest, Charlotte, was the wife of Ex-Prof. H. H. Boody, 
and died February, 1876. Caroline married Capt. Leonard P. Mer- 
rill, and is now a widow. Mary married Rev. Benjamin W. Pond. 

Thomas Cogswell Upham, who graduated from Dartmouth College 
in 1818, was born in 1799 in Deerfield, N. H., where his grandfather, 
the Rev. Timothy Upham was minister. His father, Nathaniel Upham, 
removed about 1800 to Rochester, N. H., where he engaged in trade, 



132 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

and became a man of great and beneficent influence. Thomas C. 
went directly from college to the diving school at Andover. At the 
end of the three-years' course he was selected by Prof. Stuart to be 
his assistant in the department of Hebrew. Soon after this he pub- 
lished a translation of "Jahn's Archaeology," abridged. This trans- 
lation was made from the Latin, corrected by comparison with the 
German original. Of this work four editions have appeared in this 
county and four in England. 

In the summer of 1823 Mr. Upham was settled in the ministry, as 
colleague with the Rev. Joseph Haven over the Congregational church 
in Rochester. He had been here only a few months, when the depart- 
ment of mental and moral philosophy was established in Bowdoin Col- 
lege. To this important post Mr. Upham was called in September, 
1824, and in the spring following he became the first occupant of that 
chair, which he so long filled with distinguished reputation. By his 
publications, both philosophical and religious, he soon placed himself 
conspicuously before the public. Of these works the most important 
is his "Elements of Mental Philosophy," in three volumes, octavo. 
This work and its "Abridgment" in one volume have been used as 
text-books in many of our colleges and academies. The larger work 
has been translated into German, and the smaller into Armenian. 
His " Ratio Disciplinse" gives an account of the constitution of Con- 
gregational churches. The "Manual of Peace" was published and 
circulated by the American Peace Society. His "Principles of the 
Interior or Hidden Life " is " a work on the higher forms of religious 
experience." Of this book there have been many editions and a wide 
diffusion ; it has also been republished in England. " Life of Madame 
Guyon " in two volumes, and " Life of Catharine Adorna " in one vol- 
ume ; these, with two other volumes, — "The Life of Faith" and 
" The Divine Union," — are illustrative and explanatory of Christian 
experience. " American Cottage Life" is a series of poems to which 
the title is an index. The title of his last published work is " Let- 
ters : ^Esthetic, Social, and Moral ; written from Europe, Egypt, and 
Palestine." In the eighty-first number of the North American Review 
this work is noticed with. high commendation. As a book of travel it 
is characterized as "profoundly interesting among the Waldenses, 
eminently suggestive and impressive in Eg} T pt and the Desert of 
Sinai, rich almost beyond comparison among the scenes hallowed by 
the presence of the Saviour. But it is inestimably precious as a 
record of the author's inward life and spiritual experience in commun- 
ion with Nature in her solitudes, her grandeur, and her beauty, with 
humanity under various phases of civilization and religion, and with 



PROFESSORS. 133 

• 

the memorials of supernatural events, sacred history, religious hero- 
ism, and Christian mart}*rdom." 

It need not be added here that Prof. Upham is a man of great indus- 
try. He has treated with acknowledged abilit3 r the philosophy of mind, 
and presents the subject in a way that makes it intelligible and useful. 
Clearness, simplicity, and beauty mark his style, whether he writes 
poetry or prose. His works on Christian experience, embodying as it is 
believed his own, have won from the religious world grateful commen- 
dations, dearer probably to the author than any renown for philosophic 
acumen or literary skill. 

It is not only for his ordinary labors as a professor or for the bene- 
fit which it has incidentally received from his extended fame, that the 
college is indebted to Mr. Upham. In the movement of 1846 to raise 
funds for the institution he was by far the most active and successful 
agent. He travelled far, be begged earnestly, and contributed from his 
own means with a munificent hand. It is natural therefore that he 
should feel, as he did feel, a very deep interest in what he regards as 
the honest carrying out of the purpose and the promise which that effort 
involved. 

Prof. Upham, though physically active and capable of endurance, is 
3 T et an invalid. Weakness of eyesight often compels him to rely upon 
the eyes of others. It is long since he has taken active part in any public " 
religious exercise, the consequent excitement being too much for his 
nervous temperament. 

Soon after he settled at Brunswick he married Phebe Lord of 
Kennebunk. Being without offspring, they have generously adopted 
and brought up quite a family of boys, some of whom are graduates of 
the college, and two girls. 

In 1867 Mr. Upham resigned his professorship and removed to Ken- 
nebunk, and soon after to New York, where he lives retired but not 
idle.* 

For forty or more years there were only three changes in the pro- 
fessorial chairs of the academic department of the college, a rare 
example of such permanence. More frequent changes have occurred 
in later years. Alumni professors are noticed in their respective 
classes : Packard, 1816 ; Smyth, 1822 ; Stowe, 1824 ; Longfellow, 
1825 ; Goodwin, 1832 ; Boody, 1842 ; J. B. Sewall and E. C. Smyth, 
1848 ; C. C. Everett and J. S. Sewall, 1850 ; Brackett and Young, 

*He died in New York, April, 1872; his remains were brought to Brunswick and 
interred in the college cemetery. In the year following his death was published his 
last work, " The Absolute Religion." p, 



134 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

1859 ; Chapman, 1866 ; Robinson, 1873. Those not alumni are now 
briefly mentioned : — 

In 1877 John Avert (Amherst College, 1861) succeeded Prof. 
Jotham B. Sewall in the Greek and Latin professorship. After 
graduation he had prosecuted at New Haven, with Prof Whitney, 
studies in Sanscrit, Hebrew, and Arabic, had spent a year in Ger- 
many at Tubingen and Berlin, and had been seven years professor of 
Greek in Iowa College. Mr. Avery has contributed papers to the 
New Englander and other periodicals on philological topics. 

From 1852 to 1855 Rev. Roswell Dwight Hitchcock (Amherst, 
1836, and tutor), pastor of one of the Congregational churches, Exeter, 
N. H., succeeded Prof. Stowe in the Collins professorship. He re- 
signed the position at the invitation of Union Theological Seminary, 
New York, to its professorship of ecclesiastical history. He received 
the degree of D. D., Bowdoin, 1855, and in 1873, LL. D. from 
Amherst. He has published "A New and Complete Analysis of the 
Bible," sermons, addresses, and numerous articles in reviews on 
subjects connected with his special department. He has been presi- 
dent of the Palestine Exploration Society, and has been elected presi- 
dent of Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

On the death of Prof. Cleaveland the college was fortunate in secur- 
ing at once the services of Prof. Paul A. Chadbourne (Williams, 
1848), in the department of chemistry and natural history, 1859 to 
1865 ; and subsequently, on the retirement of Prof. Upham in that of 
moral philosophy and metaphysics, 1871 and 1872. He has since been 
chancellor of the University of Wisconsin, and is now president of 
Williams. Besides volumes on natural theology, etc., he has been a 
frequent contributor to reviews and journals. 

From 1862 to 1865 Rev Eliphalet Whittlesey (Yale, 1842), pastor 
for several years of one of the Congregational churches of Bath, was 
invited to succeed Prof. Chamberlain in the professorship of rhetoric 
and oratory. He entered the United States service in 1862, as chap- 
lain ; became assistant adjutant-general on the staff of Gen. 0. O. 
Howard ; was brevetted brigadier-general ; at the end of the war 
resumed his duties in college, but after a time resigned his position, 
being made commissioner of the Freedraen's Bureau. He has since 
been assistant secretary of the Board of Indian Commission, and by 
personal inspection and annual reports has rendered important 
service. 

George Lincoln Goodale (Amherst, 1860), a graduate from the 
medical schools of Harvard and Bowdoin, and who had practised in 
Portland and assisted as teacher of anatomy and surgery and materia 




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PROFESSORS. 135 

medica in the Portland schools for medical instruction, was elected in 
1868 Josiah Little professor of natural science and materia medica. 
After four years' service he accepted an invitation to become university 
lecturer at Harvard, and is now professor of botany and director of 
the botanical garden of the university. While connected with the col- 
lege he with Prof. Brackett conducted the Bowdoin Scientific Review, 
and translated " Birnbaum's Chemistry." Dr. Goodale also prepared 
manuals on mineralogy, etc., for use in his classes. He is preparing 
the text for a sumptuous work on the "Wild Flowers of America,'' 
and also the second volume of Gray's " Botanical Text-Book." 

In 1868 Charles Greene Rockwood (Yale, 1864; Ph. D., 1866) 
was appointed adjunct professor, and in 1872 full professor, of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy. In 1873 he accepted the professorship 
of mathematics and astronomj', Rutgers College, New Jersey, and in 
1878 that of mathematics in the College of New Jersey, Princeton, 
which he still holds. Mr. Rockwood has contributed papers to the 
American Journal of Science and Art. 

In 1874 Charles Henry Smith (Yale, 1865, and tutor), born in 
Beirut, Syria, where he lived until his fifteenth year ; son of Rev. Eli 
Smith, missionary of the American Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions ; an eminent Arabic scholar, succeeded Prof. Rockwood 
in the mathematical chair and still occupies that position. 

In 1873 Henry Carmichael (Amherst, 1867), on the retirement 
of Prof. Brackett, was elected professor of chemistry and mineral- 
ogy. He had spent five years in Germany at Gottingen, and one 
year as professor of the same branch in Iowa College. 

The Josiah Little professorship of natural history having become 
vacant by the resignation of Dr. Goodale, Charles Abiathar White, 
who had held a professorship in the University of Iowa, was elected 
in 1873 to succeed. He had published the " Geology of Iowa," two 
volumes, quarto. He remained two years, and became United States 
paleontologist in the National Museum. In 1875 was issued from 
the museum his report on the "Invertebrate Fossils collected by the 
Geological and Geographical Explorations, etc., West of the One Hun- 
dredth Meridian." For the last four years this department has been 
in charge of Mr. Leslie Alexander Lee, A. M. (St. Lawrence Uni- 
versity, N. Y., 1872). He had been a "special student" in natural 
science at Harvard, and also with Prof A. S. Packard, Jr., Salem, 
Mass., and a teacher of natural sciences in seminaries at Barre, Vt., 
and Franklin, Mass. 

From 1870-72 Edward Sylvester Morse was professor of com- 
parative anatomy and zoology. Mr. Morse has been connected with 



136 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., and more recently 
with the University of Japan. He received the degree of Ph. D. 
from the college in 1871. He has been an industrious contributor to 
scientific journals on subjects of natural history. 

From 1871-73 James Brainerd Taylor (Harvard, 1867) was col- 
lege professor of elocution and oratory. 

The scientific department of the college having been enlarged in 
1872, George Leonard Vose was elected professor of civil engineer- 
ing, and still remains in that position. Mr. Vose has published a 
" Manual for Railroad Engineers," two volumes; a work on "Oro- 
graphic Geology" ; " A Graphic Method of solving Algebraic Prob- 
lems " ; " Elementary Course of Geometric Drawing " ; besides papers 
on geology, etc., in scientific journals and other periodicals. 

A department of military science and discipline was established in 
1871 on the accession of Gen. Chamberlain to the presidency, which 
has been in charge of Joseph Sanger, A. M., Brevet Major U. S. A., 
1872-75 ; Louis V. Caziac, Brevet Captain, U. S. A., for three years ; 
and Medorem Crawford, 1st Lieut., U. S. A., the present incumbent. 
The course of instruction has embraced, besides military drill, civil 
polity and international law. 

In 1879 Rev. George Trumbull Ladd (Western Reserve College, 
Ohio, 1864), who had pursued a theological course at Andover, 
Mass., been settled in the pastorate in Edinburg, Ohio, and then over 
the Spring Street Congregational Church, Milwaukee, Wis., was 
elected Stone professor of mental and moral philosophy. He has 
published two lectures on the " Unknown God" of Herbert Spencer, 
and the ' ' Promise and Potency of every Form and Quality of Life " of 
Prof. T3 r ndall, beside articles on kindred and theological subjects in 
the Bibliutheca Sacra. July, 1881, Mr. Ladd resigned his professor- 
ship, having accepted a similar professorship in Yale College. 

MEDICAL PROFESSORS. 

Nathan Smith was born in 1762 at Rehoboth in Massachusetts. 
He was still a child when his parents removed to Chester in Vermont. 
Before the Revolutionary War was over, he was called as a militia 
man to do service on the frontier, then exposed to savage incursions. 
From this hard and dangerous life he returned to farm labor, which 
occupied him until his twenty-fourth } r ear. About this time a surgi- 
cal operation of some importance was performed in the neighborhood. 
Young Smith happened to witness it. A new ambition seized him, 
and he at once resolved to master a profession whose utility and dig- 



MEDICAL PEOFESSOES. 137 

nity he then for the first time felt. Dr. Goodhue, whose skilful steel 
had kindled this spark in his breast, declined receiving him as a pupil 
unless he would first qualify himself for admission into Harvard Col- 
lege. With this condition he complied, and after three years of pro- 
fessional study under Dr. Goodhue, settled as a physician in Cornish, 
N. H. As soon as he could raise the means he went to Cambridge, 
where he attended lectures and took a medical degree. 

It was not long before his superiority to most of the medical men 
around him was readily conceded. Dr. Smith himself could not but 
see aud deplore the generally low attainments of his professional 
brethren in that region. The medical schools of Philadelphia and 
New York were too remote and too costly to be of much avail to the 
3"oung men of Xew Hampshire and Vermont, while that of Cambridge 
was as yet but a feeble institution. Under such circumstances Dr. 
Smith projected a medical school at Hanover, and his design was 
seconded by President Wheelock. To qualify himself more thor- 
oughly for this enterprise, he went in 1796 to Edinburgh, where he 
attended a full course of lectures, and enjoyed the instructions of Dr. 
Black and the elder Munro. He subsequently spent several months 
in London, where he walked the hospitals. " His course after his 
return was one of almost unrivalled success. The enterprise was 
indeed a bold one." To many it must have seemed "presumptuous 
rashness for a young ph}-sician, without what is called a liberal edu- 
cation, to undertake to rear up by his single arm an institution such 
as those learned professors at the first college in Xew England could 
with difficult}- sustain. For twelve years he lectured himself on all 
the branches usually taught in medical schools, assisted only in two 
courses on chemistry." The men whom he trained t; gradually occu- 
pied the stations rendered vacant by death and through the loss of 
business by those who were incompetent. Thus that portion of the 
country became filled with a race of young, enterprising, intelligent 
plrysicians, who all justly looked up to Dr. Smith as their friend and 
professional father. This, with his deserved]}' high and continually 
increasing reputation as a kind, attentive, and skilful physician and 
surgeon, necessarily drew upon him a vast amount of business. The 
labor which he endured in traversing, for the most part on horseback, 
such an extensive country, then still in part a wilderness, over moun- 
tainous regions and roads often nearly impassable, at all seasons and 
through every vicissitude of weather ; the good which he accomplished 
by affording advice and instruction, and imparting a portion of his 
own zeal and energ}- to the j'ounger members of the profession, as 
well as the more direct benefits conferred on the sick and distressed, 
can scarcely be estimated." 



138 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

In 1813 Dr. Smith was invited to New Haven, where the medical 
school of Yale College had just been established. His department 
there was the theory and practice of physic and surgery, on which he 
lectured annually during the remaining sixteen years of his life. " To 
trace the career of Dr. Smith as an instructor and as a practitioner of 
physic and surgery," after his removal to New Haven, "would be," 
saj's his distinguished and still-surviving colleague, Dr. Knight, " only 
to repeat the account which has been given of him while residing at 
Hanover." 

In the spring of 1821 the medical school of Bowdoin College started 
into being. Its establishment was mainly due to the foresight and 
influence of President Allen, then newly inaugurated ; yet even he 
would hardly have attempted it but for the promised and powerful aid 
of Dr. Nathan Smith. Dr. Smith had been the steadfast friend of 
the venerable Wheelock, and though no partisan, he had deeply "felt 
for him in those troubles which saddened his last days. This feeling 
had made him willing to leave Hanover and the beloved school which he 
had built up there. His friendship for President Wheelock extended 
to the son-in-law, and made him the more willing to give his name 
and strength to a work which was in other respects congenial to his 
spirit. To that first class he lectured not only on medical theory and 
practice, but also on anatomy and surgery ; assisted however in the 
anatomical preparation, and often in the demonstration, hy Dr. John 
D. Wells. As I was at that time studying medicine, I joined the class, 
attended the lectures, was present at most of his operations in the 
neighborhood, and saw much of him in general societ}". The course 
over, I accompanied him, in that most sociable of vehicles, a one-horse 
chaise, on a professional tour to Wiscasset and up the Kennebec. 
Of my intercourse — at once pleasing and profitable — with that great 
man the impressions are still vivid. Dr. Smith's connection with the 
school at Brunswick lasted five years. He died at New Haven, Jan. 
26, 1829, in his sixt} r -seventh year. 

Dr. Smith was a large man, a little clumsy, and of a somewhat 
shambling gait. His expressive and genial countenance, his very 
attitude and air, were admirably caught by the great artist who fixed 
them on his canvas, and whose picture will reproduce his image to 
all who knew him. Those to whom Dr. Smith had been known only 
by fame might be disappointed in their first impressions. lie was 
rather slow of movement and of speech, and in his manners often 
there was an air of indifference. There was no show of learning, no 
attempt at brillianc}', no assumption of dignity or superiority. The 
admiration which was felt for his ability and wisdom — a feeling shared 



MEDICAL PROFESSORS. 139 

by all who knew him — could be accounted for only by his possession 
of those attributes. He was remarkable for the quickness, clearness, 
and soundness of his judgment, and for plain, practical, common- 
sense views. Few subjects came up on which he could not talk, and 
talk instructively. Though more widely known and more renowned, 
probably, as an operator than as a physician, it may be doubted in which 
department he excelled. His diagnosis seemed to have the quickness 
and the certainty of intuition. The steps of the process were so rapid 
and so wide that he could not always retrace them. His decision and 
firmness at the sick-bed commanded confidence and insured compli- 
ance ; while his unvarying gentleness and kindness brought to him rich 
returns of love and gratitude. 

As a surgical operator his name long stood foremost through all the 
New England States. To his duties in this regard " he brought a 
mind enterprising but not rash ; anxious yet calm in deliberation ; 
bold yet cautious in operation. His first object was to save his 
patients if possible from the necessit}*" of an operation, and when this 
could be no longer avoided to enter upon its performance without 
reluctance or hesitation." He had no ambition to be called a rapid 
operator. Such aspirations in others he always condemned. Satcito, 
si sat bene, was evidently in his opinion the true rule. Indeed, he 
never did anything for mere applause. Everything necessary was 
quietly prepared and all parade was avoided. Once in the work his 
whole mind was given to it. He guarded carefully each step, watched 
narrowly eveiy occurrence, asked advice in emergencies, and never 
lost confidence in himself. We cannot wonder at the almost uniform 
success of one who was so skilful, so courageous, so cautious, and so 
self-possessed. And yet many did wonder when thej first saw the 
surgeon's knife or needle in his tremulous hand. The arm would 
shake for a moment, but there was unerring certainty in the stroke of 
the instrument. 

" In the practice of surgery Prof Smith displayed an original and 
inventive mind. His friends claim for him the establishment of scien- 
tific principles and the invention of resources in practice which will 
stand as lasting monuments of a mind fertile in expedients and 
unshackled by the dogmas of the schools. It is believed that he was 
the first in this countiy to perform the bold operation of extirpating 
the ovarian tumor. He was also the first to perform here the opera- 
tion of staphyloraphy." 

Asa lecturer and teacher he was perfectly simple, perfectly natural. 
" He sought no aid from an artificial style, but merely poured forth in 
the plain language of enlightened conversations the treasures of his 



140 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

wisdom and experience. He occupied but little time with the theories 
and opinions of other men, referring to books only for the facts which 
they contain. Nor did he often indulge in theoretic speculations of his 
own, but gave principally the results of his practice and experience." 
In a word, it was the leading principles which he endeavored to instil, 
rather than minute details of practice. Both by precept and example 
he taught his pupils how such principles could be best applied. 

He was eminently social in feeling and habits. His stores of infor- 
mation, his fund of anecdote, his ready remarks, — often acute, always 
judicious and practical, — his unaffected good-nature, and affable man- 
ners made him everywhere a welcome companion and guest. 

Unimpeachable integrity, purity, and honor marked his coui'se 
throughout. By word and example he commended alwaj^s a high 
morality. But his benevolence was proverbial. Over his entire career 
of laborious and wide-extended usefulness, 

" Humanity shed rays 
That made superior skill but second praise." 

John Doane Wells, a native of Boston and a graduate of Har- 
vard (1817), studied medicine with the late Dr. George C. Shattuck, 
by whom he was recommended to Dr. Nathan Smith as an assistant 
in his first course of lectures at Brunswick. Though his engagement 
only required him to prepare the subjects of the lecture-table, he was 
repeatedly called by Dr. Smith at a few minutes' notice to take his place 
before the class. Young as he was, and modest withal, he showed in 
these emergencies a readiness and ability which commanded admira- 
tion. So well, indeed, did he acquit himself in every respect that he 
was elected at the close of the course professor of anatomy and surgery. 
In the summer of 1820 he went to Europe. After studying, listening, and 
observing for nearly two years in the best schools of France and Great 
Britain, he came home to enter on his short and brilliant career. His 
success as a lecturer far more than equalled the high expectations which 
he had excited. In 1826 he was appointed professor of anatomy and 
plrysiology in the Berkshire Medical School. Three years later he was 
elected to the anatomical chair in the University of Maryland. 

It is not enough to say that he soon became popular as a lecturer 
Earnest and even enthusiastic in his devotion to science, familiar with 
every topic which he attempted to discuss, and able to make such dis- 
cussion perfectly clear - to his hearers ; fluent, neat, copious, }'et never 
wandering or prolix, he was admired for the animation and the instruc- 
tiveness of his discourse. At the age of thhty-one he had already 
attained to a distinguished place among medical men. Prospects of 




-*.-■• 



get 



JOHN DO AWE WELLS, M.D. 

PROFESSOR OF AN^TOMT & SOB.GEB2 'IN ' BOmCM 'COLLEGE 



■ MemoriaL 



MEDICAL PROFESSORS. 141 

fame and fortune, and of what he prized far more, extensive useful- 
ness, opened a bright vista before him. But it was suddenly shut in. 
Impelled by an exalted and almost romantic sense of duty, he incurred 
toils and exposure which undermined his constitution and led to an 
early death. A rapid consumption terminated his life in the summer 
of 1830. 

Dr. Wells alwa} x s made Boston his home, but had been too much 
occupied as an instructor elsewhere to have acquired much -practice. 
It would have been otherwise had he lived, for with the exception of 
experience he possessed all the qualifications of an eminent practi- 
tioner both in medicine and surgery. 

This premature extinguishment of large attainments and of fine 
abilities was deeply deplored and appropriately noticed in all the insti- 
tutions with which he was connected. At Brunswick especially, with 
whose medical school and all its interests he had from the first been 
identified, it was felt to be no common disaster. But it was not only 
or mainly the departure of an accomplished scholar and teacher that 
those who had known Dr. Wells felt so deeply. A true man, of 
exemplary life, of a genial and affectionate nature, and of the best 
social qualities, he had endeared himself to all ; and thousands 
mourned when he was gone as for a personal and dear friend. It is 
almost needless to add that the pure Christian principle and hope 
which governed and prompted the activities of his short but brilliant 
life continued to soothe its declining hours, and sustained him to the 
last. 

Reuben DmoxD Mussey was born in 1780 in Pelham, N. H., where 
his father was a respectable physician. In 1791 the family removed to 
Amherst, N. H., and there Reuben grew up, like many a New Eng- 
land youth, — working in summer time, studying and teaching during 
the winter months. In 1803 he graduated at Dartmouth College, and 
then put himself under the care of Dr. Nathan Smith. Having ob- 
tained in 1805 his degree in medicine, he settled in a parish of Ipswich, 
Mass., long known by its aboriginal name of Chebacco, and now called 
Essex. After three years of practice here he went to Philadelphia, 
where for nearly a year he made diligent use of its great medical advan- 
tages. While there he not only listened and studied, but experimented 
also. To test the correctness of Dr. Rush's doctrine that the human 
skin had no absorbent property, Dr. Mussey immersed himself for 
hours at a time in infusions of various colored substances. The result 
proved beyond a doubt that Rush's theory was untenable. In one 
instance Dr. Mussey lay for three hours in a strong infusion of 



142 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

nutgalls, and then for three hours more in a solution of copperas. 
Strange to say, no ink appeared in the secretion. He then opened a 
vein, and from the peculiar aspect of the blood inferred that the gallic 
acid had found its way into the circulation. These experiments 
attracted much notice and modified the- subsequent teachings of that 
school on the subject of absorption. 

Dr. Mussey returned to Massachusetts and settled in Salem, where 
he soon formed a partnership with Dr. Daniel Oliver. His practice 
in Salem was large and lucrative. While there he began to operate 
successfully as a surgeon. In 1814 he was chosen professor of physic 
and surgery in the school at Hanover. In 1819 he was appointed to 
the chair of anatomy and surgery. During the next nineteen sessions 
of this medical institute he gave two lessons daily, — sometimes also 
in emergencies adding to his other labor the courses of materia 
meclica and obstetrics. Nor was this all. A course of lectures at 
Middlebury (1817), four courses at Brunswick (1831-1835), and 
two courses in Fairfield, N. Y. (1836, 1837) are to be added. In 
1838 he accepted an invitation to become professor of surgery in the 
Medical College of Ohio, and removed to Cincinnati. After lectur- 
ing fourteen } T ears in that institution he became professor of surgery 
in the Miami Medical College in the same city. 

During this whole period of duty as a public instructor, Dr. Mussey 
has been in constant and laborious practice as a physician and surgeon. 
His eminence in both departments is well known. As a surgeon, 
especially, the fame of his skill has not been confined to his own 
country. 

"That his life for many years has been controlled by the principles 
of an earnest and conscientious Christianity is its best testimony. 
His attention was early roused to the necessitj' of a temperance reform, 
and his ageucy in the movement, prominent from the first, has been 
consistently progressive with the growth of public sentiment, — at 
times perhaps even in advance of it. For many years he has been a 
water drinker and a practical vegetarian, in accordance with what he 
believed to be the true doctrine of hygiene." He published in 1862 
" Health : Its Friends and its Foes." He died in 1866. 

Henry Halsey Childs succeeded Dr. Smith in 1826 as lecturer on 
the theory and practice. He also gave the course in 1835 and 1837. 
Dr. Childs is a resident of Pittsfield, Mass., where he has long prac- 
tised his profession. The medical school in that beautiful town owes 
in no small measure its origin and its continued prosperity to the exer- 
tions and the public spirit of Dr. Childs. The doctor's energies have 



MEDICAL PROFESSORS. 143 

not been confined within the circle of his profession. For many years 
he was an active and distinguished politician in the Democratic ranks, 
and at one time held the office of lieutenant-governor of Massachu- 
setts. He still practises, still lectures, — a hale, cheerful, kindfy old 
man. His son, Dr. Childs of Pittsfield, is a successful practitioner 
and an able lecturer on surgery, and bids fair even more than to make 
good his father's place. 

Dr. William Perry was born in 1788 in Norton, Mass. ; grad- 
uated from Harvard College in 1811, and studied his profession 
under Dr. Thatcher of Plymouth and Dr. John Warren of Boston. 
He has been a successful practitioner in Exeter, N. H., since 1815. 
In 1818 he married Anna Gilman, daughter of Col. Nathaniel Oilman. 
The} T have several children. 

"Dr. Perry is regarded as a skilful practitioner, perhaps the most 
so in this region ; not a man of much science, but a good share of 
practical knowledge, and a highly respected citizen. He has lost one 
son, has two living, — one practising with him, the other an editor in 
Cincinnati ; two daughters well married, with families of children." 

William Sweetser is a native of Boston, where he was born in 
1797. He is a graduate of Harvard College, 1815. He has practised 
his profession in Boston, in Burlington, Vt., and more recently in New 
York. His present residence is in that still rural part of the city 
known as Fort Washington. In 1855 Dr. Sweetser married Hannah 
Langdon, daughter of Mr. J. A. Haven of Fort Washington. Dr. 
Sweetser has had large experience as a medical teacher, his chair 
having been for the most part that of theory and practice. The Uni- 
versity of Vermont, Jefferson College in Philadelphia, the medical 
school at Castleton, and that of Geneva, have had the benefit of his 
teachings. He lectured at Brunswick in 1833 and 1834, and also from 
1842 to 1845, when he was appointed to the professorship which he 
still holds. 

Not to mention, particularly, numerous essays and papers of a 
medical character, Dr. Sweetser has published a work on " Consump- 
tion and Change of Climate," one on " Indigestion," and one on 
"Mental Hygiene." The last named, which is about passing to a 
third edition enlarged, has been republished in Europe. 

[He died in 1875.— p.] 

Edmund Randolph Peaslee was born in 1814 at Newtown, N H. ; 
graduated from Dartmouth College in 1836. He taught for one year 
in the academy at Lebanon, N. H , and for two years in Hanover as 
tutor of mathematics and Latin. Graduated M. D. at Yale in 1840, 



144 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

he spent several months in the hospitals of London and Paris. In 
1841 he gave the course on anatomy and physiology in the medical 
school of Dartmouth College, and being soon after elected professor 
of those sciences, he settled in Hanover as a practitioner. In Bruns- 
wick his first lectures were given in 1843. In 1845 he was made 
professor of anatomy and surgery, and so continued until 1857. He 
now lectures on surgery only. Since 1851 Dr. Peaslee has been pro- 
fessor of physiology and general pathology in the New York Medical 
College. For the year ending June, 1855, he was president of the 
New Hampshire State Medical Society. In 1858 the New York Patho- 
logical Society elected him president. The same year he delivered 
before the New York Academy of Medicine its annual oration, an 
elaborate and able discourse since published. For three years he was 
one of the conductors of the American Medical Monthly. In medical 
addresses, reports, and monographs he has done his share. In 1857 
Dr. Peaslee gave to the public a work on " Human Histology," the 
first complete treatise on that subject in our language. Dr. Peaslee 
has just resigned his professorship at Brunswick, to meet the demands 
of an increasing practice in the city of New York. It is not merely 
as a talker on science that Dr. Peaslee is celebrated. His practical 
skill both as a physician and surgeon is of a high order. He has a 
wife and daughter. 

[He died in 1878. — p.] 

Daniel Oliver succeeded Dr. Childs in 1828 as lecturer on 
theory and practice. Born in Marblehead, educated at Cambridge, 
he began practice at Salem, Mass., in partnership with Dr. P. D. 
Mussej^. From 1820 to 1837 he held with high reputation the office 
of professor in the medical school at Hanover. From Hanover he 
removed to Cambridge, Mass. Having been appointed professor in 
the medical school of Ohio, he lectured at Cincinnati in the session of 
1841 and 1842. He died of a cancerous affection a few months after 
his return. 

Dr. Oliver practised but little. As a medical lecturer and instructor 
he was learned and able. '* The First Lines of Physiology," a work 
written by him, "is well known and highby esteemed." But his 
studies were not confined to his profession. Such were his attain- 
ments in intellectual philosoplry that he was elected professor of that 
science for Dartmouth College. "He was an excellent classical 
scholar, well versed in the Greek and Latin languages and literature, 
and particularly delighted in the perusal of Greek classic authors, 
which he read for amusement. With French and German literature 
he was also familiar. 



MEDICAL PKOFESSORS. 145 

He was a man of sensitive nature and delicate feelings. He shrunk 
instinctively from the bustle and pressure of general societ} r , to find 
comfort in the quiet occupations of the study or in the intimacies of 
friendship. He was an exemplaiy member of the Episcopal Church, 
in which his father had been a minister. 

John Delamater was born in 1787 at Chatham, N. Y., and there 
first practised medicine and took medical pupils. In 1823 he began 
his career as a lecturer in the Pittsfield school. In 1827 he went to 
Fairfield, N. Y. , as professor of surgery in the college there, and re- 
mained sixteen years. Geneva had him two years in the chairs of 
pathology and materia medica. Cleveland, Ohio, made him a medical 
professor in 1843, and he held the position for man}' years. Between 
1828 and 1844 he also gave six full courses at Brunswick, four at 
Hanover, four at Willoughby, Ohio, and one course at Burlington, Vt. 
In addition to the subjects named above, he has lectured on the theory 
and practice, on midwifery, and on the diseases of women and chil- 
dren. As a lecturer his manner is simply colloquial, but his subject 
is thoroughly studied, well arranged, and easily followed. Through 
this long period and in all these different fields he has been regarded 
as a good, practical surgeon and physician. In all of them, also, his 
praise was in the churches as well as in the schools. 

Dr. Delamater married Ruth, daughter of Col. Joshua Angell of 
Kinderhook, N. Y. One son, Dr. J. J. Delamater, is a professor in 
the school at Cleveland. 

Charles Alfred Lee is a grandson of Rev. Jonathan Lee, the 
first minister of Salisbury, Conn. ; a grandson also of Capt. Jacob 
Brown, who commanded a company - in Arnold's expedition to Canada 
and died at Quebec. In the same war his father, Samuel Lee, com- 
manded a company of calvary. Born in 1802 in Salisbury, he grad- 
uated at Williams in 1822. After a year spent in teaching in the city 
of New York, he studied medicine and attended the lectures at Pitts- 
field, where he also acted as demonstrator of anatomy. In 1826 Dr. 
Lee opened an office in the city of New York, and soon entered on a 
large practice. In the northern dispensary for the sick poor, first 
started by him and Dr. James Stewart, he was the attending physi- 
cian for ten years. In 1832 he was appointed plrysician to the Green- 
wich Children's Hospital. Elected in 1839 professor of materia 
medica in the University of New York, he accepted ; but owing to a 
difficulty with the trustees the Faculty all soon after resigned. In 
1846 Dr. Lee was appointed professor of materia medica in the medi- 

10 



146 HISTOEY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

cal school at Geneva, N. Y., and began the same year to lecture in 
Brunswick. Since that time he has been for the most part a public 
teacher of medical science. In addition to the schools just named, 
those of Buffalo, of Columbus, Ohio, of Woodstock, Vt., of Pittsfield, 
Mass., and of the New York University, have enjoyed the benefit of 
his prelections. From five other colleges he has received invitations 
which he was compelled to decline. Beside the subjects already 
named, Prof. Lee has lectured on therapeutics, on obstetrics, and on 
medical jurisprudence. Amid these occupations of an industrious and 
useful life he has found time to write much for the press. He has 
been a large contributor to the medical monthlies and quarterlies, and 
for four years (1844-48) was editor of the New York Journal of 
Medicine. In 1836 he wrote by request the first popular work on 
physiology. It was adapted to school purposes, and came into gen- 
eral use throughout the country. For ' ' Harper's Family Library " he 
wrote a small treatise on geology, which is also well known. Among 
the numerous works which have come out under his supervision and 
editorship are the following: "Copland's Medical Dictionary," three 
volumes octavo; " Pereira on Food and Diet"; " Pharmacologia " ; 
"Bacchus"; " Thompson's Conspectus " ; "Guy's Medical Jurispru- 
dence." 

Dr. Lee was married in 1828 to Hester A. Mildeberger of New 
York. Of their three sons, one is a physician and one a student of 
law. "When not lecturing to the young doctors in Buffalo or Pitts- 
field or Brunswick, Prof. Lee is at his pleasant home in Peekskill on 
the Hudson. Here, in the bosom of his family, in the communion of 
the Episcopal Church, in attention to professional calls, and in the 
pleasing solitude of an ample library, he finds no difficulty in passing 
away the time. 

[He died in 1872.— p.] 

Of Ebenezer Wells, who from 1840 to 1845 gave instruction to 
the incipient doctors of the Bowdoin School in a very important 
branch of their business, I am informed that " he is a highly respec- 
table practitioner in Freeport, and has several times represented that 
town in the Legislature." 

Amos Nourse was born in 1794 in Bolton, Mass. Dr. John Ran- 
dall of Boston was his medical teacher; he graduated M. D. at Har- 
vard in 1817 ; he made a voyage to the Mediterranean as the medical 
attendant of a sick friend. Dr. Nourse settled first in Wiscasset, and 
soon after in Hallowell, where he was the medical partner of Dr. Ariel 



MEDICAL PROFESSORS. 147 

Mann until the latter died in 1828. In 1845, being in impaired 
health, he removed to Bath and was for a time in the custom-house. 
From 1846 to 1854 he was the obstetrical prelector in our. medical 
school, and from that time to 1866 was the professor in that branch. 
Dr. Nourse occupied for a few weeks a seat in the Senate of the 
United States, being elected by the Legislature to complete the unex- 
pired term of Governor Hamlin. 

His first wife, Clarissa, was a daughter of the Hon. John Chandler. 
She died in 1834, leaving two sons and three daughters. His present 
wife was Mrs. Lucy Clarke, a daughter of Major Melville of Boston. 
While the places of usefulness and honor which he has held may be 
regarded as ample attestations to the abilities and high character of 
Dr. Nourse, I will add the following testimony from one who has known 
him long and well : ' ' He is a gentleman of high-toned moral senti- 
ment, of unblemished character, of quick perception, of an uncom- 
monly clear and discriminating mind, and possesses in a superior 
degree the faculty of imparting to others, in a lucid and forcible man- 
ner, the convictions of his owu understanding." 

[He died in 1877.— p.] 

William Warren Greene, professor of surges, 1866 to 1881, 
was a native of Waterford. He graduated M. D. at the UnivershVy of 
Michigan ; began the practice of his profession in his native town, . 
subsequently removed to Gray and lastly to Portland. He was pro- 
fessor of surgery in the University of Michigan, in Long Island Col- 
lege Hospital, New York, and at Pittsfield, Mass., with the addition 
of materia medica before his connection with the Medical School of 
Maine. He stood in the first rank as an operator and a lecturer. 
He had visited England, where he was received with marked attention, 
and on his return passage in the " Parthia " died Sept. 10, 1881, at 
the age of fifty. The event was appropriately noticed at a meeting of 
the physicians of the city held at their medical school on the reception 
of the news of his death, and subsequently memorial services were 
held in the High Street Church, Portland, where Dr. Greene was 
an attendant, and an impressive address was delivered by the pastor, 
Rev W. H. Fenn. Dr. Greene was twice married. 



148 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 



TUTORS. 

Samuel Willard, Harvard College, 1803; tutor, 1804 and 1805. 
Two years later Mr. Willard was settled over the Congregational 
parish in Deerfield, Mass., and held the office for twenty-two years. 
In 1829 his sight, which had long been failing, left him entirety and 
he resigned. After this, in spite of blindness, he taught for several 
years at Hingham, Mass. Then he returned to Deerfield, which was 
ever afterwards his home. Excellent health, a cheerful and even 
temper, with never- failing faith and hope and love, made him, not- 
withstanding his one great misfortune, a truly happy man, and contrib- 
uted undoubtedly to the prolongation of his life. He was eighty-three 
years old when he died in 1859. 

Nathan Parker, Harvard College, 1803 ; tutor 1805 to 1807. 
In 1808 he was settled in Portsmouth, N. H., as successor to the Rev. 
Dr. Haven. There, as a preacher and pastor excelled by few, he lived 
and labored to the end of his days. Dr. Parker died in 1833. He 
left a son, now a lawyer in Boston and eminent in his profession. 

Benjamin Burge, Harvard. College, 1800 ; was tutor in 1807 and 
1808. I remember him well as a frequent and welcome visitor at Prof. 
Cleaveland's. He became a practitioner of medicine, and died in 1816. 

Jonathan Cogswell, Harvard College, 1806 ; tutor 1807 to 1809. 
From Brunswick he went to Andover, and from Andover to Saco, 
where he was the Congregational minister for eighteen years. Some- 
what later in life he occupied for a time the chair of ecclesiastical 
history in the theological school at East Windsor, Conn. His last 
years were spent in New Brunswick, N. J., where he died in 1864. 

John White, Harvard College, 1805 ; tutor 1808 and 1809. He 
was settled (1814) over the Congregational Church in West Dedham, 
Mass., where he died in 1852. His long ministr} r was singularly 
peaceful, and he is still fondly remembered as a man of excellent 
common-sense, and of goodness as genuine as it was unpretending. 

Andrews Norton, Harvard College, 1804; tutor 1809 and 1810, 
He went back to Cambridge, and was a college tutor in 1811 and 1812. 
He soon came prominently forward as editor of the General Iiejjosi- 



TUTOES. 149 

tory and Review, — assailing the prevailing doctrines of orthodoxy 
with a degree of boldness and ability which drew much attention to 
the work and to himself. When the divinity school was established 
he was made professor of sacred literature, and held that position for 
eleven years. As a teacher and writer Prof. Norton stood in the 
foremost rank of American scholars. His published works, some of 
which did not appear till after his death, are the enduring evidence of 
his abilities and learning. He died in 1853. Charles Eliot Norton — 
a name of note in our American literature — is his son. 

Benjamin Tappan was born in 1788 in Newbury, Mass. His 
father, the Rev. David Tappan, was the professor of divinity in Har- 
vard College from 1792 to his death in 1803. He graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1805. In 1809 and 1810 he was a tutor in Bowdoin 
College, and none who then came under his instruction can have for- 
gotten his ability and fidelity as a teacher. In 1811 he became pastor 
of the Congregational church in Augusta, and held that important 
position for thirty-eight years. From 1849 until he died in 1863 he 
was the secretary of the Maine Missionarjr Society. For more than a 
half-century he was an active overseer of the college ; and to the end 
of his life he ranked among the most honored and useful ministers in 
the State. 

By his wife — only daughter of Thomas L. Winthrop — he had 
seven children. Two sons are graduates of Bowdoin College. One 
of his daughters married the Rev. E. B. Webb, now of Boston, and 
another married the Rev. John 0. Fiske of Bath. 

Winthrop Bailey, Harvard College, 1807; tutor, 1810 and 1811. 
Before his year of tutorship expired he was settled as pastor of the 
Congregational church in Brunswick. Two years later he served as 
provisional tutor for a few months. His Brunswick ministry soon 
came to an end, and he was next settled at Pelham, Mass. From 
this post he was dismissed on the ground of having become heretical. 
In 1825 he began to minister to a small Unitarian society in Green- 
field, Mass. He died at Deerfield, Mass., in 1833, having been for 
two years in charge of the academy there. Mr. Bailey had few ora- 
torical gifts ; he was simply a plain, unimpassioned, argumentative 
preacher. He published a small volume of sermons on the points in 
discussion between Unitarians and Trinitarians. While in Brunswick 
he was married to Martha, a daughter of William Stanwood, and had 
a large family. 



150 HISTOEY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Nathaniel Whitman (Harvard College, 1809) was at Brunswick 
in 1811 and 1812, and I remember him well as a kind college officer. 
After twenty years of ministerial service in Billerica, Mass., he 
preached awhile in Wilton, N. H., awhile in Calais, Me., and awhile 
in East Bridgewater, Mass. In 1852 he became a private citizen 
of Deerfield, Mass. By his first wife, Sarah Holman, he had eight 
children. His second wife was Miss Pollard of Bolton. He died in 
1869. 

Stephen Fales, Harvard College, 1810 ; tutor in 1811 and 1812. 
From Brunswick, where all esteemed and loved him, he went to Ports- 
mouth, N. H., as a law student in the office of Jeremiah Mason and 
as a teacher in his family. He afterwards practised law in Dayton 
and in Cincinnati, Ohio, with no great success. Mr. George H. Pen- 
dleton, so well known in the political world, was at one time his pupil. 
Mr. Fales. was sixty-four 3'ears old when he died in 1854. 

David Brigham, Harvard College, 1810 ; tutor from 1812 to 1814. 
From Fitchburg, Mass., where he practised the law for several years, 
he removed to Madison in Wisconsin, being one of the first settlers of 
that beautiful lake-girdled town. There in 1843 he died. 

Frederic Sotjthgate ; tutor, 1812 and 1813. (See class of 1810.) 

Enos Merrill; tutor, 1814-16. (See class of 1808.) 

Alvan Lamson, Harvard College, 1814 ; tutor, 1814-16. He was 
settled over the First Parish in Dedham, Mass., in 1818. There 
with uninterrupted health for nearly forty years he labored with quiet 
and faithful diligence. Then came illness and impaired power, com- 
pelling him to resign in 1860. He died in 1864. "He was," says 
Dr. Peabody, " pre-eminently a scholar. Well read in the classics 
and versed in the methods and results of Biblical criticism, he devoted 
himself chiefly to the study of the Christian fathers and Christian 
archaeology." He published a volume of sermons, and also a work 
entitled " The Church of the First Three Centuries." 

Henry Eobinson, Yale College, 1811 ; tutor, 1816 and 1817. 
After having ministered to good acceptance as a Christian pastor in 
several parishes of his native State, he returned to Guilford, Conn., 
the place of his birth, where he still lives, an object of universal 
respect and love. Mr. Robinson has been twice married, with chil-" 
dren by both wives. 

John Parker Boyd Storer. (See class of 1812.) 



TUTORS 151 

Charles Briggs, Harvard College, 1815 ; tutor, 1816 and 1817. 
He was settled in 1819 in the historic village of Lexington, where he 
stayed sixteen years. For twelve years more he lived in Boston as 
secretary of the American Unitarian Association. He died in 1873. 

Nehemiah Cleaveland ; tutor, 1817-20. (See class of 1813.) 

Samuel Green, Harvard College, 1817; tutor, 1817 to 1819. 
He was settled (1820) over a Congregational society in Reading, 
Mass. In 1823 he became pastor of the F^ssex Street Church in 
Boston. He died in 1834, having been for three or four years unable 
through ill health to discharge the duties of his office. He was a man 
of undoubted ability, and in earnestness and devotedness was sur- 
passed b}' few. By his wife Louisa, daughter of Samuel Ropes, he 
had a son and two daughters. 

Joseph Huntington Jones was born in 1797 in Coventry, Conn. ; 
was nearly related on his mother's side to a number of distinguished 
men, and was a brother of Joel Jones, a learned Pennsylvania judge 
and president of Girard College. He graduated in 1817 at Harvard 
College, and went directly to Brunswick. At the end of his year, 
in obedience to his sense of filial duty, he rejoined his parents, then 
just settled at Wilkesbarre, Pa., and took charge of an academy 
there. From 1825 to 1838 he was pastor of a Presbyterian society in 
New Brunswick, N. J., and then for many 3 x ears had charge of the 
Pine Street Church in Philadelphia. For a few j^ears before his death 
he held a special commission by appointment of the General Assem- 
bly. He died in 1868. 

Mr. Jones was a man of good ability and accurate scholarship, but 
of a nature rather too sensitive for his own comfort as a college officer. 
There are some positions in which it is a great disadvantage to be very 
thin-skinned. As I make this brief record, it is pleasant to recall the 
amiable, social, friendly companion of almost sixty years ago. 

Fresh as he was from college life, and full of college memories, is it 
strange that he had much to tell of a class which had upon its roll such 
men as George Bancroft, Caleb Cushing, Francis William Winthrop, 
Alva Woods, Stephen H. Tyng, Asa Cummings, John Doane Wells, 
and last but not least, as George B. Emerson and Samuel J. May, 
who were his dearest friends ? 



GKADUATES. 



1806. 

Richard Cobb, following the example of his father, Matthew Cobb, 
became a successful merchant in his native Portland. Having early 
retired from active business, he removed in 1825 to Boston. In 1837, 
while on the tour of Europe with his family, he died suddenly in Lon- 
don at the age of forty-nine. Besides a name universally respected 
for integrity and benevolence, he left liberal bequests to several char- 
itable and religious institutions, in which he had long taken an active 
interest. His wife was Elizabeth "Wood of Wiscasset. A daughter of 
theirs married Henry J. Gardiner, once a Bowdoin undergraduate, 
and in " Know-Nothing" times a Massachusetts governor. 

Isaac Foster Coffin was a son of Dr. Nathaniel Coffin, a distin- 
guished physician in Portland. Mr. Coffin studied law and was 
admitted in Boston ; but falling into habits of dissipation was induced 
to go to South America. After many years of absence he returned, 
and soon after published a small volume under the title ' ' Residence 
in Chili, by a Young American." After a while he became a teacher 
in Mr. Greene's school at Jamaica Plains in Roxbury. A few years 
since Mr. Coffin married Anne, daughter of Capt. John Prince of Rox- 
bury. They have no children. He died in 1861. 

John Davis was a protege of Mr. Israel Thorndike, a man of ami- 
able temper and good abilities, who had made himself a skilful 
mechanic before he went to college, and who subsequently returned 
to handicraft. Though his patron meant well, the change was unfor- 
tunate for poor Davis, and it had been probably better far for him 
had he never left his workshop in Beverly. He was sixty- two 3^ears 
old when he died in 1841. 

John Maurice O'Brien was a son of Capt. John O'Brien. His 
grandfather, Morris O'Brien, came in 1740 from Cork in Ireland, 
and settled as a tailor in Scarboro'. Twent3*-five j'ears later he re- 
moved to Machias, and in the war which soon came on his sons were 
conspicuous for their patriotism and bravery. John M. O'Brien was 
born in Newburyport, where his law studies were pursued and where 
he practised awhile with good reputation for ability as an advocate. 
He then came with the famity to Brunswick, where he has ever since 




Mm 




•RTirira-.- 






GRADUATES. 153 

lived. His life has been a very quiet one. He soon got out of the 
law, and he never got into politics. His favorite reading is among 
the deep writers on theology. His ecclesiastical relations are with the 
Baptists. It is said that he has condensed. the results of his observa- 
tions and his meditations into a small volume of aphoristic maxims. 
This work, though long expected from the Brunswick press, is still in 
manuscript. Mr. O'Brien has recently found a companion for his age, 
and the}' have two children. 

[Mr. O'Brien died in 1865, in his eightieth year. — p.] 

Moses Quinby died May 6, 1857, at the age of seventy-one. After 
studying law with Mr. Longfellow he practised awhile, not without 
success. Then for some years he fell into habits of ruinous indul- 
gence ; but he threw off the chains, became a practical, earnest farmer 
in YVestbrook, and a man of exemplar} 7 life. Thenceforth he was the 
ardent advocate of every good cause. All who knew him respected 
him for his high integrity, and honored him for his benevolence. He 
left a widow (daughter of Hon. Andrew Titcomb), two sons and 
three daughters. 

Of Bowdoin graduates, George Thorndike 's name was the first to 
wear the fatal star. His father was the wealth}' and well-known Israel 
Thorndike of Beverly and Boston. George died in St. Petersburg, 
Russia, four years after he graduated. His name and memory are 
still preserved at Brunswick in the tree which he planted. The 
"Thorndike Oak" stands on a central spot in the college grounds. 
The auspicious acorn from which it sprang was accidentally picked 
up by George Thorndike and placed in the earth, on the first day of 
the first college term, as the little company came out from evening 
prayers. Long together may the tree and its coeval live and flourish ! 

Benjamin Titcomb was a son of the Bev. Benjamin Titcomb, a 
Baptist clergyman in Brunswick, whom every student of the college 
in its first half-century must remember. Having graduated, with 
honor, Titcomb studied the law, but did not practise it. After a few 
wasted years he became a preacher, served faithfully the Baptist church 
in Freeport, and died unmarried in 1829. 

1807. 

Charles Stewart Daveis was born in 1788 in Portland. His 
father was an officer of the Revolution and a member of. the Society 
of the Cincinnati. Of the New England branch of this society the 



154 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

son was at one time president. Mr. Daveis graduated with good repu- 
tation as an elegant scholar and writer.* While studying law with 
Mr. Nicholas Emery he found time to indulge his literary tastes. To 
this fact the periodicals of the day bore creditable testimony. I well 
remember the boyish wonder with which I perused one or two num- 
bers of the Abracadabra, a sort of northern Salmagundi, which was 
ascribed to his pen. In 1808 he delivered in the college chapel the 
first public address before the Peucinian Society, of which he had 
been the virtual founder. In those silver tones — then first heard by 
me — now so familiar to every Bowdoin student, he thus began : "In 
the evening the Athenian exiles used to sing "Imfisv e4" Atli'jvag. Let 
us, my friends, return to Athens this evening, though separated from 
it by two great seas and two thousand years." The Monthly An- 
thology, then conducted by such scholars as Kirkland and Buckmin- 
ster, soon after published this discourse of Mr. Daveis on the ' ' Liter- 
ature of Greece," with a preliminary compliment which made the 
young college feel proud indeed. 

These recreations, pleasing as they were to himself and to others, 
did not withdraw him from the severer toils to which he had devoted 
his life. '.' He pursued the study of the law in its principles and its 
details to the highest sources, and his untiring devotion to the learn- 
ing of the profession and his acquisitions in it placed him in the fore- 
most rank with the learned men who filled the judicial seats, or were 
struggling at the forum." Especially was his attention given to 
admiralty law, in which department he had perhaps no equal. Mr. 
Daveis was for a short time a member of the State Senate. Gov. 
Lincoln appointed him agent for the State in the important matter of 
the United States boundary. President Jackson afterwards sent him 
to the Hague as a special agent in the same business, while the ques- 
tion was before the king of Holland. . He was gone about a } T ear. 
He was early made an overseer, and for nearly thirty years was a 
prominent and active member of the trustees. During this long 

* I have copied from an original in the possession of Prof. Cleavelaud the order of 
exercises for the second Bowdoin Commencement. In those days men were com- 
pelled to spread themselves : — 

"Commencement. Bowdoin College. Sept. 2, 1807. T>Ke</>aAo S 'Ep^?. Order of 
Exercises : I. Salutatory. Latin oration, by Seth Storer. II. English oration : On 
the Progress and Influence of Literature. By Robert Means. III. Tradition : A 
Poem. By C. S. Daveis. IV. Forensic : Whether the Light of Nature without the 
Aid of Revelation be Sufficient Evidence of the Immortality of the Soul. By R. 
Means and Seth Storer. V. Oration : On the Infirmity of Theory. Valedictory, by 
Charles Stewart Daveis." 



GRADUATES. 1£5 

period the course of events in regard to the college and the action of 
his colleagues was not always such as he could approve, nor did he 
ever fail to protest against measures which he regarded as prejudicial 
to the institution. For several years before his death he suffered from 
bodily infirmity. His voice ceased to be heard, but the best efforts 
of his mind and pen were still at the command of that Alma Mater 
to whom he had ever shown so steadfast an affection. Mr. Daveis 
died in 1865 at the age of seventy-seven. 

Mr. Daveis was married in 1815 to Elizabeth Taylor, daughter of 
Governor Nicholas Gilman of Exeter, N. H. They have four chil- 
dren : Gilman Daveis, M. D. (Bowdoin College, 1837), a practitioner 
in Portland ; he is married and has two children, a third having died 
in infancy. (He died in 1873.) Edward Henry Daveis (Bowdoin 
College, 1838), practised law for some years, and then became presi- 
dent of the Portland Company of Engine Builders, etc, and Gas 
Company in Portland; he has a wife and two children. Mary C. 
Daveis, married Rev. David G. Haskins ; they have three children 
and live in Cambridge, Mass. Anna T. Daveis, wife of Charles 
Jones, has one child ; they live in Portland. 

Robert Means was a son of Robert Means of Amherst, N. H. 
He practised law for a while in his native town. During the last 
years of his life he was superintendent of the Suffolk Mills in Lowell. 
He died suddenly in 1842 at the age of fifty-six. He was a man of 
genial aspect, manners, and temper, beloved by many, respected by 
all. Mr. Means was one of the eight founders of the Peucinian Soci- 
ety. His first wife, a daughter of Governor Dinsmore of Keene, died 
young. He afterwards married Abby, a daughter of Amos Kent of 
Chester, N. H. She survived him fifteen years. 

Seth Storer was born in 1787 in Saco, and is now the oldest grad- 
uate of the college. He fitted for college at Exeter, N. H., under Dr. 
Abbot. Having studied with his brother-in-law, Hon. Cyrus King, 
he practised law in Saco until 1821, at which time he removed to 
Scarboro' and settled down as a farmer. He has been commis- 
sioner for the county, president of its agricultural society, an officer 
in the church, and superintendent of the Sabbath school ; in a word, 
he has been useful and respected. Mrs. Storer, a lady of literary 
tastes, was Sarah, daughter of Hon. Daniel Gookin of New Hamp- 
ton, N. H. They were married in 1812, and have two sons. The 
elder, Henry Gookin, graduated at Bowdoin College in 1832, the Jirst 
grandson of Bowdoin. He is a graduate of the Bangor Theological 



156 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

School. During intervals of comparative health, he has supplied pul- 
pits in Maine and in New Brunswick usefully and acceptably. He 
was at one time an overseer of the college. The other son, Frederic 
T., medical graduate of Bowdoin College in 1840, has practised med- 
icine, was for four years the postmaster of Saco, and since 1863 has 
held a position in the custom-house, Boston. Mr. Storer died at 
Scarboro', March, 1876, aged eighty-nine. 



1808. 

Alfred Johnson was born in Newburyport, Mass. His father, Eev. 
Alfred Johnson, removed to Freeport, and while living there took an 
active part in the founding of Bowdoin College. In 1805 he became 
an inhabitant of Belfast, and to this place the son returned after com- 
pleting with honor his college course. He became a lawyer and 
practised ably. He was a member of the Legislature before the 
" separation," of the convention which framed the State Constitution, 
and subsequently of the Legislature. In 1820 he was made judge 
of probate, and so continued for eighteen years. From public life, 
where he played well his part, we follow him with pleasure to his retire- 
ment. This with him was no scene of rusty or luxurious repose. All 
who knew Judge Johnson speak of him as a student of rare assiduity. 
He read much, and nothing that was worth retaining ever seemed to 
escape from him. And better still, while his vast and various learn- 
ing was always completely at command, he was ever most ready to 
impart its wealth to others, and especially to the young. This made 
his society equally instructive and delightful. As overseer and after- 
wards trustee of the college whose feeble beginning he had witnessed, 
he preserved to the last an active interest in its welfare. His death, 
which was sudden, occurred just before the semicentennial celebration, 
1852. Judge Johnson married Nancy, daughter of Amos and Anna 
Atkinson, Newbury, Mass. They had four sons and three daughters, 
of whom two sons and two daughters are living. Alfred W. graduated 
at Bowdoin College in 1845 and died in 1869. 

Enos Merril was born in 1786 in Falmouth. He had been trained 
at Andover, and had begun to preach when in 1814 he was made a 
tutor. After two years of acceptable service in that capacity he be- 
came the Congregational minister of Freeport, where he stayed thir- 
teen years. Then for nine 3 T ears he preached at Alua. Mechanicsville 
had him as pastor for nine 3 T ears more. His closing years were spent 
in Orford, N. H. His work as a minister was often interrupted by 




EUCBAVED BY3ARTAW 



(□> IRS A 0= IF [RH£ 10) J] 



'□' 



GRADUATES. 157 

ill health, but this did not prevent him from leaving behind him the 
record of a long and useful life. He died in 1861. 

John Patten was a Topsham boy, born in 1875. After graduation 
he studied theology a little, and then for five years taught school in 
North Carolina. From 1824 he lived in Bowdoinhatu : first as a 
trader, afterwards as a farmer. At the time of his death in 1866 no 
other graduate of the college had attained to so great an age. 

Joseph Sprague was a Topsham man. From college he went into 
the law office of the celebrated Benjamin Orr. He settled in Thomas- 
ton, where he practised his profession for more than a dozen years, and 
died in 1826, "leaving a fair reputation as a man, a law}'er, and a 
Christian." Mr. Sprague left children. His widow, originally Miss 
Marsh, married again. 

David Stanwood was born in Brunswick, where his father, Col. 
Stanwood, was a prominent citizen. He opened a law office in his 
native town ; there lived, and there died in 1834. He married Miss 
Lee, who with five sons and three daughters survived him. 

"William A. Thompson was born in 1787, son of Bev. John Thomp- 
son of Berwick. He was educated for the ministry at Andover. He 
preached awhile, but declined a stated charge on account of feeble 
health. For a number of years he was principal of the Berwick Acad- 
emy. Then he went upon a farm. To the close of life (1835) he 
preached occasionally. "He possessed respectable talents, had an 
amiable disposition, and was much respected and beloved by his 
numerous friends." 

1809. 

Lithgow Hunter was born in 1787 in Topsham. Lithgow studied 
law, opened an office in Union, and waited three months for a client. 
Being disappointed in this matter, he went back to his paternal acres. 
At the mature age of sixty he married, and when he died, fifteen years 
later, left several children. 

Nathan Lord was a son of John Lord, a prominent citizen of Ber- 
wick. He was but seventeen years old when he graduated, after a 
college course distinguished by good scholarship and great vivacity. 
He went at first to Exeter as an instructor in Phillips Academy. 
Then for a year he studied at Bath under the direction of the Rev. 
Dr. Jenks. He completed in 1815 the three-years' course at Andover, 



158 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

and was soon settled over the Congregational society in Amherst, 
N. H. His ministry there of twelve years was marked by a constant 
advance in power and usefulness. In 1828 he was chosen president of 
Dartmouth College. The condition of that institution at that time 
was far from being prosperous. Its students were few, its fund was 
small, and all its accommodations were poor and mean. Under the 
vigorous administration of the new president it improved rapidly, and 
long before that administration closed it ranked among the most suc- 
cessful of the New England colleges. 

With great ability, very decided opinions, and a very firm will, he 
combined a conscientious sense of duty and warm benevolence. As a 
college president few have surpassed him. In some of his views — 
theological and ethical — he differed from the majority of the ortho- 
dox community. His firm belief in Cluist's premillennial advent — 
while it certainly modified his estimate of the present condition and 
future prospects of mankind — could at worst be regarded as only a 
harmless delusion. His confident assertion of the divine origin and 
perfect lawfulness of slavery was a more serious affair, and as the agi- 
tation of that question became intense, brought upon him — and as 
many believed, on the college also — no small amount of odium. Under 
this pressure of public opinion he felt it to be' his duty to resign, and 
in 1863 he retired from the office which he had so long adorned. 
Until he died in 1870 he continued to live in Hanover, an object of 
affectionate regard and respectful veneration. 

Dr. Lord was happy in his domestic relations. His wife, Elizabeth 
K. Leland, died a few months before him. Of their sons, several 
have long been men of distinction, and their two daughters are well 
connected. 

John Mussey was born in Portland in 1790. John Mussey, his 
father, had been an enterprising ship-master and became a wealthy 
merchant. Mr. Mussey has been prospered, and ranks among the 
rich men of Portland where he has alwa} T s lived. He married a 
widowed lady, Mrs. Rand, whose son, John R., is a graduate of 
Bowcloin College (1831). They have had two sons, John Fitz Henry 
and Edward, and two daughters. Harriet T. married a son of Judge 
Preble, Margaret is the wife of Hon. Lorenzo DeM. Sweat. 

Ben.ta.min Randall was born in 1788 in Topsham. Having studied 
law with Benjamin Hasey, he settled in Bath. He became learned in the 
law, and though not distinguished b} r eloquence or force, stood well at 
the bar, where he was always courteous and dispassionate. His attain- 



GRADUATES. 159 

ments as a scholar were not confined to the field of his profession. He 
engaged to some extent in political life. In 1833 he was a member 
of the State Senate. In 1838 he represented his district in Congress. 
By Gen. Taylor's administration he was made collector of Bath. His 
connection with the college was long and close. He was at his death 
one of the oldest members of the overseers. He w£s one of the eight 
founders of the Peucinian Society, and an active member for many 
j^ears. Mr. Randall, after several months of suffering from paralysis, 
died in 1857. He was twice married : first to Miss Jones, who died 
without children ; secondly to Sarah Whitman of Boston, who had 
eight children. 

William Richardson was born in Boston in 1788. He practised 
medicine from 1813 to 1817 in Slatersville, R. I., and then for twenty 
years at Portsmouth in the same State. In 1838 he settled as doctor 
and farmer in Johnston, a town five miles west from Providence. His 
first wife, Mary Almy, died in 1825. The second wife, Jane Lawton, 
outlived him. There were seven children of the first marriage, and 
five of the second. Dr. Richardson died in 1864. 

1810. 

A sketch of this class embracing the personal history of each mem- 
ber, drawn up by their Commencement valedictorian, the Rev. Robert 
Page of Lempster, N. H., was read at the meeting of the survivors 
in Brunswick, August, 1852, and has since been printed. It was pre- 
pared by request of the Committee of Arrangements for the semi- 
centennial celebration. It is. much to be regretted that Mr. Page's 
valuable memoir is almost the sole fruit of this laudable effort to col- 
lect and preserve a history of the alumni. 

John Emery Abbot, a son of Dr. Benjamin Abbot of Exeter, N. H., 
died in 1819. In college he was modest, amiable, and scholarly. His 
theological studies were pursued partly at Cambridge and partly with 
the illustrious Channing. In 1815 he succeeded Dr. Barnard as pastor 
of the North Church in Salem, Mass. Here he made himself greatly 
beloved. But close application and anxious care soon impaired a 
frame which had always been delicate. Travel and voyaging were 
tried in vain. He returned to Exeter and died in 1819 at his father's 
in holy peace. A volume of his sermons was published with a memoir 
by his friend, Henry Ware. To this just and beautiful sketch of a 
charming and good man we must refer those who would know more of 
John Emery Abbot. 



160 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

George William Boyd was born in 1791 in Portsmouth, N. H. ; 
fitted at Exeter ; in college preferred belles-lettres to science, and 
gave a poem when he graduated. Soon after he went abroad, and 
spent a year in St. Petersburg at the time when Eussia and all Europe 
were convulsed with war. Touched by the military contagion, he 
returned in the midst of our difficulty with England, and in the spring 
of 1813 entered the army as lieutenant of infantry. He soon became 
aide-de-camp to Gen. Thomas A. Smith, and served on the northern 
frontier at the time when the pompous inefficiency of Wilkinson was 
bringing ridicule on himself and on the American cause. In those ill- 
managed campaigns our colonel had hardly a chance either to win 
promotion or die gloriously for his country. Yet he was constantly 
occupied, and became acquainted with hardship. That his conduct 
was approved appeared at the close of the war, when he was retained 
in the service as assistant adjutant- general of the eighth military 
department. 

In 1817 he retired from the army to engage in commerce. Still 
later he edited a paper in New Orleans, and entered zealously into 
the politics of the day. In 1831 he married Miriam F. Guerlain, the 
widow of a Parisian banker. She died in 1839. As he had now 
retired from business and had no family, he left New Orleans and 
became thenceforward a cosmopolite, — living here or there, as whim 
or convenience dictated. Col. Boyd is a cheerful valetudinarian, of 
philosophic temperament and kindly disposition. He has an adopted 
son who bears his name, and who lives in Mobile, Ala. 

Such our brief sketch of the living man ! Let it stand. The kind- 
hearted colonel died in Portland in 1859, bequeathing to the college 
his whole property (more than $10,000), burdened only with a small 
annuity to an infirm old lady. This gift, to be called the " Boj'd fund," 
he leaves to the college to be applied at its own discretion. Col. Boyd 
is the first of our alumni who has thus remembered in death his foster 
mother. His bright example will not be lost. His honored name 
will assuredly stand at the head of a long line of benefactors. 

William Clark was born in 1788 in Hallowell, and there he settled 
as a lawyer. For a good many years lie was active and successful in 
his profession, and discharged with faithful ability various public 
trusts. In consequence of a harassing disease which destroyed his 
comfort and impaired his energies, he gradually withdrew from the 
activities of life, and spent in seclusion all his declining years. Sor- 
row for his wife, who died in 1836, increased his disinclination to 
mingle with the busy world around him. But while he withdrew from 



GRADUATES. 161 

its business, its pleasures, and its converse, his mind became more 
active than ever before. He found a keen delight in studying and 
sometimes in discussing abstruse points of law. He studied chemistry 
and made experiments. Geology, mathematics, natural philosophy, 
theology even, gave constant and varied occupation to his inquiring 
intellect. Competent judges well acquainted with Mr. Clark regarded 
him as a man of great mental acumen and of, immense learning. He 
seems to have lacked nothing but a sound physical organization to 
make him one of the most distinguished of our alumni. He died in 
1855. He left a son, William Henry (Bowdoin College, 1837), and 
three daughters. 

Edward Henry Cobb, Southgate's intimate and congenial friend, 
survived him but a few years. He was the only brother of Richard, 
already named, and like him devoted himself to a mercantile life. 
His admirable qualities of mind and temper, and above all his con- 
sistent piety and exemplary life inspired the hope that his would be a 
long and beneficent career. Alas ! the same fatal malady which has 
sent so many of our countrymen to die within the tropics, carried him 
to Cuba and left him there. He was twenty-six j^ears old. His 
widow, a daughter of the great lexicographer Noah Webster, subse- 
quently married Prof. Tyler of Amherst College. 

Jeremiah Fellows was a native of Exeter, N. H. In college he 
cultivated literature more than science, and showed a strong propen- 
sity for rhyming. He was in fact the poet of his class. Some time 
after he left college he put forth a small volume of verses. He opened 
a law office in Exeter, but did little or no business. " At length he 
lost the balance and power of his mind," and for the rest of his life 
was an inmate of the State Asylum for the insane. He died in 1865, 
in his seventj'-fifth year. 

Benjamin Lincoln Lear came from another college, and entered 
just in season to receive his degree. His father, Tobias Lear, was the 
private and trusted secretary of Washington during the last } r ears of 
his life, and as such his name can never be forgotten. Subsequently 
he was United States agent in the Barbary States, where he figured to 
less advantage. The son, a young man of good appearance and 
address, after a visit to Spain and Northern Africa, settled as a lawyer 
in Washington, D. C, and had already secured a good practice when 
he was suddenly cut off by disease in 1832. 



162 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Arthur McArthur was born in 1790. If his college course was 
of doubtful promise, his subsequent career has made all right. In 
1817 he began to practise law in Limington, his native town, and for 
more than half a century he has been an active and respectable mem- 
ber of the bar. By his wife, Sarah, daughter of Rev. William Milti- 
more, he has had six children. Two of his sons are graduates of 
Bowdoin. He died in Limington, 1874, having nearly completed the 
eight3 T -fifth year of his life. 

Robert Page was born in 1790 in Readfield. In a class of good 
scholars he received the first honor, and his right was not disputed. 
He taught awhile the academy in North Andover, Mass. Then in 
South Andover he studied theology. Among the places in which he 
has been a settled minister are Hanover and Lempster, N. H. In 
Hanover the officers and students of the college belonged to his con- 
gregation. He is now laboring in Farmington, Ohio. His ministry 
has not been without valuable fruits. If he has not in all respects 
fulfilled the high promise of his youth, we cannot better account for 
the fact, than by using his own words in reference to another : " Self- 
distrust, somehow produced, was an obstacle in the way of his prog- 
ress." He married Olivia Adams of New Ipswich, N. H. Thej 
have five daughters and two sons. He died in West Farmington, 
Ohio, in 1876, in his eighty-sixth }'ear. 

Henry Smith was from Durham, N. H. In college he was the 
room-mate of the gentle Abbot. Unlike in some things, both were 
models of industry and integrity. For two years after graduation 
Mr. Smith taught in the Portsmouth Academy. Here he enjoyed the 
ministrations and counsel of the venerable Buckminster, and was his 
privileged companion during the journey on which that good man 
died After three years at Andover he became a successful mission- 
ary in Western New York. In 1817 he was settled over a Presby- 
terian society in Camden, Oneida County, where his labors were 
greatly prospered. During the eleven years of his ministry in Cam- 
den his admirable talents were in almost constant request elsewhere. 
Many invitations he felt compelled to decline; but he sometimes 
yielded, with the consent of his people. The theological school at 
Auburn, then just struggling into life, was largely benefited by the 
funds which he raised for it. In 1826, at the request of the Piscataqua 
Association, he visited his native place and the towns adjacent, and 
devoted six months of earnest and successful labor to the revival and 
advancement of the great cause on which his heart was set. In Jul}*, 




/^^L 



■ 



l 



GRADUATES. 163 

1828, his useful life was suddenly terminated by a fever. Though not 
brilliantly endowed, Mr. Smith was certainly a man of more than 
common power. Nor is it difficult to see in what that power con- 
sisted. He was evidently sincere ; his fidelity and earnestness were of 
the geutle, affectionate, yet persistent sort; his piety was elevated 
and his whole character uniformly consistent. Mr. Smith married 
(1819) Hannah J., eldest daughter of Hon. George Huntington of 
Rome, N. Y. A daughter and son survive. The latter, Henry S. 
Huntington, who at his father's death was only two months old, is a 
graduate of the college and the seminary at Princeton, N. J. 

This class soon lost several of its best men. Frederic Southgate 
was first removed. His father, Dr. Robert Southgate, came from 
Leicester, Mass., to Scarboro' on horseback, with all his property 
in his saddle-bags. He was an able man ; became an extensive, enthu- 
siastic, and wealthy farmer, a useful magistrate, and a judge of the 
Common Pleas. Of his twelve children but one outlived him. He 
died in 1832 at the age of ninety-two. Frederic's mother was Mary, 
daughter of Richard King and Isabella Bragdon, sister to Rufus King 
of New York, and half-sister to William and Cyrus King of Maine. 
Frederic, born in 1791, the flower and hope of this large family, went 
through college with honor, and began in Portland the study of law. 
His fine personal qualities, his talents and generous ambition awa- 
kened high expectations, and betokened a bright career. But the 
preaching of Edward Pay son, then in his full strength, arrested the 
young man's attention. A new motive took possession of his ardent 
spirit. All secular pursuits became in his estimation comparatively 
insignificant, and he resolved to devote himself to the preaching of 
that gospel which had filled his own soul with such a flood of light 
and love. The sincerity of the change, the honesty of his convictions 
and purposes none could doubt, formed as they were, and persevered 
in, amidst much opposition from those who were nearest and dearest 
to him. While engaged in theological studies under the direction of 
Mr. Payson he was appointed to a tutorship in the college. He was 
respected by the students as a faithful college officer, and venerated, 
youth though he was, for his deep, earnest piety. Such talent so 
early sanctified seemed to justify high hopes of future usefulness. 
But these also were doomed to disappointment. Compelled by 
failing strength to abandon his duties, he went home, sank under a 
rapid consumption, and died in Christian peace at the age of twenty- 
two. 



164 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

James Weston was born in Augusta, Nov. 9, 1791 ; brother of 
Judge Nathan Weston. He studied theologj* and began to preach, 
but before entering the pastoral relation he was emploj'ed as a teacher, 
principally in his native town. He supplied the pulpit in Litchfield a 
year or two, and was then in 1824 settled over the Congregational 
church in Lebanon, where he remained thirteen years of a successful 
ministry. His last years were spent with his children in Standish, 
himself having retired from active duty. His classmate Page, in his 
sketch of his class, testifies that "he had superior native talent, was 
energetic, if not even vehement." He died suddenly, January, 1870, 
leaving the record of a humble Christian, and eminently an excellent, 
noble-hearted man. 

John Wise. What college contemporary does not remember his 
room, its chimne3'-piece garnished with a hundred tobacco pipes, the 
odorous vapors which usually surrounded the occupant, and the loud 
contagious laugh which so often broke from the cloud ? This good- 
humored fellow became a physician, and practised first as a surgeon 
in privateering vessels. He was twice made prisoner, and in the 
second instance was carried to India. After the war he established 
himself in professional business at Sherburne, Mass. He died in 
1829 at the age of fort} r , his last years having been sadly darkened 
b}" the loss of sight and intellect. 

1811, 

Cornelius Dennison was engaged in cutting out and making up 
clothes for the good people of Freeport, when the sudden rise of a 
college in the neighborhood awoke his ambition to shine in a different 
sphere. He was, of course, mature in years when he first appeared on 
the academic stage . The uniform dignit}- or rather solemnity of his 
look and manner, his feats in geometry, his graceful dalliance with 
the Muses, his amiable weaknesses and amatory effusions, and his 
invincible love of Latin quotations, can never be forgotten b} r those who 
had the honor of being in the same institution with him. 

He read law one year with Mr. Mitchell of Freeport. Then he went 
to the South and became a teacher. A few years later we find him 
in Brookville, Ind., trying to turn his law studies to some account. 
Failing in this, he went to Virginia, and once more became a peda- 
gogue. In 1835 he removed with acoknry of his friends to the State of 
Illinois. The farm which he bought is on the Illinois River, opposite 
Beardstowu. Here he spent the remaining ten years of his solitary 





Y/%^1^ i^C /ttL^^ 



GRADUATES. 165 

life. His small property was divided among twelve surviving brothers 
and sisters. 

John Barton Derby, born in 1793, was the eldest son of John 
Derby, a Salem merchant. In college he was musical, poetical, and 
wild. He studied law in Northampton, Mass.. and settled as a lawyer 
in Dedham. His first wife was a Miss Barrell of Northampton. After 
her death he married a daughter of Horatio Townsend. They soon 
separated. A son by this marriage, Lieut. George Derlry of the 
United States arm}*, became well known as a humorous writer under 
the signature of "John Phoenix." For many years before his death 
Mr. Derby lived in Boston. At one time he held a subordinate office 
in the custom-house. Then he became a familiar object in State 
Street, gaining a precarious living by the sale of razors and other 
small wares. He was now strictly temperate, and having but little 
else to do, often found amusement and solace in those rhyming habits 
which he had formed in earlier and brighter years. His Sundays were 
religiously spent — so at least he told me — in the composition of 
hymns. The sad life which began so gayly came to a close in 1867. 

Josiah Little was born in 1791 in Newbury. His energetic father, 
Col. Josiah Little, was a large landed proprietor, well known in Maine 
at the beginning of this centur}*. His gi'andfather was a noble patriot of 
the Revolution, and commanded a regiment in the battle of Bunker Hill. 
After he graduated Mr. Little studied law, but did not go to the bar. 
In 1813 he settled in Newbury, Vt., where he engaged in land busi- 
ness and looked after a farm. A few years later he returned to his 
native Belleville, which has since been his home. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Legislature, and was for several years an overseer of Bow- 
doin College. There are more active and more nois}*, but there are 
few better citizens than Mr. Little. The town of Newbuiyport has 
experienced his judicious liberality, nor has his Alma Mater been 
forgotten. His wife was a daughter of the Rev. Mr. Miltimore. They 
have no children. He died in 1860. 

John McKeen was born in Beverly, Mass., in 1789. He was a 
resident graduate for two years. In 1813 he entered the Andover 
Seminar}*. Ill health soon compelled him to leave, and he returned 
to Brunswick, which was ever afterwards his home. For a good many 
years he kept a small -'store," well known to all college men and 
boys. Subsequently he engaged in a business of a more general 
character, and became a successful administrator and agent. For a 



166 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

long period he served as town clerk, and for many years he was sec- 
retary of the Board of Overseers. In 1838 he was county commis- 
sioner for Cumberland. He was postmaster in Brunswick for about 
four years. He was fond of antiquarian research, took great interest 
in the Maine Historical Society, and made valuable contributions to 
its published volumes. 

Proceeding with characteristic deliberation, Mr. McKeen, in 1821, 
married Frances, daughter of Richard Toppan, Esq., of Brunswick. 
Their only child, a daughter, still lives with her mother. 

For half a century, Mr. McKeen, in the minds of Bowdoin grad- 
uates, especially those of the earlier classes, was in a sense identified 
with Brunswick and the college. He knew them all, remembered 
them all. Did they revisit their Alma Mater, he was ever first on the 
ground to recognize and greet and welcome them. To many of us 
his absence from the scene in which he so long had a prominent part 
has caused a void never to be filled. His death occurred in 1861. 

John Merrill, born in 1793, was the son of a leading shipbuilder, 
Orlando B. Merrill of Newbury, Mass., where he died at the age of 
ninety -two. Soon after his graduation John engaged in trade. Hav- 
ing a talent for public business, he was much employed in town affairs ; 
served as a representative and senator in the State Legislature, and 
was a member of the governor's council. He was two or three times 
a candidate for Congress. After 1841 he lived in New Jersey, in 
Baltimore, in Newbury, and finally in Brooklyn, N. Y. He died in 
1861. 

In 1814 he married Elizabeth Dodge. Of three sons, Robert D. is 
United States consul at Sydney in Australia; Merrill A. and George 
are merchants in New York. 

Asa Redington was born in 1789. His father, Asa Redington of 
Vassalboro', an energetic man, who died in his eighty-fourth year, 
had been one of Washington's guard, and was with him at the sur- 
render of Yorktown. He had also an uncle, Samuel Redington, who 
was for years a conspicuous member and debater of the Massachu- 
setts Legislature. He entered college near the close of the second 
year, and stood there at once facile j>rinceps. He was reserved in his 
manners, strong of muscle, and quick in temper ; a man, in short, not 
to be trifled with. After graduation he took charge of Gorham Acad- 
emy, establishing a strictness of discipline previously unknown there, 
and seldom equalled in educational annals. After a year or two he 
went to Waterville and became cashier of the bank, studying law in 



GRADUATES. 167 

the intervals of duty, and likewise fitting lads for college. He soon 
found ample employment as a lawyer. It was not often that he ar- 
gued a case, though he did it well whenever he attempted it. After a 
while he took Randolph Codman for a partner, giving him generally 
the talking part, and the rather as Codman was not unwilling. Mr. 
Redington moved after a while to Augusta, and was soon appointed a 
judge of the Common Pleas, a seat which he filled with great ability. 
His eminent qualifications, universally acknowledged, entitled him to 
expect a place on the Supreme Bench at the first occurrence of a 
vacancy ; but the executive power decided otherwise. For several 
3 T ears he held the office of reporter in the courts. In the strife of 
politics he does not appear to have mingled. For several years he 
acted as a member of the overseers, but for a good while past he has 
shown no apparent interest in the college. Mr. Redington is a con- 
stant and devout worshipper among the Orthodox Congregationalists. 
His first wife was Caroline, daughter of Elnathan Sherman of Water- 
ville. Their only child married Isaac Reed, and died leaviug a little 
boy. His present wife was the widow of Mr. Samuel Longfellow of 
Gorham, and her daughter by the former marriage is the wife of Rev. 
Mr. Balkam of Lewiston. 
[He died in 1874. —p.] 

1812. 

John Parker Boyd is the only survivor of his class. His father, 
Robert Boyd, was a man of wealth and influence in Portland. The 
son studied law, and opened an office in his native town, where he has 
ever since resided. Easy in disposition and in circumstances, he has 
kept "the noiseless tenor of his Avay " at a safe distance from the 
heated arenas of litigation and of politics. For many years he re- 
mained a dignified and impregnable celibate. At length he surren- 
dered to Mrs. Head, widow of Mr. James Head of Portland, and now 
lives happy dans le sein de sa famille. They have three children, a 
son who died some years since, a daughter who married Prof. Cooke 
of Harvard, and another who married Mr. F. R. Barrett of Portland. 
We commend his example to all the veteran bachelors of Bowdoin, 
from her president down. He died in 1871. 

Charles Freeman was the brother of George, and older. In col- 
lege and through his whole life he was an admirable exemplification of 
simplicity, sincerity, and solid worth. He studied law with Nicholas 
Emery, and opened an office ; but his tastes and affections soon drew 
him into another sphere. He read theology with Dr. Payson, and 



168 HISTORY OF BOWDOLNT COLLEGE, 

i 

settled in Limerick, where his death in 1853 terminated a useful min- 
istry of nearly thirty-four years. Mr. Freeman never ceased to be a 
student. He not only kept up, but largely increased his knowledge 
of Greek and Latin ; he was a good Hebrew scholar, and read the 
German with ease. 

Mr. Freeman was twice married : first to Nancy Pierce, daughter of 
Hon. Josiah Pierce of Baldwin ; secondly, to Salva Abbot, daughter 
of Benjamin Abbot, Esq., of Temple. Charles Marsden, his son by 
the first wife, graduated at Brunswick in 1845. Samuel, who was of 
the second marriage, graduated at Bowdoin College in 1854. 

George Freeman was of Portland, where his father, Samuel Free- 
man, was a man of note to the end of a long life. In college, though 
a mere boy in age and stature, he showed uncommon maturity and 
excellence both of mind and character. He studied law with Mr. 
Longfellow, but died in the third year of the course, being then only 
nineteen years old. Long and deeply was his death lamented. Nor 
was this strange : few young men combine as he did the finest intel- 
lectual qualities with the best affections of the heart. I have many 
testimonials that show how fondly he was loved ; let one suffice. It 
was written long after his death by my classmate and friend, Rufus 
King Porter: "George Freeman was my most valued and intimate 
friend ; and a warmer, purer heart never occupied human breast. His 
mind, active and discriminating, was guided by a delicate taste, and 
his reading and acquirements corresponded with these qualities." 

George Lamson, a native of Exeter, N. H., was a good scholar, an 
insatiable reader, and a read}* writer. From college, which he left 
with bright anticipations, he went into the office of George Sullivan, 
and in due time was admitted to the bar. It was not long before he 
became an editor, and conducted with considerable success a news- 
paper in his native town. He next published law books, but the busi- 
ness did not succeed. In 1823 he removed to the city of New York, 
where, after three years of hard and hopeless struggle, he died. 
Those who witnessed in college his talents, his successful industry, 
and high aspirations beheld with sad surprise the termination of a 
career which had begun so fair. Mr. Lamson left a widow and three 
children. 

William Pilsburt, son of a Boston shipmaster, had been well 
trained by the Eev. Joseph Chickering of Woburn. He had rich 
endowments of mind and person. But his ardent and susceptible 
nature was easily led astray. The father was imprudently indulgent, 



GRADUATES. 169 

and the consequences, as usual in such cases, were most injurious to 
the son. He entered his name as a student of law, but died within a 
year from his graduation. His classmate, the Rev. Charles Freeman, 
fort}' years afterward, wrote a notice of Pilsbury, which ends as fol- 
lows : " A generous, noble-minded, talented, affectionate, and social 
college friend prematurely left a world which presented to him her 
fairest earthly prospects. He was a striking example of the classic 
remark — 

" Video meliora, proboque, 
Deteriora sequor." 

Joseph Sewall of Bath, grandson of Hon. Dummer Sewall, grad- 
uated at the age of seventeen and became a lawyer in his native 
town. In this profession he showed decided ability, and there is lit- 
tle doubt that he could easily have placed himself in its first rank. But 
politics drew him aside. He became a man of business and a holder 
of offices. He was president of a bank, selectman of the town, chair- 
man of the court of county, commissioners, and adjutant-general of 
the State. Under the administrations of Jackson and Van Buren he 
was collector of the port of Bath. His discharge of duty in these 
various public employments commanded the approval of all. Gen. 
Sewall died in 1851, leaving four children. One son, Frederic D., is 
a graduate of Bowdoin College. 

John Parker Boyd Storer was son of the Hon. Woodbury Storer 
of Portland by bis second wife Margaret, daughter of James Boyd 
of Boston. After an exemplary college course he became a resident 
graduate, and for some time studied theology under the guidance of 
President Appleton. In 1816 he was appointed tutor, but had hardly 
entered on his duties when he received and accepted an invitation to 
go abroad with his uncle Gen. B03CI, who went to England in pros- 
ecution of a claim for military services in British India.* Soon after 

* Gen. Boyd spent many years in Hindostan. At that time the native princes 
were in the habit of employing European talent in the conduct of their wars. Gen. 
Boyd raised a corps of Sepoys, whom he equipped, paid, and commanded. He had 
under him several English officers, and was well provided with artillery and elephants. 
With this mercenary force he served several of the great Indian chiefs, being hired 
successively by Holkar, by the Peshwar, and by the Nizam, Ally Khan. Returning 
to his native country about 1812, he was appointed a brigadier-general in the army of 
the United States, and in more than one engagement with the British displayed the 
courage and skill of a veteran soldier. After the war Gen. Boyd was appointed 
navy agent for Boston. In 1816 he published several documents and facts relative 
to military events of the recent war. 



170 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

his return from Europe Mr. Storer was licensed to preach, and some 
time after he was settled as colleague pastor of the First Church in 
Walpole, Mass. In 1840 he went from Walpole to Syracuse, N. Y., 
and ministered to a Unitarian society in that place until 1845, when 
he died suddenly at the age of fifty-one. He was truly amiable, a 
man of unblemished fame. No gentleman of the old school could be 
more uniformly or systematically polite. He was never married. 



1813. 

John Anderson. For forty years our little band though scattered 
widely was still unbroken by death. The first taken was he who 
once seemed the strongest. Anderson was a native of Windham, 
and a lineal descendant of the reverend patriarch Thomas Smith of 
Falmouth. He was industrious in college, — a fair scholar, frank, 
generous, kind-hearted, — and in the eyes of his classmates and com- 
rades the very personification of strength and courage. In our Junior 
summer began the second war with England. Men of later and more 
quiet days can only faintly conceive the excitement of that time. As 
for Anderson he was all on fire. To engage somehow in the conflict 
seemed to be his fixed resolve ; and moulded as he certainly was for a 
hero, we all expected that he would become a general or a commodore. 
Whether adverse circumstances or cool reflection prevented him from 
following his bent I cannot say. On leaving college he became a law 
student with Mr. Stephen Longfellow, opened in due time an office 
in Portland, and soon found ample occupation. It was not long before 
he was set up as the Democratic candidate for Congress, and ran 
unsuccessfully in opposition to his late instructor. In 1823 he served 
as State senator for Cumberland County. At the next trial for Con- 
gress he was chosen, though Simon Greenleaf was his competitor- 
From 1825 to 1833 he was in the House of Representatives, an able 
and useful member. From this time to 1836 he was United States 
district attorney for Maine. He was then made collector of Portland, 
— an office which he lost under Harrison, but received again from 
Tyler. When Mr. Bancroft left the secretaryship of the navy for the 
embassy to England, the President gave Mr. Anderson to understand 
that he could have the vacant post, but he declined the honor. Mr- 
Anderson was three times chosen mayor of Portland, and discharged 
the duties with his accustomed ability. In Congress he occasionally 
spoke, and always with judgment and effect. His style of elocution in 
the House and at the bar was plain and simple, but it had the strength 
which belongs to good sense and to earnest sincerity. His genial and 



V.ir JOHN AHBERSOH 

: 






GRADUATES. 171 

generous spirit, which he never lost even amid the heats of political 
strife, his uprightness and courtesy in the performance of official duty, 
and his acknowledged excellences as a citizen and neighbor, made him 
universally popular, and called forth, when he died in 1853, expres- 
sions of regard and regret from men of every sect and party. Mr. 
Anderson was twice married : first to Lucy, daughter of Capt. John 
Farwell of T} T ngsboro', Mass. ; secondly to Ann Williams, daughter 
of Capt. Samuel Jameson of Freeport. Mrs. Anderson and her two 
sons, Samuel Jameson A. (Bowdoin College, 1843) and Edward 
Watson A., reside in Portland. 

Nathan Dane Appleton was born in 1794 in Ipswich, Mass., 
on the farm which was bought in 1634-5 by his emigrant ancestor 
Samuel Appleton. This farm, which should be dear to all the 
Appletons, is still owned by a brother of my classmate. Adjoining it 
was the farm on which the renowned Nathan Dane was born and grew 
up. There was affinity as well as intimacy between the families, and 
hence the honored name which my classmate received and which he 
never discredited. Mr. Dane assisted his early neighbor and friend in 
giving his son an education. During his college life he was in the 
famiby of President Appleton, who was his cousin. Having studied 
law with Joseph Dane of Kennebunk, he practised for two years in 
Standish, and then settled in Alfred. There, with a steadiness which 
was his characteristic even in youth, he held for more than forty years 
the unbroken tenor of his way. He repeatedly represented the town 
in the Legislature, and was once in the Senate of Maine. Three times 
he was the candidate of his party for Congress ; but unfortunately for 
the district, if not for him, that party did not happen to be in the 
majority. In the winter of 1857 he was chosen by the Legislature 
attorney-general of the State. He was plain, simple, and unpretend- 
ing ; a man of great industry and of rare fidelity to duty. He mar- 
ried in 1826 Julia Hall of Alfred. Mr. Appleton died in 1861. 

Nehemiah Cleaveland. In the course of this my long biographi- 
cal task, I have often been vexed at what seemed to me a needless 
reluctance and superfluous modesty on the part of men from whom I 
sought a little information in regard to themselves. Now, however, 
when I find myself under a sort of autobiographical necessity, I am 
inclined to more compassionate feelings. My father, who gave me his 
own Bible prsenomen, was a physician in Topsfield, Mass., where he 
died in 1837 in his seventy-seventh year, leaving a memory still 
cherished there. My mother, a daughter of Dr. Elisha Lord of Pom- 



172 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE,. 

fret, Conn., survived her husband several years, and died like him 
with blessings on her nam'e. When I was eleven years old I was sent 
to Brunswick. M} r cousin, then the young professor, received me into 
his family and directed my studies preparatory for college, which I 
entered at the immature age of thirteen. On leaving college I went, 
at my father's desire, to the school of theology in Andover, where I 
sta} T ed through the Junior 3-ear. During the 3'ears 1814 and 1815 I 
taught bo} T s and girls in my native town, in Dedham and Wrentham, 
Mass., and in the academy at Gorham, Me. In 1816 and 1817 I had 
charge of the Preble Street School in Portland. This was a private 
boys' school, and my predecessors in it were afterwards known as 
Judge Wright of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Judge Emery of Paris, Me. 
In the autumn of 1817 I left that pleasant town and its delightful 
society to become again a denizen of Brunswick. Busy, happy, and 
not, I trust, unuseful were the three years of nry tutorship. I had 
begun the study of medicine and had attended a course of lectures, 
when the preceptorship of Dummer Academy was offered me. In 1821 
I settled in Byfield, and in that still retreat passed nearby nineteen 
years. Having resigned nry post in 1839, I went to Exeter as pro- 
fessor of ancient languages in Phillips Academy. From that charming 
village and admirable institution I was invited to Lowell, where for 
more than a }'ear I had charge of the boj^s' high school. From 1842 
to 1848 I kept a very pleasant school for young ladies in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Since I left Brooklyn I have lived in the cit}* of New York, 
at the old homestead in Topsfield, and in Westport, Conn., — my 
present abode. Twice, also, I have visited Europe. 

I have written some things which were printed. An address 
delivered in 1821 before the Peucinian Society, and "published by 
request," was I believe the first academical performance thus honored 
at Brunswick. A lecture on tyceums before the American Institute, 
an article on ancient and modern eloquence in a periodical, memoirs 
of George Peabody and of Erastus Brigham Bigelow in the Merchants' 
Magazine, address (1849) before the New England Society of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., two Fourth of July orations, historical discourse (1850) 
at the bicentennial celebration in Topsfield, historical discourse in 
Byfield (1863) at the centennial celebration of Dummer Academy. 
Five volumes, descriptive and historical, in regard to Greenwood 
Cemetery; "The Flowers Personified," a translation from the French 
of " Les Flours Animees," in two volumes, royal octavo. 

This brief enumeration, which might be considerably extended, 
though it amounts to very little, may yet perhaps save me from the 
suspicion of having been only an idler. 



GRADUATES. 173 

In 1823 I married Abb} r Pickard, daughter of Dr. Joseph Manning 
of Charleston, S. C. Children, — Joseph M., a graduate of Prince- 
ton, now superintendent of the State Hospital for Insane at Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y. ; George N., a graduate of Yale, now a farmer in 
Westport, Conn.; Henry W., an architect in San Francisco; Abby 
E. My wife died in 1836. In 1842 I married Katharine Atherton, 
daughter of David Means of Amherst, N. H. ; she died in 1846. Her 
only child, Katharine L, is the wife of Robert Means Lawrence of 
Boston.* 

Rufus King Porter was born in 1794 in Biddeford, where his 
father, Dr. Aaron Porter, then lived. His mother was a sister of the 
illustrious statesman whose name she gave to her son. His sister 
Isabella married the Rev. Lyman Beecher. Another sister, Lucy, 
married the Rev. Charles L. Brace, and was the mother of Charles K. 
Brace, the well-known traveller, author, and philanthropist. As a 
scholar, when in college, he was both quick and accurate ; but while 
in some departments we all conceded the first place to him, he had a 
difficult}' of utterance and a deficiency of executive power which pre- 
vented him from being fully appreciated. He settled as a lawyer at 
Machias in 1817, where he had for many years an extensive and lucra- 
tive practice. He was a sound lawyer, a judicious counsellor, and a 
strictly upright man. He did not meddle with politics, he sought no 
office, but was ready for any service in the parish or the schools. 
Above all things he loved his home, and made it bright and happy by 
his cheerful kindness. In the decline of life he suffered much from 
deafness and other infirmities. He died suddenly in 1856. 

In 1820 Mr Porter married Emma, daughter of Gen. John Cooper 
and niece of Hon. James Savage. She died in 1827, having borne 
to him four children, of whom Charles W. is a Bowdoin graduate of 
1842. In 1829 he married Lucy Lee Hedge, and there were four 
children by this marriage. 

Benjamin Franklin Salter was a son of John Salter, a shipmaster 
in Portsmouth, N. H. He was born in 1792, and was fitted for col- 
lege by Dr. Abbot of Exeter. Having graduated, he engaged in com- 
mercial pursuits. Soon after peace was restored he sailed for Europe 
on a trading voyage. Upon his return he planted himself at Fayette- 
ville, N. C, where, in connection with a brother, he engaged in the 

* Mr. Cleaveland delivered an address at the opening of the Cleaveland Cabinet of 
the college, July, 1873, which was printed. He died at Westport, April 17, 1877, in 
his eighty-first year. p. 



174 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

cotton trade. Fayetteville was then an important mart, and the Sal- 
ters for many years were greatly prospered. But the sudden reverse 
of 1837 overtook and overwhelmed them. Since that time Mr. Salter 
has regarded the city of New York as his home. The prosecution of 
the cotton business has, however, led him to spend most of his win- 
ters in the Southern States. If his commercial operations have not 
all been successful, and if rheumatic affections of late have somewhat 
limited his movements, neither circumstance seems to have impaired 
the cheerfulness of his spirit, or to have ruffled that quiet philosophy 
which distinguished him even in youth. 

About 1828 Mr. Salter was married to Harriet C Tibbits of Ports- 
mouth. Of ten children seven are living. One son, a physician, is 
married and lives in New York. Two younger sons, yet at home, are 
preparing to become traders. Of their four daughters two are mar- 
ried, one living in Florida and the other in New York. From motives 
of convenience, Mr. Salter long since omitted the "Franklin" from 
his name. 

It was in the spring of 1858 that I made the above written record. 
I had just had a long and pleasant interview with my classmate and 
friend. Though he was lame and weak to a degree that excited my 
fears, he was in spirit the same calm and cheerful man I had always 
known. Returning after an absence of several months in Europe, I 
made an early call at his house, hoping that he might still be there. I 
saw only an afflicted daughter. Three months before her father had 
been laid bj* the side of his parents in his native town. 

1814. 

James Bowdoin was the second son of Thomas L. Winthrop of 
Boston, and a grandson of Governor James Bowdoin. He studied 
the law and entered on its practice in his native city ; but having 
received from the distinguished uncle whose name he had assumed a 
competent estate, he relinquished the profession for more congenial 
pursuits. Mr. Bowdoin " was a man of retired habits and disposition, 
and shrank from public display." In the State Legislature, in the 
Boston school committee, and in several benevolent institutions his 
useful services were enjoyed and prized. But he devoted himself 
more especially to subjects of an antiquarian and historical character, 
and the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society bear 
repeated testimon} 7- to the diligence and discrimination of his re- 
searches. In the winter of 1832 he was compelled to abandon his 
pursuits and his home, and to seek relief from pulmonary affections in 




/&* &/. -/it^s&^-t^O 



well. 






GEADUATES. 3 75 

a milder climate. A tropical air seemed only to develop his disease, 
and he died in Havana March 6, 1833. He is remembered yet as a 
scholar, a philanthropist, and a Christian. 

John Bush was born in 1792 in Boylston, Mass. He had charge 
of the academy in Wiscasset for a time. Having studied medicine, he 
lived awhile in Ipswich, awhile in Danvers, and then settled in Vas- 
salboro', which has since been his home, with occasional sojourns 
in Augusta. Dr. Bush was married in 1819 to Anne Wayne. They 
have two sons married and settled at Skowhegan, and one son who 
lives in Waterville. A letter received from the doctor a few years ago 
informed me that he had then ready for the press a work entitled 
" Light from the Spirit Land." The survivors of the class of 1814 
ma} r be interested to know that Dr. Bush has ' ' received several com- 
munications from Atkinson, Bowdoin, and Cargill, perfectly identi- 
fied." He died at Vassalboro', 1876. 

James Cargill was a son of Col. James Cargill of Newcastle, 
where he was born in 1790. Large and somewhat ungainly in person, 
he had a good mind, great kindness of disposition, and the fervor of 
a true piety. To the character and influence of this solitary religious 
pioneer, Prof. E. C. Smyth has done full justice in his sermons on the 
religious history of the college. Cargill came to Brunswick with a 
consumptive habit already fixed ; he took little or no exercise, sank 
gradualby under the disease, and dropped into the grave a few days 
only after he received the honors of the college. 

Charles Northend Cogswell graduated with honor at the age of 
seventeen, studied law in his native town, South Berwick, and on 
admission to the bar formed a partnership with his instructor, Wil- 
liam A. Hayes. This connection, agreeable and profitable to both 
parties, remained unbroken until the death of the younger partner. 
Mr. Cogswell soon acquired a high reputation for promptness and 
accuracy, for knowledge and skill. tb In ever} 7 sphere of labor in his 
profession save that of the advocate, the duties of which he never 
attempted (not for want of talent, but from excessive modest}') , he was 
almost without a rival, and had no superior." His extraordinary 
faculty for business became extensively known, was in constant 
requisition, and secured a lucrative reward. During the latter part 
of his life he served two terms in the State Senate, and one term in 
the House of Representatives. In these bodies he had the weight 
which always belongs to a man of solid learning and judgment, and of 



176 HISTOKY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

useful business habits. He was now an acknowledged leader in the 
ruling Democratic party, and popular among men of all opinions. At 
the time of his death the}' were talking of him for governor. The 
event which ended in a moment all these labors, plans, and hopes was 
caused by an apoplectic stroke, Oct. 11, 1843. As a man he was 
social, generous, public-spirited, and benevolent ; as a husband and 
father always true and tender. His first wife, a daughter of Elisha 
Hill, Esq., of Portsmouth, N. H., left no issue. His second wife was 
the daughter of Gen. Edward Russell, formerly of Portland. 

John Abbot Douglass, nephew by the mother's side to Prof. John 
Abbot, was born in Portland, February, 1792. He was fitted for col- 
lege at the academy, then under Edward Payson, afterwards the emi- 
nent Dr. Payson, and Ebenezer Adams, who became professor of 
mathematics at Dartmouth, and during his last year at Exeter under 
Dr. Abbot. After his graduation he taught school three years in 
Portland. His theological studies, begun with Dr. Payson, were con- 
cluded under his uncle, Dr. Abbot of Beverly, and he received license 
to preach from the Essex Association, Massachusetts, in 1819. In 
1821 he was settled at Waterford, a Congregational minister, and there 
he still is, having spent in that quiet spot fifty useful years. In 1822 
Mr. Douglass married a daughter of Rev. Abiel Abbot. She soon 
died, but her venerable father long survived, and was for a time the 
oldest living name on the catalogue of Harvard. In 1824 Mr. Doug- 
lass married a daughter of Benjamin Abbot of Temple, who died in 
1872. Of ten children two sons and three daughters survive. One 
daughter is married to John M. Eveleth, M. D. (Bowdoin College, 
1849). One son, John A. D., graduated at Bowdoin College in 1854 ; 
M. D., New York, 1861 ; and is in the practice of his profession at 
Amesbury, Mass.* 

* The above having been written several years since, with the exception of one or 
two insertions of recent date, it is fitting to add that Mr. Douglass continued in the 
pastorate, though in the few last years with a colleague, until his death, August, 
1878, greatly respected and beloved. He was, as testified by one who from long per- 
sonal experience knew of what he wrote, a man " of marked individuality, of true 
natural independence of character, respectful to all, and self-respectful also " ; mod- 
est and discreet withal, systematic, stable, and confided in. He exerted a command- 
ing influence and left an impression on his people aud the town. He was much 
blessed in his ministry. 

Mr. Douglass was a member of the board of trustees of Bridgeton Academy forty- 
seven years, and its president twenty-seven, and usually in attendance at its meet- 
ings, p. 



GRADUATES. 177 

Charles Dummer was born in Hallo well, to which place his parents 
removed from Newbury (Byfield Parish), Mass. His mother was a 
sister of the celebrated mechanicians and inventors, Paul and David 
Mood}'. The name of Dummer is honorably associated with the his- 
toiy of Massachusetts. The Bay State can boast of few abler men 
than Jeremy Dummer, so long her provincial agent in England ; of 
few better men than William Dummer, so long her first magistrate at 
home. 'At Dummer Academy in Newbury may still be seen a por- 
trait of its founder, the governor. It must have been taken while he 
was in his prime, and displays the elaborate costume of that day. 
For nearly twenty years this picture daily met my eye, and almost as 
often did it remind me by its resemblance of m} r college friend, Charles 
Dummer. With such fidelity does nature sometimes preserve and 
reproduce a family type ! It must not be inferred that Mr. Dummer 
is descended from the governor, who had no children. Charles Dum- 
mer was sent first to Middlebury College in Vermont. After two 
years of ambitious and indefatigable study at Brunswick, he gradu- 
ated with high honor. Then he spent three equally industrious years 
in the law office of the distinguished William Prescott of Boston. He 
returned to Hallowell and found business in his profession. He was 
sent to the Legislature and took part in its debates. He was made an 
overseer of the college and became an active member of the board. 
About this time he married Mary, only daughter of Matthew Cobb of 
Portland. But here misfortune soon overtook him : his wife survived 
her marriage but little more than a year. He was again united in 
marriage to Miss Cleves of Saco, still living ; they have no children. 

About twenty years ago Mr. Dummer became a clerk in the Treas- 
ury Department at Washington, and thenceforth disappeared from the 
professional and political scene in which he came forward with so 
much promise. But useless or unemployed he has not been. Through 
all the changes of party and of administration he retained his office, 
for no better reason perhaps than that such ability and such integrity 
could not conveniently be spared. So high in these respects was his 
standing in Washington that Secretary- Guthrie in 1855 detailed him 
to New York on a special duty connected with the customs. He dis- 
charged the arduous and delicate commission to the satisfaction of all. 
After several year's' service as deputy collector in New York, Mr. Dum- 
mer resigned and returned to his native Hallowell. There he lives in 
the pleasant house which he built foily years ago, and superintends 
the little farm which his father owned. Friend of my youth, may 
tlry decline be gentle, and serene its close ! 

[Mr. Dummer died in 1872. — p.] 



178 HISTOEY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Stephen Emery, born in 1790 at Minot, was the son of Moh«_ 
Emery. Like many a poor boy in those days, he had to work his own 
way through school and college. Having graduated with a high 
reputation for scholarship and taste, he took charge of the academy 
in Hallowell. After one year there and another year as master of a 
private boys' school in Portland, he went to Paris and entered on the 
stud} r of law. In this science his teachers were Albion K. Parris and 
Enoch Lincoln. He was admitted in 1819 and opened an office in 
Paris. By appointment of Governor Lincoln he held the office of 
probate judge for Oxford County for a number of years. Governor 
Fairfield made him attorney-general. For several years he was chair- 
man of the State Board of Education. By appointment of Governor 
Hubbard he held the office of district judge, until the district courts 
were abolished by act of Legislature. 

To these evidences of the esteem in which Judge Emery has long 
been held both as a lawyer and a citizen, it were easy to add others. 

By his first wife, Sarah Stowell, he had three children : one died in 
infancy ; one married Hannibal Hamlin, United States senator ; one, 
George F. (Bowdoin College, 1836), is United States Circuit Court 
clerk for Maine. Mrs. Emery died in 1823. In 1825 Mr. Emery 
married Jeannette Loring of Buckfield. Of her three children, one is 
the wife of Rev. Nathaniel Butler of Rockland, with whom Mr. Emery 
now resides ; one has succeeded her sister as wife of Senator Hamlin ; 
and one is fitting for college. The second wife died in 1855. Judge 
Emery has retired from the activities of life He has suffered much 
from ill health, and has known in other ways what it is to be afflicted. 
Yet few, I apprehend, among those whom I describe have known 
more happiness than he. Happy he still is in his books, his children, 
and his friends. Time and care have left their marks upon his person, 
but have not chilled his spirit. Among all my friends of those pleasant 
college days, I know no fresher memory or warmer heart than his. 

[The notice above was written more than ten years ago. I leave it 
unaltered, except the addition that Judge Emery died in 1863. — p.] 

John Eveleth was born in 1786 in New Gloucester. After his 
graduation he kept the academy in Hebron about two years. Having 
studied law he settled in Windham, where- he still lives. Besides 
attending to his professional duties Mr. Eveleth has kept the Wind- 
ham records for a quarter of a century, and has been three times a 
member of the Maine House of Representatives. In 1824 he married 
Rebecca Merrill of New Gloucester. They have had two sons : Samuel 
A. graduated at Bowdoin College in 1847, studied law and practised 



GEADUATES. 179 

with his father until his death in 1856 ; John M. (Bowdoin College, 
1849) is now a practitioner of medicine. 
[Mr. Eveleth died in 1859.— p.] 

Nathaniel Groton of Waldoboro' was born in 1791. His grand- 
father, William, came to America a soldier in Wolfe's army, and saw 
his gallant general fall. Several } T ears later he settled on a large 
tract of wild land in what is now known as Nobleboro'. By his wife, 
Prudence Giddings of Chebacco Parish, Ipswich, he had a son Wil- 
liam. To Waldoboro' in 1774 came Nathan Sprague from Marsh- 
field, and he was a great-grandson of that Peregrine White who 
became immortal by the accident of his birth on board the ' ' May- 
flower." Nathan's daughter Mary married William Groton and 
became the mother of our Nathaniel. At the age of fourteen or fifteen 
he was possessed with a passion for a sailor's life ; but a wreck at sea 
made him wiser, and having earnestly prepared at Hebron Academy 
he entered college. After graduation, having studied law, he opened 
an office in Bath. For two years he was in the Senate of Maine, and 
for fourteen years he was probate judge for Lincoln County. In the 
latter } r ears of his life he spent much time in collecting facts of local 
history and biography, which he made public though the newspapers 
and in the collections of the Maine Historical Society. By his wife, 
Elizabeth W. Kittredge, he had a son, who died young, and daughter. 
This daughter married F. O. J. Smith. Judge Groton died in 1858. 

Samuel Hale, son of Judge Samuel Hale of Barrington, N. H., 
was born in 1793. The eight years which followed his graduation 
were spent mostly at his paternal home in literary pursuits or in work 
on the farm. In 1822 he formed a partnership with Ichabod Rollins, 
settled in Portsmouth, engaged largely in navigation, and was highly 
successful. He was for some time president of the Piscataqua Bank, 
and the efficient treasurer of the Portsmouth Cotton Manufacturing 
Company at South Berwick. He was a deacon in the Unitarian 
church at Portsmouth, and held for many years the office of trustee in 
Phillips Academy, at Exeter. 

He married Nancy Rollins, who died several years ago. Of four 
children three survive, two daughters, and a son who is in the firm of 
Wm. Hale & Co., Dover, N. H. Mr. Hale died in 1869. 

Winthrop Hilton from Deerfield, N. H., was born in 1794. He 
came from ancestors some of whom were men of renown in the early 
da} T s of the colony and in old Indian wars. His father, Col. Joseph 
Hilto held a command and did good service in our Revolutionary 



180 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

war. On leaving college Winthrop became a farmer. Unambitious 
of political distinction, he has been content with a place on the school 
committee and in the board of selectmen. He has repeatedly repre- 
sented the town in the State Legislature, and holds a commission as 
justice of the peace and the quorum. For many years the cause of 
temperance has had in him an earnest and consistent advocate. He- 
married Mary Tilton of Epping, N. H., in 1823, and they have had 
ten children.* 

Elijah King, born in 1789, came from Minot. He rubbed along 
through college in some unaccountable way, as others have done 
before and since. If he had but little either of wit or fun, he was 
highly provocative of those qualities in others. Having obtained his 
degree'he heard — or thought he heard — a Macedonian call from the 
benighted South. At the last accounts he was teaching school some- 
where in Georgia. But this was long ago. Whether he still walks 
the earth, or sleeps beneath it, or as his classmate Groton used to 
insist, went off like another Elijah in a car of fire, are problems of 
interest yet to be solved. 

Edward Orne was born in 1791 in Salem, Mass. After his grad- 
uation he studied medicine awhile ; but with the return of peace he 
took to the sea, and for twenty years followed with few interruptions 
the China and East India trade. Then, at the solicitation of a com- 
pany in Boston and New York, he became their financial agent for the 
purchase and location of Chickasaw Indian claims in Northern Mis- 
sissippi. In this business he invested a large capital and acquired a 
good estate. His subsequent operations were less successful. He 
died at the age of fifty-four, " leaving as a legacy to his children little 
beside an untarnished reputation for honesty and generous liberality." 
He left two sons and two daughters by his first marriage, and a son 
and daughter by the second marriage. In 1860 his eldest son was a 
lawyer in Memphis, Tenn., and his second son was in China with the 
prosperous house of Russell & Co. at Canton. 

William King Porter, a young man of pleasing person and man- 
ners and of most amiable temper, was the eldest son of Dr. Benjamin 
J. Porter of Topsham. Through the lavish indulgence of his distin- 
guished uncle, whose name he bore and whose presumptive heir he then 
was, he came near being spoiled ; but his own good sense and the 

*Mr. Hilton died in Deerfield, August, 18G9, his widow iu 1875, and five only of the 
children survive at this writing (1882). p 








<rz 



GKADUATES. 181 

timely failure of his worldly expectations saved Him from ruin. He 
settled ill 1818 in Turner, where he practised until he died, sustain- 
ing always an honorable rank in his profession, and respected for his 
private virtues. A fever terminated his life in 1834. He was married 
in 1823 to Sophronia, daughter of Col. Cyrus Clark. His widow and 
her four daughters are still living in Portland. Of the latter, one is 
married to Charles P. Kimball. 

William Henry Robbins. This young man was of Hallowell. In 
college he was rather poetical than profound. His appearance and 
performance at that time excited only moderate expectations. He 
studied law with Hon. S. S. Wilde and practised awhile in Hallowell, 
" but with little success." From that place he removed to Cheraw in 
South Carolina, where he almost immediately went into a lucrative and 
extensive practice. He became "a highly respectable lawyer and 
advocate, .regularly going the circuits and constantly engaged in. im- 
portant causes. He acquired property as well as reputation, and left 
a competency to his widow and two children." He died at home of 
consumption in 1843, after a fruitless endeavor to find relief in the 
climate and from the physicians of France. "As a man of lasting 
friendships, of kindness of heart, of firm integrity, and as a Christian 
of consistent character and clear spirit and experience, W. H. Rob- 
bins was appreciated by those who knew him, especially during the 
later years of his life." For this pleasing picture of the man I am 
indebted to his early friends George C. Wilde, Esq., of Boston, and 
Rev. Dr. Vaughan of Philadelphia. 

1815. 

Robert Pincknev Dunlap was the }^oungest son of Capt. John 
Dunlap of Brunswick. His mother was Mary Tappan from New- 
buryport. He studied the law in his native town, and there opened an 
office. His first forensic efforts attracted some notice, and are still 
remembered ; but coming soon afterwards into the possession of a 
handsome patrimony, he gradually slipped out of his profession. His 
country meanwhile, or that portion of it known as the Democratic 
party, began to call for his services, and Mr. Dunlap readily re- 
sponded to that call. Beginning as a member of the lower house, he 
soon went into the upper chamber, and 3'oung as he was, became pres- 
ident of the Maine Senate. During one 3'ear he was a councillor 
and advised the governor, and then for four years he filled with great 
dignity the gubernatorial chair. The excellent spirit that dictated and 



182 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

pervaded his proclamations for fast and thanksgiving attracted notice 
and commendation far beyond the limits of the State. From 1842 to 
1846 Governor Dunlap represented the Cumberland District in Con- 
gress. He was afterwards appointed collector of Portland, and dis- 
charged for a time the duties of that office to general acceptance. He 
lost the place when the Whigs came in. On the accession of Presi- 
dent Pierce, Governor Dunlap had the Brunswick post-office given 
him. He very early took an interest in Freemasonry, and through 
all its vicissitudes was true to the faith. In that mystic fraternity he 
ranked as Most Excellent, and has held the national and exalted posi- 
tion of General Grand High Priest. At the triennial meeting of the 
General Grand Chapter of the United States at Hartford in 1856, this 
distinguished hierarch delivered an address, which was published by 
order of the Chapter, and which is excellent both in spirit and taste. 
A handsome piece of plate with complimentary inscription was given 
him when he left the priesthood. For fifteen years past he has been 
president of the Board of Overseers. In regard to the integrity and 
consistency of his life I have heard from his neighbors only one testi- 
mony, and that the highest. In 1825 he married Lydia, daughter of 
Abner Chapman of Beverly, Mass. They have three sons and a 
daughter. Charles R. P. Dunlap graduated at Bowdoin College, 1846, 
now M. D. ; Henry Dunlap, Bowdoin College, 1854, and LL. B., 
Albany. 

Leaving unchanged this notice of Mr. Dunlap as written two or 
three years ago, I must add a word or two now that he has left us. 
Mr. Dunlap died in Brunswick, October, 1859, after a short illness. 
He had just before returned from a visit in Illinois. He was interred 
with Masonic honors, and many demonstrations of affection and respect 
from those who had known him long and well. Dr. Adams in his 
funeral discourse paid an affectionate tribute to the piety and Chris- 
tian excellence of the man who had so long been a member and a 
deacon of his church. This praise, it is believed, none can refuse 
him. Even those who sometimes smiled at his foibles or disliked his 
political principles and action were compelled to acknowledge that 
Governor Dunlap was a truly good man. 

George Evans was born in 1797 ; came to college from Hallowell, 
having fitted at the academies in that town and in Monmouth, and 
entered as Sophomore in his sixteenth year. He was respectable as 
a scholar, with a marked tendency to poetry. Having studied law 
with Frederic Allen, he settled in Gardiner just after he had entered 
the twenty-first year of his age, and entered at ouce on a career in 



*J^ 1i KK 







(~^Ce/. bir~i 



et^j 



SON. GEORGE E~VMTS. 



GRADUATES. 183 

which he won distinction. He became the peer of the most prominent 
members of the very able bar of his county. As a criminal lawyer 
and advocate he attained eminence, and his ability and eloquence in 
certain cases have become traditions ; but he gained national reputa- 
tion in political life, on which he entered at an early period. Elected 
to the Legislature in 1825. he acted a leading part for four consecu- 
tive years : in the last was Speaker of the House, and exhibited great 
skill and address in the duties of that chair. In 1829, after a hotly 
contested canvass and on a second trial, he was elected representative 
to Congress over a formidable rival. He served seven successive 
terms and was then elected to the Senate of the United States. During 
his twelve years in the House, his party being in the minority and he 
second only on the Committee of Ways and Means, he exerted a 
commanding influence. His address and ability often carried meas- 
ures in a body of which a large majority were politically opposed to 
him. He took his seat in the Senate in the palmiest days of its 
history, when Webster. Calhoun. Clay, Crittenden, Dayton, Silas 
Wright. Rives. Benton, and Preston made it illustrious. In questions 
of political economy he maintained prominent position ; was chairman 
of its Committee of Finance, Mr. Clay having declined that responsi- 
bility, assigning the reason that Mr. Evans knew more about the tariff 
than any other public man in the country. In 1816 Mr. "Welter in 
one of his speeches, referring to what he styled '"the incom rable ' 
speech " of Mr. Evans delivered just before, declared that he under- 
stood the subject (of finance) as well as any gentlemen connected with 
the government since the days of Crawford and Gallatin, — nay, as well 
as either of those ever understood it. Mr. Evans's power in debate 
was universally admitted, and his speeches on the most important and 
complicated questions were among the most effective in the memorable 
debates of that period. He was a prominent candidate for the Vice- 
Presidency when Gen. Taylor was put in nomination for the Presi- 
dency. On the accession of President Taylor it was what has been 
regarded an ungracious secret influence of a few from his own State, 
to whom his decided agency in seeming the ratification of the Ash- 
burton Treat}*, together with other causes, had rendered him obnoxious, 
that prevented his appointment to the head of the Treasury, for which 
he had shown rare qualifications. President Taylor, however, appointed 
him chairman of the Commission on Mexican Claims. 

After eighteen years of service in Congress. Mr. Evans returned to 
his own State and his profession. He was attorney-general of the 
State for three years, and took position at the head of the bar. In 
his large practice are ascribed to him entire freedom from the artifice 



184 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

which not unfrequently disgrace the profession, and a courtesy to 
court and bar which won for him general respect, confidence, and 
regard. He was chosen the first president of the Portland and Ken- 
nebec Railway, and the enterprise received the benefit of his strong 
powers of organization and administration. 

Mr. Evans had qualities which insured pre-eminence. Ready per- 
ception, power of concentration, and the facult} 7 of presenting a 
subject, however complicated, with a clearness, a compactness of 
statement and argument, and a copiousness of illustration that 
secured attention and appealed to the reason. It is said he never 
revised or prepared a speech for the press, nor would ever look at the. 
proof-sheets of a reporter. On the occasion of an important public 
gathering he was asked for the manuscript of the speech he was to 
deliver. Laughing at the request, he declared that he had never in 
his life written a word of any political speech. 

Mr. Evans was a devoted son of his Alma Mater. Early a member 
of the Board of Overseers, and for twenty- two years on the Board of 
Trustees, he was influential, uniformly active in duty, a prominent 
object on the Commencement platform, present at the public exercises 
of the occasion when not engaged at the board. In 1847 the college 
bestowed on him its highest honor. 

When Mr. P^vans retired from congressional life he took up his res- 
idence at Portland. His last years were burdened with infirmity and 
he died in 1867, leaving a wife and three children, a son and two 
daughters. 

Perez Bryant Mann, born in Hallowell in 1798, lived but three 
years after he left college. He had joined his father, who was engaged 
in business at Augusta, Ga. In a season of unusual mortality in 
1818 both died, leaving " a much reduced and truly afflicted house- 
hold." 

Richard Elvins Orne, brother of Edward (18l4), was a son of 
Josiah and Alice Allen Orne of Salem, Mass., where he was born in 
1795. The Rev. Richard Elvins of Scarboro' was his great-great- 
grandfather, for whom he was named. He was fitted for college at 
Phillips Exeter Academy, and by Rev. Dr. Eaton of Boxford. For 
several years Mr. Orne followed the sea, making Salem his home. 
Since that time he has lived in the Southwestern States in the capacity 
of a land agent, and for several years has resided at Memphis, Tenn. 
He was married in 1823 to Ann Allen. Of three married daughters 
two have been taken from them. Two unmarried sons yet live with 



GRADUATES. 185 

their parents. Mr. Orne, with a heart still warm and true to memory 
and friendship, revisits occasionally the scenes of his youth. 
[Mr. Orne died in 1860. — p.] 

Chandler Robbins was a brother of William H. R. (class of 
1814). While preparing to be a physician, he had an opportunity to 
avail himself of the great medical advantages which are found in Paris. 
On his return he settled in Boston, and soon gained a highly respecta- 
ble standing. " He was," sa} T s Prof. D. H. Storer, " a good plrysician 
and a good man, much respected by our profession and the commu- 
nity." An attack of pleurisj^ closed in 1836 his promising career. He 
married a daughter of Barnabas Hedge of Plymouth, and left two 
daughters and a son. 

Levi Stowell was born in 1793. In 1818 he began to practise 
law in Paris. He was made register of probate, and was at one time 
county treasurer. From 1845 to 1853 he was engaged in farming. 
But his health was poor and his tendencies were consumptive, and so 
he fled from the cold skies of Maine to the banks of the Wabash. 
But the Wabash was not wholly friendly : while it relieved his cough, 
it burned him with fever and shook him with ague. From Vincennes 
he removed to Knox County, Ind., where he was postmaster and magis- 
trate and county school examiner. Eight children were the fruit of 
his earl}- and happy marriage. He died in 1865. 

Solomon Thayer was born in 1789 in Bridgewater, Mass. After 
working awhile at the anvil with his father, who had moved to Sidnej^, 
Me., he entered Hebron Academy. His law studies were pursued in 
the office of Benjamin Orr, of whose business he had charge during 
Mr. Orr's absence as a member of Congress. In 1818 Mr. Thayer 
settled at Lubec. He was for some time inspector of customs. He 
also represented the town in the State Legislature. As a business man 
he was prosperous. He died in 1857 in Portland, where he had been 
living for five years. He is represented as a man of " stern Puritan 
principle and religious character." He married Eliza Faxon of Quebec ; 
they had no children. 

John A. Vaughan, a son of Charles Vaughan of Hallowell, went soon 
after he graduated to London, where he was employed for a time in the 
banking house of his uncle, William Vaughan. He came home, mar- 
ried the daughter of John Merrick, and took his wife to Jamaica, West 
Indies, where for several 3 T ears he had the charge of an estate belong- 
ing to his uncle. Then. he returned to Hallowell, and opened there a 



186 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

school for young ladies. He was highly esteemed as a teacher, and 
his school was popular. Meanwhile, however, he was looking to 
another, if not to a wider field of usefulness. In 1833 he was ordained 
deacon, and took charge of the church in Saco. In 1834 he was 
ordained priest, and was settled at Salem, Mass., as rector of St. 
Peter's Church. In 1836 he was appointed secretary of the Episcopal 
Board of Foreign Missions, and for six years discharged its duties 
with good acceptance, when, resigning the office on account of his 
health, he went South for two years. In 1845 he went to Philadel- 
phia, and became superintendent of the Institution for the Blind. In 
this most interesting charity he labored faithfully and usefully for three 
3 r ears. In 1848 Dr. Vaughan returned to his earlier vocation, by 
establishing in Philadelphia a school for young ladies, but was com- 
pelled by ill health to resign the position in 1854. In 1861 he became 
professor of pastoral theology in the Philadelphia Divinity School, and 
so continued till his death in 1865. Through life in everj' situation he 
was profoundly respected and deeply beloved. The college owes him 
giateful remembrance for a gift of 1,200 volumes, most of them valu- 
ble and some of them rare. 

1816. 

Edward Emerson Bourne of Kennebunk began in 1819 to prac- 
tise law in his native town. To the profession which he chose and 
which he loves he has devoted himself steadily and successfully. He 
has served in the Legislature, has twice been appointed county attor- 
ney, and has been judge of probate for York County. He has been 
a trustee of the college since 1866, and is president of the Maine His- 
torical Society. Judge Bourne is fond of historical research, and an 
enthusiastic explorer in the dim regions of the past. He has long 
been an active laborer in the cause of temperance, and for many 
years the superintendent of the Sabbath school in the First Congrega- 
tional parish, a situation which he justly prizes above all civic and 
academic appointments. He has been twice married : first to Mary 
H. Gillpatrick, and secondly to Mrs. Susan H. Lord. Of four chil- 
dren by the first marriage, Edward E., a lawyer in Kennebunk, alone 
survives. A beloved daughter, Lizzie G., died Sept. 14, 1855, in an 
attempt to ascend Mount Washington, and under circumstances which 
caused the event to be widely known, and which enlisted unwonted 
sympathy for the afflicted father and other friends.* 

* Besides several papers contributed to the transactions of the society and to peri- 
odicals, he delivered a historical discourse at Bath on the occasion of the two hundred 
and fifty-seventh anniversary of the Topsham settlement, which was published. For 



GRADUATES. 187 

Randolph A. L. Codman was from Gorham. In college his 
abilities were acknowledged, but he could not be called industrious. 
The first year after graduation was spent in teaching at Limerick. 
From Mr. Longfellow's office he went to Standish and sta3'ed three 
years. He then became a law partner with Asa (afterwards Judge) 
Redington, at Waterville. Here he remained until about 1830. Dur- 
ing this period he was constantly engaged in able conflict with such 
men as Sprague, Evans, and Boutelle, and established a high reputa- 
tion as an advocate. He settled afterwards in Portland, where his 
affability and eloquence commended him at once to popular favor. 
In 1837 he entered into partnership with Edward Fox, Esq., a con- 
nection which lasted nearly ten 3 T ears. He died in Portland in 1853, 
at the age of fifty-seven. He was a man of ready and brilliant tal- 
ents. Had he joined to these equal strength of character and steadi- 
ness of purpose, he would have stood foremost among the successful, 
the useful, and the honored. His first wife, Elizabeth, was a daughter 
of Col. Samuel Stephenson of Gorham. His second wife was a Miss. 
Porter of Portland. He left five daughters, one of whom has since 
died ; one is married to J. Q. Day of Portland, one to George Pay- 
son, Esq., of Chicago, one to Mr. Shaw of Portland. 

Rodney Gove Dennis, born in 1791 in New Boston, N. H., was the 
youngest of thirteen children. "When in 1813 he entered as a Sopho- 
more, he found in college but one professing Christian brother. Hon- 
orable mention of his example and influence as an undergraduate is 
made in Prof. E. C. Smyth's religious history of the college. Soon 
after leaving the Andover school Mr. Dennis was settled in Topsfield, 
Mass., and after nine years of earnest service there he asked and 
received a dismission. In 1830 he was settled at Somers, Conn. 
Here too he spent nine years with a church and congregation which 
grew under his ministry. After his retirement from Somers he had 
no permanent charge. He bought a farm in Grafton, Mass., on 
which he lived and which he tilled, still preaching here and there as 
he was called for. He was married in 1820 to Mary Parker, and 
they had ten children. Mr. Dennis died in 1865. 

Stephen Longfellow Lewis was a son of Hon. Lothrop Lewis of 
Gorham. He studied law with his uncle Longfellow in Portland, and 

several years he devoted his time not occupied by professional labors to an extensive 
history of Wells and Kennebunk, — a work of eight hundred pages, the fruit of faith- 
ful research and patient industry, which was published under the editorial care of his 
son in 1875, the father having died in 1873. p. 



188 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

established himself in Athens, where he obtained at once a good prac- 
tice. He was a kind-hearted, cheerful, companionable man. The 
"Athenians" liked him, and sent him to the Legislature as their 
representative. But sickness overtook him ; he returned to Gorham, 
and died in 1825. He left a widow and one child. 

Dudley Norms was not only a good scholar, but also kind and 
true-hearted. He chose the medical profession and entered on the 
study, but died within a year at his home in Hallowell. 

Alpheus Spring Packard, eldest son of Rev. Dr. Packard, was 
born in Chelmsford, Mass., in 1798. To the good training which he 
got at home was added a year under Dr. Abbot at Exeter. After a 
correct and creditable college course, he was an assistant teacher in 
Gorham Academy, taught in Wiscasset, then a year in Bucksport 
where he taught the public school with great siiccess, and was princi- 
pal for a short time of Hallowell Academy. From 1819 to 1824 he 
was a tutor in Bowdoin College. From 1824 to 1865 he was pro- 
fessor of the Latin and Greek languages, and for three years (1842- 
1845) had charge of rhetoric and oratory. For the twelve }^ears last 
past the department of natural and revealed religion has been in- 
trusted to his care. He is also the college librarian. 

Of Prof. Packard's substantial and sterling excellence I may hardly 
trust myself to write, influenced as I might seem to be by the partial- 
ity of a lifelong friendship. Should I go out and gather testimony 
from the large army of Bowdoin men who have enjoyed- his instruc- 
tions, I could undoubtedly present ample and grateful attestation to 
his ability as a teacher and to the unswerving fidelity with which he 
has discharged every duty of his station. For more than fifty years 
he has stood at his post, the steadfast supporter of learning, order, and 
virtue. His strength, we rejoice to see, seems still unabated. Long 
may it be ere the grateful institution which he has so faithfully served 
shall be called to place him among her honored and beloved emeriti. 

The following communication was presented to Prof. Packard at 
the Commencement of 1869 at the public dinner : — 

Bear. Sir, — The subscribers to this paper, graduates of the college in 
which you have so long been an instructor, are unwilling that this your 
fiftieth year of official service should pass without some special recognition 
on our part. Accept our congratulations on that kind Providence which has 
favored you with so many useful, happy years. Accept also our thanks for 
the fidelity, the kindness, the constant courtesy which marked all your inter- 
course with us while we were your pupils, as well as for the cordial welcome 







i 



- 
- - - 



Ennrayed far thz-BcvtdorJh MaJuirujZ 



GRADUATES. 189 

which you have never failed to give us when we revisited the old classic 
ground. ' 

As a testimonial, inadequate indeed, of our gratitude and regard, we tender 
you herewith a small pecuniary contribution. With it please receive the . 
assurances of our best wishes for your health and happiness, and of our hope 
that for years to come it may still be your privilege not only to enjoy but to 
promote the prosperity of the institution which you have so faithfully served. 
July, 1869. 

(Signed) 

N. CLEAVELAND, 
R. ANDERSON, 
FRANKLIN PIERCE, 
WM. H. ALLEN, 
WM. P. FRYE, 
P. W. CHANDLER, 
In behalf of the Subscribers to the Fund. 

The amount of the fund was $1,220. 

Prof. Longfellow in his " Morituri Salutamus," at the semi-centen- 
nial of his class at the Commencement of 1875, refers to Prof. Pack- 
ard, their only surviving teacher, who was seated at their invitation 
with the class on the platform. After apostrophizing the college 
scenes and halls that yet gave no response, — 

" Not so the teachers who in earlier days 
Led our bewildered feet through learning's maze. 
They answer us, — alas ! what have I said? 
What greetings come there from the voiceless dead? 
What salutation, welcome, or reply, 
What pressure from the hands that lifeless lie? 
They are no longer here; they all are gone 
Into the land of shadows — all save one. 
Honor, and reverence, and the good repute 
That follows faithful service as its fruit, 
Be unto him whom living we salute." 

For many years past Prof. Packard has been a licensed and or- 
dained preacher of the gospel, and his services in this capacity have 
been numerous and valuable. Many vacant pulpits in the neighbor- 
hood have thus been well supplied. For a quarter of a century the 
Sabbath school of the Brunswick Congregational Society enjo3'ed his 
able and constant superintendence. Latterly, for a good many j-ears, 
he was one of the most efficient members of the Brunswick school 
committee. 

In 1839 Mr. Packard edited an issue of the "Memorabilia Xeno- 
phontis," and a second edition in 1841. He also edited the works of 
Dr. Appleton in two volumes, and wrote the memoir prefixed. A his- 



190 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

tory of the Monument on Bunker Hill was contributed to the collections 
of the Maine Historical Society, and a memoir of Rev. Mr. Eaton of 
Harpswell, of President Appleton, and of his own father, to Sprague's 
' ' Annals of the American Pulpit." He has contributed two articles to 
the North American Review and one to the Bibliotheca Sacra. A lec- 
ture before the American Institute of Instruction is to be found in their 
proceedings. He has published an address before the alumni in 1858, 
eulogies on Profs. Smyth and Upham, and the discourse at the semi- 
centennial of Maine Conference of Congregational churches in 1876, 
besides a few occasional addresses. He received the degree of D. D. 
from the college in 1869. He is a member of the Maine, and honorary 
member of the New York and Royal (England) Historical Societies. 

In 1827 he married Frances E., second daughter of President 
Appleton, a woman of rare excellence. She died in 1839, leaving 
five children: Charles A. (Bowdoin College, 1848), practising physi- 
cian in Waldoboro', and now in Bath ; William A. (Bowdoin Col- 
lege, 1851), professor of modern languages, and then of Greek lan- 
guage and literature in Dartmouth College, and now professor of Latin 
and the science of language in the College of New Jersey, Princeton ; 
George L. ; Alpheus S. (Bowdoin College, 1861), lecturer on compara- 
tive anatomy and zoology in the college, and now professor of zoology 
and geology, Brown University ; Frances A. In 1844 he married 
Mrs. C. W. McLellan of Portland. They have one child, Robert L. 
(Bowdoin College, 1868), instructor in the French and assistant pro- 
fessor of chemistry in the college, and now first examiner United 
States Patent Office. 

Charles Richard Porter, son of Dr. B. J. Porter of Topsham, 
born in 1797, studied law under the distinguished counsellor and 
advocate, Benjamin Orr ; practised in Topsham for a time, and then 
removed to Camden, where he devoted himself assiduously to his 
profession for several years, and gained reputation as a sound law- 
yer ; was attorney for the county of Waldo. Through impaired health 
rendering it necessary to relinquish a portion of a laborious practice, 
he removed to Bath in 1847. In 1850 he was elected probate judge 
for Sagadahoc County. Throughout he was faithful to the principles 
of the strictest integrity, and secured the respect of the community as 
a citizen, a man, and a Christian. He married a Miss Smith, and 
they had two children who have died. Mr. Porter died in 1860. 

Ebenezer Shillaber, born in 1797 in Salem, Mass., was the son of 
a ship-master. His mother, who died while he was young, was an 
Endicott. In college he ranked high as to scholarship and taste. 



GRADUATES. 191 

Neat in his person, gentle in his manners, kindly in disposition, he 
was universally esteemed. He studied law with Leverett Saltonstall, 
and won his high regard. At the close of the j^ear 1819 he opened 
an office in Newburyport. Here he staj^ed a few years, during which 
he served the town once or twice as a member of the Legislature. 
From Newburyport he removed to Salem, where he continued to prac- 
tise his profession until 1841, when he was appointed clerk of the 
courts for Essex County. This office he held for ten years. The last 
five } r ears of his life were passed in the State of Maine. He died at 
Biddeford, Nov. 9, 1856. 

As a lawyer, Mr. Shillaber during the period of his professional 
career was acknowledged to be both learned and able. He was not 
distinguished as a jury advocate, or in the ordinary and practical busi- 
ness of the courts ; but in an argument before the full bench, the 
thoroughness of his research and the closeness of his logic were 
always conspicuous. 

But alas, how unfortunate ! Freshly before me stands the image of 
his youth, ever modest, ever amiable ; and again I see him in the ful- 
ness of manhood, so intelligent, so courteous, so fastidiously correct, 
and finally — but I can look no longer. 

William Augustus Staples was born in 1795 in Eliot ; studied 
medicine with ardor and success, and took his degree in due course 
at Philadelphia. He was determined to succeed, and had no fears of 
the result. In all the strength of youthful courage and hope and high 
health he went to Havana, resolved there to achieve a fortune. The 
yellow fever seized him, and in less than two weeks from his arrival 
there he was no more. 

John Searle Tenney was born in 1793 in Rowley, Mass. After 
graduating at the head of his class he devoted himself to the law, 
settled in Norridgewock, and was successful. In 1841 he was made 
a justice of the Supreme Court of Maine In 1855 he became chief 
justice, and held the office until 1862, when he had arrived at the 
constitutional limit. For twenty years he was a trustee of the col- 
lege, and also its lecturer on medical jurisprudence. He was twice 
a member of the Maine Legislature. Judge Tenney was a man of 
large frame. His intellect was solid rather than imaginative, and if 
somewhat slow was remarkably strong and sure. By his wife, Mar- 
tha H. Dennis of Ipswich, he had a son, Samuel G-. (Bowdoin Col- 
lege, 1854), and a daughter. "The last years of his life, which 
terminated in 1869, were shaded by domestic sorrow and bodily 
infirmity." 



192 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Wilmot Wood was born in Wiscasset, and there he always lived. 
He began life as a lawyer, but soon went into mercantile business. 
As a merchant and as a citizen he stood deservedly high. He mar- 
ried a Miss Page of Hallowell. Their only son became a ship-master ; 
their only daughter married Erastus Foote, Esq. Mr. Wood died in 
1865 at the age of sixty-nine. 

1817. 

Ebenezer Cheever was born in 1791 in Vermont. Dr. Payson of 
Kindge and the New Ipswich Acadenry prepared him for college. Dr. 
Tappan of Augusta and Mr. Wines of Maine Charity School were 
his theological teachers. He has been settled as a minister in Mt. 
Vernon, N. H., in Waterford, N. Y., in Newark, N. J., in Ypsilanti, 
Mich., and in Putnam, N. J., his present home. When on the verge 
of forty he married Abby M. Mitchell, of Saybrook, Conn., and has 
had seven children, four of whom are living. Two sons are lawyers 
in Detroit ; one daughter is married to B. L. Baxter, a lawyer in 
Tecumseh, Mich. ; another lives with her husband in Newai'k, N. J. 
He has also six grandchildren. To his fellow-students Mr. Cheever 
seemed like an old man when in college. He is now probably as 
young as any of them. His health, which had long been poor, was 
restored by his eight years' residence in the West. He has given up 
his manuscript sermons, preaching three times a week from a sched- 
ule only, carefully studied. Blessed in his family, young again in 
health and strength, he seems to have entered on a green old age. 

[Mr. Cheever died in 1866. — p.] 

Nathan Cummings, born in 1796 in Waterford, whence the family in 
his childhood removed to Portland, where his father was long known 
as a distinguished physician, studied law with Stephen Longfellow, 
Esq., and opened an office in Portland, where he has constantly re- 
sided. He has been collector of the port, and ranks among the most 
respectable and wealthy citizens of Portland. He married Emily, 
daughter of Hon. Isaac Ilsley (see Trustees), on whose death Mr. 
and Mrs. Cummings inherited his large estate. The}' have children: 
Isaac (Brown University), a physician in New York ; Charlotte, Ste- 
phen, and Augustus.* 

* For forty-six years he was a director of Casco Bank, Portland. He was au active 
Whig politician, and in 1840 was appointed collector of the port, but was removed 
for political reasons in 1843. He engaged for a few years in a commercial linn, lmt 
his inclinations led him to renounce active business, and his remaining years were 



GRADUATES. 193 

Samuel Johnson of Winthrop, born in 1792, stood in college at 
the head of his small class. After graduation he succeeded me in the 
Preble Street School, Portland. He was trained for the ministry by 
Rev. Edward Payson ; was settled at Alna where he remained nine 
years, and then at Saco where he sta^-ed seven years. Being chosen 
corresponding secretary of the Maine Missionary Society, he removed 
to Hallowell, and there died in 1837. Mr. Johnson was a good 
preacher and faithful minister. He had a vigorous mind and a pleas- 
ant wit. His person as well as name sometimes reminded us of the 
great lexicographer. He was twice married. His first wife, Hannah 
Brooks of Augusta, lived but a year. The second wife was Hannah 
Whittier of Andover, Mass. Of their seven children, Samuel W. (Bow- 
doin College, 1843) practises medicine in Bristol; William (Bowdoin 
College, lt'56) was a teacher with the ministry in view, for a while, 
then pursued theological study at the Bangor Seminary, and began to 
preach with promise of an able ministr}', but died. The four daugh- 
ters : Hannah B., Anne E. (distinguished as a teacher) , Susan, and 
Lucy. Since 1840 Mrs. Johnsou has lived in Brunswick. 

James McKeen, the president's youngest son, born in Beverly, 
Mass., in 1797, on leaving college engaged with great ardor in the 
study of medicine under Dr. Matthias Spaulding of Amherst, N. H., 
Dr. John Ware of Boston and Dr. Lincoln of Brunswick ; and suc- 
ceeded his last-named teacher, who had removed to Brunswick, as the 
practitioner of Topsham. Both here and in Brunswick he early 
attained to a good reputation and extensive practice. In 1825 he was 
made professor of obstetrics in the medical school, and continued to 
perform the duties of that office until 1839. During the last two of 
these years he also lectured on the theory and practice. Upon the 
decease of Prof. Cleaveland, Dr. McKeen was made dean of the 
Faculty. Prof. McKeen a few years ago evinced his interest in the 
college and in science by the offer of $500 towards an observatory. I 
am not aware that there has been even an attempt to cany this liberal 
proposition into effect. Dr. McKeen's first wife was Sarah Farley 
of Waldoboro'. They had one child who died. He has no offspring 
by his present wife, Octavia Frost of Topsham.* 

given mostly to his home and friends. In 1834 he was elected a member of Maine 
Historical Society. Mr. Cummings had suffered for some time from an attack of 
paralysis, which eventually caused his death, July 15, 1878, at the age of eighty-two 
years. p. 

*Dr. McKeen suffered from protracted disease and died Nov. 28, 1873. A few 
passages may be added to the above which was written several years ago, from 
13 



194 HISTOEY OF BOWDOTN COLLEGE. 

Joseph Green Moody, a son of Joseph and Maria Barrell Moody, 
was bom at Kennebunk in 1797. Having lived successively in Ken- 
nebunk, Augusta, and Bangor, he moved in 1840 to Boston. Mr. 
Mood}' is engaged in mercantile pursuits. He was married in 1826 
to Elizabeth C. Currier of Dover, N. H. A daughter and a son sur- 

remarks at his funeral suggested by the intimate friendship of college and subsequent 
life: — 

" He was distinguished among bis brethren for nice observation, discriminating 
diagnosis and prognosis, for sagacity especially in cases of disordered mental action, 
and for excellent judgment in the treatment of disease. A physician and surgeon 
often needs true courage. I have thought there was much of the hero in our friend. 
He showed this when Asiatic cholera first invaded our land. Some can remember 
the dismay which filled the land ; how we had watched its deadly progress from India 
to Europe, and hoped the broad Atlantic might prove a barrier to its course, and how, 
when it had struck our shores and was plainly on its baleful way and had reached 
New York, our cellars, sewers, aud all our premises were visited by health commit- 
tees in order to prepare for the dread visitation. Apprehending its visit to our towns 
aud wishing to arm himself for the conflict, with his professional ardor and fearless- 
ness Dr. McKeen resolved to repair to New York that he might see with his own 
eyes that strange and most formidable foe of human life, and the best methods 
of science in arresting or vanquishing it. He left without a lisp of his purpose to 
his neighbors, — " ran away," as he expressed it ; and his story of the delays and 
embarrassments he experienced in securing conveyance through Connecticut (for 
terror had almost entirely arrested public travel), his night at the New Haven Hotel, 
where he spent most of the night conversing mostly on the object of his journey with 
one whom he thought an uncommon man, and whom the next morning he found 
to be Daniel Webster, was full of interest. His persistent resolution and genuine 
courage bore him on, thus displaying high devotion to the interests of his profession, 
honorable to him as a physician and a man, and moreover laying this community 
under obligations which they could not have estimated too highly. 

"To refer to other traits of his mind and character as I learned them from long 
and of late years most intimate converse with him, — his conscientious and high 
professional honor : Medical practitioners are sometimes tempted to measures in- 
volving nice considerations of propriety, as also to practices illegal and even criminal. 
I doubt whether any suspicion of infringing on the courtesies of the profession, or 
of yielding to such trials of his integrity, however urgent, ever attached to his name. 
He set his face as a flint against all approaches of the kind. 

" He once told me in one of our confidences that for years it had been his habit, 
before leaving home for professional service, to meditate on the cases he was to visit 
and to seek divine guidance and blessing of the great Physician in the work before 
him. 

"Dr. McKeen was not a mere professional man. No one could be conversant with 
him and not he impressed with the proof of his tenacious memory of men and events. 
In modern political history, whether of our own or other lands, few surpassed him in 
general statement or minute detail." 

Dr. McKeen made the revealed Word his companion, and in later years seemed 
to be girding himself for the end which he well knew could not be far off. lie never 
swerved from the faitli of his fathers; and with profound humiliation of spirit and 
humble hope committed his soul into the hands of his Kedcemer. p. 



GRADUATES. 195 

vive. The latter, George L. Moody, is employed as a civil engineer 
by the city of Chicago, 111. In 1834 Mr. Moody was again married 
to Martha, daughter of Henry W. Fuller of Augusta. There are two 
daughters by this marriage. 

[Mr. Moody died at Cambridge, May 30, 1879. —p.] 

Charles Packard, second son of Rev. H. Packard, was born in 
1801 in Chelmsford, Mass. When his class graduated he did the 
saluting in classical Latin ; and three years afterwards, on the same 
stage, he bade us all an affecting farewell in the same sonorous lan- 
guage. During the interval between these two speeches he had held 
the office of private tutor in the family of Mr. R. H. Gardiner, and 
had also studied law under the able guidance of Frederic Allen and of 
Benjamin Orr. Mr. Packard opened an office in Brunswick, and was 
successful. But as the years rolled on his views of life and its respon- 
sibilities underwent a change. He thought he could work more sat- 
isfactorily and usefully in a different profession. He left the bar, and 
after some time spent in Andover, and at Walnut Hills in Ohio, he 
began to preach. After two years of service in Hamilton, Ohio, he 
was settled (1840) over the Orthodox Congregational Church in Lan- 
caster, Mass. Here he stayed fourteen years. Then for a year he 
preached in Cambridgeport. In 1855 he was settled at North Middle- 
boro', Mass. He is now stationed at Biddeford and seems well 
content. I have seen Mr. Packard in the pulpit, but have never 
heard him preach. I cannot doubt that he is a useful minister, as 
I know him to be a good man. I have doubts, however, whether he 
did wisely in relinquishing a profession which needs men of high 
principle quite as much as the ministry needs them. Mr. Packard, 
in 1829, was married to the youngest daughter of Hon. W. A. Kent of 
Concord. X. H. Of their five children living the eldest is a daughter. 
The sons : C. W. was an assistant physician in the Emigrants' Hos- 
pital on Ward's Island, N. Y., subsequently plrysician at St. Luke's ; 
Edward N. was pastor of the Congregational Church. Evanston, 111., 
now of the Second Church, Dorchester, Mass. ; George T. rector of 
St. John's Church, Bangor, Me. 

Phineas Pratt was born in New Ipswich, N. H., May, 1789. 
After graduation he took charge of Thornton Academy, Saco, pursu- 
ing theological studies during the intervals of school work with Rev. 
Jonathan Cogswell, pastor of the Congregational church He received 
a license to preach, and as opportunity offered exercised his gift ; 
but infirm health compelled him to relinquish the work of the minis- 



196 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

try. He gave himself to more active life, engaged in the lumbering 
business, not always with success. In 1843 he removed to the Kenne- 
bec, at Gardiner, in furtherance of his purposes. Respected as a 
citizen, he held municipal offices, which he discharged with character- 
istic care and accuracy. Having connected himself with the Episco- 
pal church at its establishment in Saco, at his hew residence he 
became warden of Christ Church and superintendent of its Sunday 
school, in which offices " his punctuality, constancy, careful super- 
vision, and devout example produced the happiest results. His whole 
character and feelings were those of a just, sober, and religious man." 
He married Miss Bachelder of New Ipswich, but had no children. He 
died December, 1865. 

John Widgery, born in Portland in 1802, was a grandson of 
the noted William Widgery. He read law in the office of his uncle, 
Nathan Kinsman, and soon after wandered away into the Southwest. 
After sojourning awhile in the Cherokee country, he settled at Little 
Rock in Arkansas, of which city he was chosen mayor. For several 
years past, St. Louis has been his home. He has been empkyed in 
the office of the State surveyor. His wife was Anna Woodward of 
Boston. They have no children. 

[Mr. Widgery died in Portland in 1873. — p.] 

1818. 

Rufus Anderson's father, of the same name, a descendant from one 
of the Scotch-Irish settlers of Londonderry, and brother of Mrs. (Pres- 
ident) McKeen, was minister of a large parish in North Yarmouth, 
where in 1796 the oldest son was born. Isaac Parsons of New 
Gloucester was his maternal grandfather. At the age of thirteen 
Rufus entered Bradford Academy (Rev. Mr. Hardy). Subsequently 
he was in the family of Rev. Asahel Huntington of Topsfield.* In his 
sixteenth year he kept successfully a large and difficult school in 
Manchester, Mass., and had a similar school in Beverly two years 
afterward. Notwithstanding the death of his father at Wenham in 
the spring of 1814, he entered college that year. Of the religious 
revival in 1816 he and his brother were subjects. Dr. Anderson's 
estimate of that great fact in the histoiy of the college is given in Prof. 
Smyth's first discourse. In an uncommonly good class Mr. Ander- 
son held a high rank. His Peucinian brothers chose him to preside 
over them. He arrived in Beverly after his graduation in so poor a 
state of health that his friends prescribed a sea voyage, and started 



GRADUATES. 197 

him off for India . A short sojourn at Rio Janeiro proved so beneficial 
that he resolved to go no farther. At this place his passport was 
demanded. Being unprovided with such a document, he began to 
apprehend serious trouble. Fortunately he had taken his college 
diploma. This was presented to the officer on duty, and was pro- 
nounced sufficient. It is not often, I believe, that this coveted bit of 
parchment proves so useful. On returning to the United States, Mr. 
Anderson gave in the Panoplist his impressions of the Brazilian 
capital. Soon after he entered the Andover Seminary, intending 
there to prepare himself for a mission among the heathen. About that 
time he devised the Christian Almanac, and prepared for the press its 
first two numbers. This serial (now called the Family Christian 
Almanac) is still continued, and has a circulation of over 300,000. 
Mr. Anderson was first connected with the American Board as an 
assistant of Mr. Evarts. In 1823 he was elected assistant correspond- 
ing secretary. Soon after this he published the " Memoir of Cath- 
arine Brown," and the work had a large circulation both here and in 
England. Mr. Anderson was ordained in 1826. Two jears later 
he was sent on a special exploring agency to the missions around the 
Mediterranean, with a particular reference to Greece. He was gone 
somewhat over a year, and soon after gave the results in a volume 
called " Observations upon the Peloponnesus and the Greek Islands." 
Since 1832, when he was chosen a secretary of the board, he has 
had charge of its immense foreign correspondence. In 1843 the 
prudential committee again sent him to the East, with a commission 
to visit the missionaries in Greece, Turkey, and Syria, and confer with 
them in regard to their work and prospects. For an account of this 
voyage and tour, in which he was accompanied by Dr. Hawes of 
Hartford, see Missionary Herald, 1843. In 1854 Dr. Anderson and 
Mr. Thompson of Roxbury were deputed by the board to visit its mis- 
sionary stations in India. Before they returned from this long journey, 
representations came to America from some of those distant posts 
which awakened in many minds suspicion and doubt in regard to the 
action of the deputation. In the course of missionary labor and 
development a grave question had arisen : Was the system of 
schools for heathen children, as adopted in the East Indian sta- 
tions, a wise and good one? The deputation, it was said, had de- 
cided against it, and had ordered its discontinuance. Dr. Anderson 
returned to find no little agitation in the religious world. At an 
excited meeting of the board in Albany not a few hard things were 
said, which the good doctor bore with much equanimity. The entire 
s ubject was referred to a special committee. At the next regular meet- 



198 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

ing of the hoard (in Newark) , a report was made and accepted which 
settled the controvers} 7 . All parties professed to he satisfied, and the 
venerable secretary received, instead of abuse, so many compliments 
as to make him a little uncomfortable. The good name and the solid 
reputation of Dr. Anderson are identified with the great cause to which 
he has devoted his life. That he has been a disinterested, untiring, 
and most useful laborer in the field of foreign missions, can be denied 
by none but men of jaundiced e}'es. His health, formerly feeble, has 
rather improved with advancing years. Long may it enable him to 
continue the active, honored patriarch of a great and holy enterprise ! 
In 1827 Mr. Anderson was married to Eliza, daughter of Richard 
Hill of Essex, Conn. Of seven children five are living. One son is a 
successful lawyer in the city of New York.* 

Isaac Parsons Anderson, brother of Rufus, was born in 1798 in 
North Yarmouth. His excellent parents died while he was yet a boy. 
He had not been long in college when the symptoms of inherited 
disease made their appearance in him. With many interruptions, and 
in much weakness, he struggled on with his class until the spring of 
their Senior year. With reference to this hopeless and probably fatal 
struggle one of his classmates remarks : " In endeavoring to keep up 
with his class in the latter part of his college life, he seemed much like 
' a lamb led to the slaughter.' " In the following December he died 
at Beverly, Mass. His " Memoirs," a small volume, which appeared 
soon after, show that he was a youth of excellent promise. To good 
mental powers he added strong affections and rare piety. " More than 
thirty years," writes Judge Pierce, " have elapsed since we saw him ; 
but his classmates will never forget his kind words, his tall, erect 
frame, fine blue eye, and gentlemanly deportment. He was a close 
student, a good scholar, an amiable companion, and a devoted 
Christian." 

Israel Wildes Bourne, brother of Edward E. (1816), studied law 
awhile and then engaged in teaching. He was a private tutor in 
Maryland for about two years. He taught in Hebron, in Kennebunk, 
in Dover, and in Portsmouth, N. H. At length he engaged as a clerk 

* Dr. Anderson, after thirty-four years of service, resigned the office of correspond- 
ing secretary of the American Board in 18G6, hut was on its prudential committee 
until 1875. Since his retirement from the secretaryship he has given courses of lec- 
tures at different theological institutions on foreign missions, which were puhlished 
in a volume in 1869, and published a history of the missions of the hoard in four vol- 
umes. The " Memorial Volume," " The Hawaian Islands," with minor works, had 
appeared before. He had shown the physical infirmities of advanced years; but with- 
out marked disease, apparently from gradual decay of the vital force, lie died May 30, 
1860. p. 



GRADUATES. 199 

in the counting- room of Heniy Rice & Co., and subsequently in that of 
J. M. Paige & Co. of Boston. In this position, which he still holds, 
his great skill as a penman has been turned to good account. In 
1820 he married Eliza, daughter of Dr. Jacob Fisher of Kennebunk. 
Of their four sons two survive and occupy places of trust on some of 
the Western railways. 

[Mr. Bourne died in 1862. — p.] 

JE dwar p- Theodore Bridge was a son of the Hon. James Bridge of 
Augusta. He began to practise law in Augusta, but the confinement 
injured his health and he sought a more active life. For some time 
he edited the Augusta Patriot, and served the county of Kennebec 
as register of probate. In 1834 he commenced with others an 
attempt to create a water-power b}^ building a costly dam across the 
Kennebec. A little later he was made president of the Granite Bank. 
For the benefit of his health he spent the winter of 1835-36 in Cuba, 
and for the same reason in the following year removed to Philadelphia. 
The magnificent dam at Augusta was finished and was beginning to 
yield an income when an unwonted rise in the river (June, 1839) swept 
around and carried away the structure. This heavy loss threw him 
back on his personal resources. He removed the following winter to 
Washington, where he had many friends. He was made secretary to 
the Senate Committee on Claims, and aided his friend Major Hobbie 
of the Post-Office. After nearly two } T ears of hard and useful labor 
here he was made special agent of the Post-Office Department for 
New England, and removed to Hartford, Conn. The duties of this 
arduous office, not open to public observation, he discharged to the 
entire acceptance of the department. In 1845 he removed to Charles- 
town, Mass., and the following year to Jersey City to become superin- 
tendent of the Morris Canal. This post, after two or three years of 
successful management, he resigned in order to engage in business on 
his own account. Among other projects he took a leading part in 
forming the Gu} T andotte Land Company. He died in 1854 at Jersey 
City, by disease of the kidney. "Of courteous manners and an 
amiable temper, and of health never robust, he was yet a man of 
untiring energy, and by the successful discharge of his varied duties 
proved himself to be one of great resources. In every position he 
maintained a high character for integrity, and in his last illness was 
sustained by a firm religious faith." He married in 1822 Miss Ann 
King, the niece and adopted daughter of Gov. William King of Bath. 
This lady and three daughters still live. One daughter died about a 
year before her father. One son, a lawyer of promising talents, died 



200 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

suddenly a few weeks before his father's decease. Another son not 
less promising, a lieutenant in the U. S. Navy, while navigating in 
the West India waters, disappeared with the small vessel which he 
commanded. 

Carleton Dole of Alna, born 1798, was a son of John Dole. 
He entered the ministry and preached awhile, then he traded for 
about ten years in his native town. After a short trial at farming he 
returned to books, which he bought and sold in Augusta. Then he 
became cashier of the Citizens' Bank. Meanwhile his pursuits, 
though diversified, had been successful, so that in 1840 he retired 
from business. Since 1847 he has been a citizen of Massachusetts, 
residing successively in Salem, Newburyport, and South Reading, 
which is his present home. While living in Alna he represented the 
town and also the county in the Legislature of Maine. Mr. Dole was 
married in. early life to Eliza Carleton of Alna. They have had nine 
children, and six still live : one son is in Amherst College ; one 
daughter married a son of Rev. Justin Edwards ; another daughter 
is the wife of Mr. Stanwood (Manning & Stanwood), Boston. 

[Mr. Dole died in 1870. —p.] 

Moses Emery's parents lived in Minot, and meant that he should 
live there too, and grow up a good farmer. But the boy had a very 
different end in view, and found time for study in the intervals of 
labor. In this way — with occasional aid from Mr. Hill, a kind law- 
yer at Minot Corner, and without the knowledge of his parents — 
he fitted himself for college. At the Commencement of 1814 his 
uncle Stephen was to graduate, and Moses was sent to Brunswick on 
horseback, leading a horse for his uncle to ride back. His relative 
advised him, being thus on the ground, to apply for admission. 
Accordingly he was examined and went in. When his father learned 
that Moses had taken this step, he sent him to Brooklyn, N. Y., where 
another uncle of his was then living. Uncle Nathan, who was a Meth- 
odist minister, in compliance with his brother's orders, found a place 
for his nephew in a store on Broadway. Here for nearly a year he 
performed with fidelitj' the duties of an accountant. Late at night he 
found time for stud} r , keeping up with his class. Just before Com- 
mencement (1815) he retired suddenly and silently from the employ 
of Messrs. Munson, soon reappeared in Brunswick, was examined and 
received as a Sophomore. His father no longer objected to college, 
but refused all assistance. He was not a belles-lettres scholar, but 
led his class in mathematics and the philosophies. Mr. Emery having 



GRADUATES. 201 

studied law with Judge Bailey of Wiscasset, became his partner in 
business. In 1815 he removed to Saco, his present home. " In my 
practice," he says, " I have made it a rule never to encourage litiga- 
tion, never to prosecute an unjust cause, or to aid an unjust defence ; 
and as a consequence I have lost man} r a fat fee that others have en- 
joyed. But I retained what I like better, a good conscience." Happy 
the lawyer who can witness such a confession. Mr. Emery's profes- 
sional career has been somewhat impeded by the want of firm health, 
and his speculations have not always succeeded. In politics he was a 
Whig while there were Whigs, and now he is a Republican. Of the 
temperance cause he was an earnest advocate. Mr. Emery, born 
1794, was married in 1823 to Sarah Cutts, second daughter of Mar- 
shall Thornton of Saco. Three of their seven children are living. 
Thornton C. was a member of Bowdoin College, but was compelled 
by sickness to leave in the Junior year. He now lives in California, 
is a trader, and is married. His second son, also married, lives in 
Lawrence, Kansas, where he has a large farm. George A. graduated 
at Bowdoin College in 1863.* 

Joseph Palmer Fessenden was a son of the first minister of Frye- 
burg, where he was born in 1792. His father, William Fessenden, was 
a graduate of Harvard College, 1768. He studied professionally in 
part at Brunswick under President Appleton, and many a pleasant 
walk and talk we had in those days. In 1820 he was settled over 
the Congregational church in Arundel (now Kennebunkport) . After 
nine years of arduous and successful labor he removed to South 
Bridgton, where he took charge of a small congregation and where 
he lives still. " I have lived," he says, " to bury most of those who 
took part in my installation, and am now in my old age kindly cared 
for and supported by their sons." Enjoying almost uninterrupted 
health, he has found time and strength and occasion for labors a good 
way beyond his parish bounds While the cause of temperance and 
that of anti-slavery were yet in their infancy and comparative weak- 
ness, his addresses in their behalf among the people of York and 
Oxford Counties brought on him frequent opposition and reproach. 
He has lived to see a very different state of feeling prevail, and now 
looks back with satisfaction on that part of his life '.' which has been 
devoted to the cause of temperance and the slave." Mr. Fessenden 

*Mr. Emery died in Saco, May 12, 1881. He had failed in health some months, 
showed further signs of weakness during the last fortnight, and at last fell dead from 
his chair. He served on the school committee several years, and represented his city 
in the Legislature in 1836 and 1837. p. 



202 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

was married in 1819 to Phebe P. Beach of Canaan, Vt. Having 
no children, they supplied the want as best they could. William G-. 
Barrows (Bowdoin College, 1839) , a highly respected lawyer in Bruns- 
wick, and judge of probate for the county,* was brought up and edu- 
cated by Mr. and Mrs. Fessenden. One adopted and beloved daughter 
has been taken from them by death, and one is still with them. 

Benjamin Hale was born in 1797 in Belleville parish, Newbury, 
now a part of Newbury port. His father was Col. Hale, a much- 
respected citizen. His mother was a daughter of Col. Josiah Little 
(see J. Little, 1811). Of Mr. Hale's six brothers three — viz., Moses 
L., Thomas, and Josiah L. — became honorably known in the mercan- 
tile circles of Boston and New York ; Eben was a physician ; Joshua a 
ship-master ; Edward a farmer. Of his three sisters two died un- 
married, and one is the widow of Rev. Mr. March. Benjamin Hale 
was fitted at Atkinson, N. H., and entered Dartmouth College, from 
which he went to Brunswick in the Sophomore year. Here in a class 
of uncommon excellence he stood high, and gave at Commencement 
the Latin salutation. Then for one year he had charge of Saco 
Academy. Another year was spent in theological study at the semi- 
nary in Andover. From 1820 to 1822 Mr. Hale was tutor at Bruns- 
wick in mathematics and natural philosophy. At this time, through 
the agency mainly of Hon. R. H. Gardiner, an institution for the 
education of mechanics and farmers had been established in the town 
which bears his name, and which owes so much to his wise and liberal 
policy. High scientific attainments and a mind remarkably practical 
led to the selection of Mr. Hale as the first principal of this school. 
Under his administration, which lasted four years, the Gardiner 
Lyceum had a wide reputation and was eminently useful. Among 
other fruits of his labor there was an elementary treatise on the 
"Principles of Carpentry," published in 1827. Soon after he went 
to Gardiner, Mr. Hale, whose views on ecclesiastical matters had 
changed somewhat, returned to the association of York County the 
license to preach which they had given him a year before. In August, 
1827, he was inaugurated as professor of chemistry and pharmacy in 
Dartmouth College. The duties of this professorship Mr. Hale for 
eight years discharged ably and faithfully. Not onby as a scientific 
teacher and lecturer but as an intelligent and courteous college officer 
he was highly esteemed by his classes, both in the academic and the 
medical departments. But unfortunately Mr. Hale was an Episcopa- 
lian, having been ordained deacou soon after he went to Hanover. It 



*Novv cm the Supreme 13euch. Mr. Fessenden died in 1861. — r. 




. 



GRADUATES. 203 

was not enough that he carefully avoided the obtrusion of his opinions 
or that he made no attempt at proselytism. He at length discovered, 
and somewhat abruptly, that the existence of such an anomaly in the 
Orthodox Faculty of Dartmouth College could no longer be tolerated. 
Without asking him to resign, without even warning him of then: in- 
tention, the trustees of the college at the Commencement in 1835 abol- 
ished the professorship of chemistry. Mr. Hale, thus turned out, pub- 
lished soon after a " Valedictory Letter to the Trustees of Dartmouth 
College." It was a calmly written narrative of the case, and showed 
vety plainly the extreme incivility, not to say injustice, of the treat- 
ment which he had received. To this no answer was made hy the 
reverend and honorable body who did the deed. There was however 
an anonymous reply, which called forth a rejoinder prepared by Dr. 
Oliver, a professor in the same college, under the title of " Prof. Hale 
and Dartmouth College." There are those, I suppose, who adopt the 
principle and who would justify the motive which led to the removal 
of a competent college officer solely on the ground of difference in 
religious matters ; but how any one can commend the way in which 
this was accomplished by the Hanover trustees is inconceivable to 
me. An attack of bronchitis induced Mr. Hale to spend the winter 
that followed his dismissal on the island of St. Croix. Soon after his 
return in the summer of 1836 he was elected to the presidency of 
Geneva College, in Western New York. Here for ten years he labored 
with great industry and encouraging success ; but in 1848 the State 
of New York adopted a new Constitution, which among other impro ce- 
ments cut off the annual grants to the colleges. But for the courage 
and perseverance of President Hale the result would undoubtedly have 
been fatalto Geneva College. The institution, though suffering griev- 
ously for want of means, was kept in operation. An application to 
Trinity Church for permanent aid was made by Dr. Hale, and pressed 
through four years of struggle and discouragement to a successful 
issue. Hobart Free College, as it is now called, received from the 
vestry of Trinity an annuity of $3,000. For the restoration of his 
health, Dr. Hale in 1852 visited Europe, being absent about six 
months. Subsequently finding his health and strength inadequate to 
the duties of the presidency, he resigned the post which he had held so 
long and honorably, and with strongest testimonials of regard and 
respect from the government and alumni of the institution. He has 
since secured a pleasant home near the spot where he was born, and 
there died in 1863.* 

* Dr. Hale married in 1823 Mary Caroline King, daughter of Hon. Cyrus Kiug of 
Saco. They had seven children, of whom four still (1877) survive. He received the 
degree of D. D. from Columbia College, New York, 1836. 



204 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Frederic Benjamin Page, son of Dr. Benjamin Page of Hal- 
lowell, was born in 1798. Having studied medicine with his father 
and attended lectures at Brunswick, he settled in Portland. After a 
year there he went to Louisiana and planted himself at Donaldsonville, 
once the capital of that State. Here he entered on a successful prac- 
tice, which continued almost as long as he lived. He was an industri- 
ous student in his own science and art. He liked to discuss the great 
questions which interest and divide medical men ; and upon many of 
these he gave his own views in the periodicals of the day. Dr. Page 
was a man of strong passions, ardent, impulsive, generous to a fault. 
He is said to have lost both time and money by speculating in Texas 
lands. He married in Washington, D. C, a daughter of John Davis, 
formerly of Augusta. He died at his brother's house in Edwards, 
Miss., July 26, 1857, leaving a widow and one child. 

George Dummer Perley, a son of Nathaniel Perley, a lawyer and 
wit well known at Hallowell. George studied with his father, but 
scarcely entered on the practice of law, for which he had neither taste 
nor fitness. His friends still recall the neatness of his person, his 
modest demeanor, and his intercourse always polite and friendly. He 
survived his graduation but eight years. He married in Boston a 
daughter of Dr. Jackson of musical fame. 

Josiah Pierce was born in 1792 in Baldwin, where he grew up on 
a farm. Fitted at Bridgton by Bezaleel Cushman, he entered Bow- 
doin College a Sophomore. Mr. Longfellow taught him law, and 
then he went into the practice at Gorham. Being one of those men 
whom office seeks, he has been much before the public : he has held 
commands in the militia ; the town has had a great deal for him to 
do ; he has occupied a seat in both branches of the Maine Legisla- 
ture, and for years presided over the Senate. At length he was raised 
to the judicial bench, having been since 1846 the judge of probate for 
Cumberland. Long an overseer of the college, he was chosen a trus- 
tee in 1855. Ecclesiastically, Judge Pierce is connected with the 
Baptists, but regard for him as a man and a Christian is not confined 
to that denomination. Married in 1825 to Evelina, daughter of Hon. 
Archelaus Lewis, they have six children: viz., Josiah (Bowdoin Col- 
lege, 1846), lately attached to the United States legation at St. 
Petersburg, and now resident in London, England ; Lewis (Bowdoin 
College, 1852), lawyer in Portland ; George W. (Bowdoin College, 
1857), Commercial Agency, New York, civil engineer ; Evelina, wife 
of John A. Waterman (Bowdoin College, 1846) ; Nanc}-, wife of 



GRADUATES. 205 

Edward N. Whittier, M. D. ; Eliza L., now residing with her brother 
in England. 

[Mr. Pierce died in 1866. —p.] 

George Barrell Sewall, a Hallowell boy. "A pleasant, fair- 
faced youth, bright, active, intelligent, but wild as the untamed 
fawn" He was very companionable, with little taste for mathe- 
matics or philosophy, but a good proficient in the classics and espe- 
cially in the Greek. He read law with Hon. Thomas Bond', and went 
afterwards to Mobile, Ala., where he died in 1825 at the age of 
twenty-six } T ears. 

Seba Smith was born in 1792 in a log-house put up by his father 
in the woods of Buckfield. When he was ten years old the family 
removed to Bridgton, where he grew up, working hard, sometimes on 
a farm, sometimes in a grocery, sometimes in a brickyard, and some- 
times in an iron foundry. At eighteen he had made so good use of 
his scanty opportunities for learning as to be employed in teaching 
school. He went to the new academy in Bridgton, and Mr. Cushman, 
perceiving his talents, put the idea of college in his head. A kind 
Portland gentleman offered to loan the money for his expenses, and 
so he went. In college he was frugal, industrious, and highly success- 
ful, graduating with the first honor in the best class which Brunswick 
had then seen. Then one year was devoted to teaching in Portland. 
Then, being in poor health, he travelled extensively in his own 
country, and made a voyage to England. On his return he became 
connected with the Eastern Argus, first as assistant editor and soon 
after as joint proprietor. After being thus occupied for four years, he 
sold his interest in the paper. But he soon became tired of inaction. 
In 1830 he started the Portland Daily Courier. It was a small sheet, 
but the enterprise is memorable as the first daily paper published 
east of Boston. For seven years, under the management of Mr. 
Smith, the Courier flourished. Much of its success was due to the 
" Downing" letters. The ability, the good sense, the genuine humor, 
and more than all the unmitigated Yankeeism of the kind-hearted 
" Major" soon made him popular, and his effusions reappeared in all 
the papers. These were sought with avidity and read b} T everybody. 
During a period of intense political strife the " Downing " letters, with 
their good-natured satire and admirable irony, furnished matter that 
both sides could laugh at, and thus did much to allay the bitterness 
of party. 

These once famous letters have all been republished in Emerson's 



206 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

United Slates Magazine, and are now before the public in an illus- 
trated volume entitled " My Thirty Years out of the Senate, by Major 
Jack Downing." Like all writings that dwell on passing occurrences, 
they have lost much of their piquancy by the lapse of time and the 
remoteness of those exciting scenes amid which they were produced ; 
bat there is much in them which is independent of time and circum- 
stance, and they may still be read with pleasure and advantage. 
While Mr. Smith stuck to his paper and his pen he got along well ; 
but the land fever broke out, and he in common with his neighbors 
took the disease. The consequence was that he had to sell out the 
Courier and begin anew. A brother-in-law having invented a 
machine for separating cotton from its seed, Mr. Smith became his 
agent for selling it at the South. Full of hope he went with his 
family to South Carolina. The enterprise failed, and in Januar} 7 , 
1839, he landed in New York, as poor as when he started in life, with 
the added care of wife and children. He turned again to his pen, 
Mrs. Smith coming bravely to the rescue, and carrying perhaps even 
more than her end of the 3'oke. Among the publications of that time 
to which he contributed were Godey's Lady's Book, Graham's Maga- 
zine, the Saturday Courier, the Knickerbocker, New York Mirror, 
Ladies' Companion, New World, Brother Jonathan, and Southern Lit- 
erary Messenger. Hard work it was and moderately rewarded, but it 
kept the pot boiling. Then he became editor in whole or in part of 
the Rover, a magazine, of the Bunker Hill and the Budget, which 
were weekly papers, and of the American Republican, which was a 
daily. He had been for some time the editor of the United Stales 
Magazine, when in 1857 Putnam's Monthly was merged in it. The 
combined magazine is still under the editorship of Mr. Smith and of his 
wife. In 1854 a collection of his humorous stories was republished in 
12mo, and entitled "Way Down East; or, Portraitures of Yankee 
Life." Other volumes of his collected miscellanies will in due time 
appear. Mr. Smith early showed a marked poetic vein: "The 
Mother perishing in a Snow Storm " (see Bowdoin Poets) is an exam- 
ple of beautiful simplicit}' and pathos. A small volume of his poems 
is soon to appear. But Mr. Smith's studies and lucubrations have 
not been confined to the realms of story and song. All other labors 
he regards as trifling when compared with his " New Elements of 
Geometry," an octavo volume of two hundred pages, published in 1850. 
This work was the result of three years devoted to the subject, with 
intense application, during which he worked in the ancient Greek 
method, by rule and compass and arithmetical calculations. I regret 
that my limits do not allow me to present the ingenious statement and 



GRADUATES. 207 

explanation of its peculiarities which lie before me. I might do it 
injustice were I to curtail or condense it. In a word, however, Mr. 
Smith denies that "there are three kinds of quantity in geometry, as 
represented by lines, surfaces, and solids in the works of all mathema- 
ticians heretofore," and contends that it " has but one kind of 
quantit}-, and requires but one kind of unit to measure quantity," 
which unit is the cube. He holds that- " every geometrical expres- 
sion, whether in arithmetical numbers or in algebraic symbols, essen- 
tially gives to every unit the form of the cube," and that in this fact 
may be found an explanation of man}- hitherto unfathomable difficul- 
ties in mathematics, such as the impossible problem of the duplication 
of the cube, and the impossibility of solving an algebraic equation of 
the fifth degree. He believes that the fundamental idea of his geome- 
tiy is sustained by some of the greatest names in science, — b}* Barrow, 
by Newton, and even by the author of the "Positive Philosophy," 
although the latter rather positively objected to Mr. Smith's views, 
in a letter which appeared in some of the American newspapers. 
Besides its peculiar ideas in regard to lines, surfaces, and solids, the 
book contains many original problems aud demonstrations, and points 
out numerous instances of harmonious and beautiful relation and 
agreement. One proposition' he deems scarcely inferior in geometri- 
cal interest to the great theorem of Pythagoras in regard to the 
square of the bypothenuse ; it is this : "In all triangles whatever, the 
whole circumference or the sum of the three sides bears the same 
proportion to the base as the perpendicular of the triangle bears to 
the radius of the inscribed circle." As yet this work has not secured 
among the learned that attention and approval which its author hoped 
for. Perhaps they have not studied it with sufficient care. Perhaps 
the prejudicing power of old ideas has prevented a candid estimate of 
its merits. On such points it were presumptuous in me to give an 
opinion. But I may admire and do admire the unshaken faith with 
which this cool, clear-headed man looks forward to the day when the 
ideas developed in his geometry shall be accepted as true and 
acknowledged as useful. May he live to behold it ! To his wife allu- 
sion has already been made. She was Elizabeth Oakes Prince, and 
the}' were married in 1823. As a writer, both of prose and poetry, 
she is widely and favorably known. On a few occasions she has 
appeared as a public lecturer. For many years she and her husband 
otherwise still united, have borne different names. She is Mrs. 
Oaksmith by courtesy, and her sons are Oaksmiths by act of Legis- 
lature. Of these she has had six, four of whom are living and two 
of whom are married. The eldest, Appleton Oaksmith, after many 



208 HISTOET OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

wanderings by sea and land, after having unsuccessfully presented 
to our court at Washington his credentials as ambassador plenipoten- 
tiary from a foreign power (now extinct), has settled quietly in New 
York, and publishes the magazine which his parents edit. The years 
have dealt gently with Mr. Smith. His has been a life of toil, not 
unattended with disappointment and care ; but a calm temperament 
has neutralized their corrosive power. To me he looks much as he 
did on that far-off summer eve, when in the little, old wooden chapel 
I heard him read before the Theological Society his beautiful poem 
of the " Nazarene." 

[Mr. Smith died in 1868. —p.] 

Gideon Lane Soule. The Soules date back to Plymouth, and 
have for their ancestor George Soule, one of the "Mayflower" pil- 
grims. Gideon Lane Soule was born in 1796 near the college, on a 
little farm in Freeport, and his parents were Moses and Martha (Lane) 
Soule. His minister, Rev. Reuben Nason, started him in the classics, 
and then he went to Exeter and was for two years under Dr. Abbot. 
Having graduated with credit, he returned to Exeter and became 
Greek professor in the academy. This position, which became more 
important as Dr. Abbot grew old, he held for many years. On that 
great Exeter day of jubilee, when amidst many hundreds of grateful 
pupils, some of whom had come to be the first men in the land, the 
venerable doctor closed by resignation his half-century of faithful 
service, Mr. Soule was elected his successor. This honorable and 
important post he yet occupies with undiminished strength and still 
increasing reputation. To his ability and success as a classical in- 
structor I could testify from my own knowledge. Lest, however, the 
partial pencil of friendship should be suspected of coloring, I will call 
another witness. Rev. Dr. Peabody of Portsmouth, who has long been 
a trustee of Phillips Exeter Academy, in a recent letter says, " We 
hold Dr. Soule in the highest esteem, both as a teacher and disciplina- 
rian. As the principal of the school he maintains perfect dignity 
without undue severity, always commands respect, and is eminently 
equable in temper and impartial in his administration. Out of school 
he takes a paternal interest in his pupils, and seeks opportunities, 
various and frequent, for exercising a good influence over them. As a 
classical teacher it is impossible to give him higher praise than he 
deserves. He confines himself principally to the Latin ; and I have 
heard Prof. Bowen of Cambridge, who is one of our trustees, repeat- 
edly speak of him as the best Latin teacher iu the country. When- 
ever he has a class in Greek he shows similar ability and thoroughness 



GRADUATES. 209 

there. What is very much to the purpose, in the classical languages 
and literature he is still a diligent student. At Cambridge it is 
admitted that better prepared scholars enter from Exeter than from 
any of the Massachusetts schools." In 1856 Harvard conferred on 
Mr. Soule the degree of LL. D. 

Soon after he settled in Exeter Mr. Soule was married to Miss Eliz- 
abeth Emery, a sister of the distinguished lawyer Nicholas Emery. 
The}- have three sons : Charles E. graduated at Bowdoin College in 
1842, practises law in New York, lives in Brooklyn, has a wife and 
little ones ; Nicholas Emery graduated at Harvard College in 1845, 
and also an M. D., now a teacher of }-outh in Cincinnati, Ohio ; Au- 
gustus L. graduated at Harvard College in 1846, lawyer in Spring- 
field, Mass.,* himself a grandfather.! 

David Staeeet. The two Starrets came from Warren. David was 
the elder ; so old, indeed, that he was known in college by the affec- 
tionate appellation of "Uncle." " Nobody," says his classmate Major 
Jack Downing, " expected ' Uncle David' to understand a lesson that 
was in the least difficult ; but as he always did his best, the professors 
and tutors generally screwed him easy." But though not much of a 
scholar, he was conscientious and good. He became a Congregational 
minister and was settled for a while in Weld. He probably discovered 
at length that he had mistaken his vocation, for he retired upon a farm 
in Augusta, where he died in 1851. He was married. 

Geoege Staeret was born in 1798. In college " ever kind, truth- 
ful, and unpretending." "He was compact," says President Hale, 
"in body and mind, prompt in every dut} r , a good scholar in every 
department." He settled as a law} T er in Bangor, gained a high repu- 
tation for legal knowledge and ability, and was greatly respected as a 
citizen and Christian. A brief illness brought his life to a close in 
1838. He was three times married: first to Eliza N. Hammond of 
Bangor ; a son by this marriage died in 1858. Secondly to Martha 

* Now on the Supreme Bench of the State. 

t Dr. Soule continued his efficient and successful labors until his resignation in 
1873, when, as at the close of the same prolonged term of service of his eminent 
predecessor, the event was commemorated by a large gathering of his pupils and 
friends. The health of Dr. Soule has been gradually failing since his active duties 
ceased, and he died suddenly on the evening of Wednesday, May 28, 1879. A dis- 
criminating and just tribute to his memory was rendered by Rev. John H. Morison, 
D. D., in a commemorative sermon preached in the Second Congregational Church, 
Exeter, soon after his decease, with a biographical sketch of Dr. Soule. p. 

14 



210 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Burgess of Wareham, Mass. ; she left a son and daughter ; the 
former lives in Illinois. His third wife, still his widow, was Caroline 
E. Morrill of Bangor. 

James Parker Vance was the son of James Vance, a self-made 
man of considerable ability, and for many years quite a conspicuous 
personage in Maine. The young man graduated with fair reputa- 
tion, studied law in Portland with Stephen Longfellow, Esq., and 
opened an office in Calais. But ardent and susceptible, he yielded to 
temptation, and for a time dark clouds rested upon his character and 
prospects. His reform, which was sudden, seemed also to be thorough. 
He became an earnest and eloquent advocate of virtue and temperance. 
From Calais, where he lived several years, esteemed as a citizen and 
regarded as a Christian, he removed to Elgin, 111. Renouncing the 
profession of law, he became a minister of the Methodist communion 
in the State of Illinois, and when last heard from was still active in 
Christian work. 

Joseph Walker was a native of Townsend, Mass. He had studied 
medicine, and was about ready to begin the practice when a change in 
his views and feelings led him to seek a college education with ultimate 
reference to a different profession. Having studied theology with 
Mr. Cogswell of Saco, he was settled in 1822 at Paris. Here he died 
in 1851, after a ministry in the same place of nearly thirty years. 
The following estimate is from one of Mr. Walkers parishioners, and 
a competent judge : " He was a man of fair intellect, moderate, logi- 
cal, and sound. He had no imagination, though his sermons abounded 
in affectionate appeals ; but he chose to address the understanding. 
His style was plain, his manner not interesting ; but his sincerity, 
his deep and all-pervading piety, his sober, solemn anxiety to do good, 
supplied any want of brilliancy, and bound him to his people with 
bands of steel. Though not of great distinction intellectually, he was 
a man of sound talents and of great moral worth ; and this is his 
crown of glory." He was married in 1822 to Clarissa Robinson, and 
in 1829 to Elinor Hopkins. By the last wife he had six children. Of 
his five sons the eldest, Joseph, entered college in 1850. 

William Bicker Walter. His father was William Walter, a 
merchant of Boston. His grandfather was the Rev. William Walter, 
D. D., an Episcopal clergyman of considerable celebrity in his day. 
William B. was fitted for college at Wiscasset by that good man and 
excellent teacher, the Rev. Dr. Packard. His college life could hardly 



GRADUATES. 211 

be called happy. He seemed always to feel that his superior refine- 
ment was not appreciated by those around him. He wore, for the 
most part, an air of Bj-ronic gloom, and generally kept himself se- 
cluded. It is needless to acid that he was not very popular. For the 
severer studies he had little aptness and less inclination. His great 
ambition was to shine as an orator and as a poet. His style of speak- 
ing was highly theatrical. When in the heat and torrent of his passion 
he endeavored to harrow up the feelings of his auditors, his attitudes 
and contortions often became irresistibly ludicrous. He possessed 
considerable imaginative power, and wrote verses readily and in great 
abundance. Odes, sonnets, and translations from his pen made their 
appearance in newspapers and magazines. Soon after his graduation 
he published a small volume of poems. " Fanny," that singular and 
beautiful production of Mr. Halleck, was about this time given to the 
world, and Mr. Walter essayed an imitation in a poem of some length 
which he called " Sukey." This with several smaller pieces consti- 
tuted subsequently a second volume. On taking the master's degree 
at Brunswick in 1821, he entertained the audience with a poem styled 
the " Dream of the Sepulchre." The collection called the " Bowdoin 
Poets " contains three specimens of Walter's poetry. From some 
impressions, probably of a hereditary calling, he began to prepare 
himself for taking orders in the Episcopal Church. This he soon gave 
up. In 1822 he went into the Southern States with the view of giving 
lectures on poetry, etc. The attempt was unsuccessful. " He was 
discouraged, became the prey of a morbid melancholy, and died sud- 
denly in Charleston, S. C," in the spring of 1823. 

1819. 

Thomas Perkins Bourne, another brother of Edward E. (1816), 
studied medicine with Dr. Samuel Emerson of Kennebunk, where he 
practised a year or two, and where he married Rowena P. Beckley. 
He then settled as a physician in Calais, where he lost his wife. 
Being married again to a daughter of Dr. Weston of St. Stephens, he 
removed to Newcastle in New Brunswick, and there on the banks of 
the Miramichi he still practises the healing art. He has two daugh- 
ters by the first marriage. A son by the second wife is a clerk in 
New York. 

[Mr. Bourne died in 1863.— p ] 

Jonathan Hammond Chesley was born in Paris in 1793, and died 
in Saco in 1826. In college he made quite a marked figure. He was 
a stout man, fond of display, of moderate scholarship, but of very 



212 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

considerable pretensions. "In solemn importance," says one of his 
classmates, " I really believe he never was surpassed. He was as 
industrious as his plrysical indolence would permit. We used to say 
that he was too lazy to take his hat off, he was so fond of wearing it 
on all occasions at nome and abroad." From college he went to Lim- 
erick and taught awhile in the academy In the following year one 
of his classmates very unexpectedly met him in Boston. The scene 
is characteristic: " It was winter, — a misty, muddy, chilly day. I 
was walking round the State House seeing what I could see, when 
suddenly I came upon Chesley doing the same. He had on a tight 
dress coat with bright buttons, buff-colored small-clothes, silk stock- 
ings, and slippers." He went with Chesley to his lodgings, and ascer- 
tained that he wished to go South, but could not leave for want of 
funds. He requested a small loan, and it was granted. When we 
next hear from him he is in Louisiana, teaching at Baton Eouge. 
This information comes through the pleasant medium of a young lady 
in Saco, with whom he maintained a tender correspondence. In the 
fall of 1826 he came back to New England. Consumption had wasted 
his once portly frame. Weak in body and utterly^destitute of means, 
he visited his friends in Paris and Westbrook, and reached Saco only 
a few days before his death. Poor fellow ! It is pleasant to know 
that the sympathy of a loving woman solaced his last hours. 

David Hates has forgotten to tell me when and where he was born. 
Since 1824 he has lived in Westbrook, where he has a law office 
and a farm, of the two much preferring the latter. Mr. Hayes is 
a straightforward man, and seeks no professional business of the 
crooked sort. He is an office-holder ; having been " first proved " he 
has used " the office of a deacon," and has been " found blameless." 
He has also filled for forty-five }^ears the honorable station of superin- 
tendent of the Sabbath school. He married happily in 1826, has 
seven children and five grandchildren. 

[Mr. Hayes died in 1870. — p.] 

Edward Tyng Ingraham. His father was from Portland, where 
he died recently. Edward T. Ingraham was a most amiable and pious 
youth. He had consecrated himself to the gospel ministry, and was 
studying for that end when his death occurred in 1823. 

George Means Mason, eldest son of Jeremiah Mason, one of the 
greatest men this country has produced, was born in 1800 in Ports- 
mouth, N. H. In college he pursued to a great extent his own routine 



GRADUATES. 213 

of study, reading ever} T thing that came to hand. Having pursued the 
usual law course he remained in his father's office, to whom, by his 
extensive acquaintance with books and cases, he made himself useful 
so long as Mr. Mason continued in active business. But for active 
business he had himself no taste. He still lives in Boston, and still 
possesses that philosophic calmness of demeanor which even in boy- 
hood won the admiration of his teachers and his comrades. 
[Mr. Mason died in 1865. —p.] 

John D. McCrate, son of Col. Thomas McCrate, a merchant of Wis- 
casset, was born there in 1802. Susan, his mother, was the daughter of 
Hon. David Dennis of Nobleboro'. Having taught school for a year, 
he studied law with Judge Bailey in Wiscasset, with Jo. E. Smith in 
Boston, and with Peleg (now Judge) Sprague in Hallowell. From 
1823 to 1835 he practised law at Damariscotta. During five of these 
years he was in the Legislature. He was also Commissioner of Insol- 
vency, by appointment from President Jackson. In 1835 he removed 
to Wiscasset, where he was collector of the customs. In 1845 the dis- 
trict of Lincoln and Oxford sent him to Congress. In 1850 Mr. 
McCrate removed to Massachusetts, and is now living very quietly on 
a farm in the town of Sutton. In 1852 he married Susan M., daughter 
of Jonas L. Sibley, formerly U. S. Marshal for Massachusetts. They 
have no children. 

[Mr. McCrate died in Sutton, Mass., September, 1879. — p.] 

John Louville Megquier was from New Gloucester. Substan- 
tial rather than brilliant, he practised law in Portland with a fair 
measure of success. " He was a man of sound judgment and had 
much firmness of purpose." He was an active politician in the 
Democratic ranks, and was for a time a member of the State Senate. 
He was undoubtedly in the line of promotion, but at the age of forty- 
four death arrested his career. He was married but had no children. 

Israel Newell, born in 1794, labored on his father's farm in Dur- 
ham during the summer, and for six successive j^ears taught school 
in winter before he was of age. Having fitted himself for college in 
the midst of all this work, he entered as Sophomore. In college he 
was confessedly the foremost man of his class. Next came two years 
of theological study in the Andover school ; then on the island of 
Nantucket he had charge of an academy one year. In 1822 he w#s 
appointed principal of the " Kimball Union Academy " in Plainfield, 
N. H. To this work he devoted himself with earnestness and success. 



214 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

During his thirteen years at Plainfield he gave instruction to twelve 
hundred young persons and fitted about two hundred for college. 
This employment, for which he was so well fitted and which he loved, 
he was compelled through ill health to give up. He returned to his 
native town and became again a farmer. Here he lived until his death 
in 1846. During all this period of teaching and farming he was also 
a preacher, averaging, it is thought, a sermon each week. And these 
sermons "were well studied, well arranged, clear, instructive, and 
affecting." All this, which seems a task for the highest physical and 
mental energ}-, was accomplished by a man who suffered long and much 
from feeble health. " He was a man of marked character. His intel- 
lect was cleai\ discriminating, well trained. He had great decision, 
perseverance, and energy. All his movements were characterized 
by remarkable punctuality and precision. He did not suffer himself 
to be borne along passively by the tide of circumstances ; he always 
knew what he was doing and why he was doing it. He was distin- 
guished for scrupulous veracity, unbending integrity, and transparent 
frankness. His piety was of a uniform, well-balanced, heathful 
character." He married (1824) Ester M. Whittlesey of Cornish, 
N. H. They had no children. By will he bequeathed $600 to the 
American Educational Society for the benefit of poor students in 
Bowdoin College, and gave the residue of his estate to the Congrega- 
tional Society in Durham. 

James Stackpole was born in 1798 in that part of Winslow which 
is now called Waterville. His name he inherits from both father 
and grandfather. Rev. James Hall of Farmington Academy and 
Judge Redington of Waterville were his first teachers. In law he had 
for instructor the Hon. Mr. Boutelle of Waterville. After one 3'ear's 
practice at Sebasticook Falls, he returned to Waterville, where he has 
ever since lived, " engaged in professional or other business, as health 
or necessity required." For five years >he was town treasurer, and for 
seventeen } r ears he served Waterville College in the same responsible 
capacity. He has been agent also and representative of Waterville 
at Augusta. His wife, still living, was Hannah Chase of Fryeburg. 
The} T have had no children. 

[Mr. Stackpole died July 18, 1880. — r.] 

George Cobb Wilde, a son of Hon. S. S. Wilde, was born in 
Hallowell in 1800. His law studies, begun under his brother Wil- 
liam in Hallowell, were concluded under Ebenezer Mosely of New- 
buryport. Mr. Wilde opened an office for the practice of law in 



GRADUATES. 215 

Wrentham, Mass., but soon after removed to Boston, where for more 
than twent}'-five years he has been clerk of the Supreme Judicial 
Court. An acquaintance with him which dates from his college days, 
when our pleasant relations began, authorizes and impels me to say 
that he possesses in a high degree the sterling qualities which make a 
good officer, citizen, and friend. In 1829 he married Ann J. Druce, 
widow of John C. Druce of New York, and daughter of Lemuel 
Brown of Wrentham, Mass. They have a daughter and a son. 
[He died in 1875. — p.] 

Adam Wilson was born in 1794 in Topsham, where, before enter- 
ing college, he joined the Baptist Church. From college he went to 
Philadelphia, and studied theology under distinguished teachers, the 
Rev. Dr. Stoughton and Rev. Alvah Chase. Then he supplied a 
Baptist pulpit in New Haven, Conn., and continued his studies under 
Dr. Fitch, the divinity professor in Yale College. His first regular 
charge was in Wiscasset, where he stayed four years. During the next 
four years Turner and New Gloucester alternately shared his minis- 
trations. In 1828 Mr. Wilson established at Portland a religious 
newspaper called Zion's Advocate, being its proprietor as well as 
editor. For nine years he conducted the paper and preached regu- 
larly on the Sabbath. He then removed to Bangor and took charge 
of the First Baptist Church in that city, where his labors were soon 
followed by a " rich revival." Having given to Bangor three and one 
half years, and to his former flock in Turner two years, Dr. Wilson 
returned to Portland and resumed the direction of Zion's Advocate. 
In 1848 he disposed of his proprietorship in the paper, having held 
the same for twenty } 7 ears. Dr. Wilson then went to Hebron, where 
he was pastor for three years. He now resides near the college in 
Waterville, and still finds that his services are in request. As a 
preacher, a pastor, and an editor, Dr. Wilson must rank among the 
most useful and able men of his day, and is well entitled to the high 
place which he holds among the Baptist clergy of Maine. In 1823 he 
married Ann F. Patten of Topsham (sister of George F. Patten of 
Bath). Mrs. Wilson died in 1825. In 1833 Mr. Wilson married 
Sally H. Bicker of Parsonsfield (sister of Rev. Joseph Ricker, now 
chaplain of the Massachusetts State Prison) . They have four chil- 
dren.* 

*Dr. Wilson received the degree of D. D. from "Waterville College in 1851. He 
died in 1870. p. 



216 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 



1820. 

Jacob Abbott was born in Hallowell in 1803, and bears the name 
of sire and grandsire already mentioned. His college course was not 
particularly distinguished. He went at once to Andover, where he 
soon became a man of mark in his class. He had not completed his 
theological studies when he was named by his instructors as a suitable 
candidate for a professorship in Amherst College, and was elected to 
the chair of mathematics and natural philosophy in that institution. 
He discharged its duties for a few years, and then went to Boston and 
established there the Mount Vernon School for young ladies. His 
plan for teaching and managing a school had some novel features, 
and was very popular, at least with his pupils. His system was fully 
explained in "The Teacher," a valuable work which he published not 
long after. He had evidently discovered where his strength lay, and 
giving up his school while in the full tide of success, he joined the 
guild of authors. " The Young Christian " soon after made its appear- 
ance, and was an immediate and great success. It was republished in 
England, was translated into other languages, and still ranks among 
the standard volumes in religious libraries. "The Corner Stone" and 
"The Way to do Good" were works of similar aim and character, 
but fell far short of their predecessor in power and popularity. Feel- 
ing, perhaps, that he had exhausted this particular vein, Mr. Abbott 
next turned his attention to the preparation of books for the young. 
As a story teller his invention is wonderfully fertile. Millions of lit- 
tle bo3'S and girls have found amusement in the " Rollo Books," the 
"Jonas Books," the "Lucy Books," the " Franconia Stories," the 
"Voyages and Travels of Marco Paul," and I know not how many 
other products of the same prolific pen. If these popular little fic- 
tions would suffer in some respects when compared with those beauti- 
fully instructive tales which, in our boyish days, came to us from 
Edgeworthtown, they still impart much useful information, combined 
with moral and religious lessons of inestimable value. Mr. Abbott 
has also compiled a series of historical books designed for youthful 
readers and for the use of schools. These are mostly biographies of 
monarchs, and acording to the fashion of the day are full of pictorial 
illustrations. These works are thrown off rapidly, and meet with a 
ready sale. It must be acknowledged that they are easy and pleasant 
reading. They are evidently compiled from the sources nearest at 
hand, with a direct view to immediate and popular effect. Careful 
investigation, judicious comparison, the correction of historical errors, 




&OA%ukl fbt^dA^j 






GRADUATES. 217 

a presentment of the latest and best considered views, form no part of 
his theory or practice. As a historical writer he must be ranked with 
Goldsmith rather than with Prescott. 

While supplying the press with this constant flow of matter, Mr. 
Abbott has not been stationary himself. He lived awhile in Roxbury, 
near Boston; then in Farmingtou, where he had land on which he 
sometimes worked hard ; then he went to New York, and with his 
brother John established a school for } T oung ladies on a ver}^ broad 
scale. His connection with this establishment lasted two or three 
3 r ears. Since that time New York has been his home. He has how- 
ever visited Europe repeatedly, making long sojourns in England and 
on the Continent. His " Summer in Scotland," " Rollo's Tour," the 
" Florence Series," etc., are fruits of these peregrinations. Judicious 
in his affairs as well as fortunate, Mr. Abbott is supposed to be 
wealthy. He has been twice married. His first wife was Harriet, 
daughter of Charles Vaughan, Esq. , of Hallowell. She left four sons : 
Benjamin Vaughan, Austin, Lyman, and Edward. Benjamin and Aus- 
tin are now a successful law firm in the city of New York. Lyman and 
Edward are clergymen. He married a second time Mrs Mary Dana 
Woodbury, daughter of Rev. Mr. Dana, of Marblehead, Mass.* 

Samuel Bradley, an ardent and impulsive } T outh when he came to 
college from Fryeburg, where Robert Bradley, his father, was a pio- 
neer farmer. He scarcely did himself justice in college. In fact, it 
took several disciplinary years to curb him into habits of usefulness 
and steady power. His law teachers were John S. Barrows and Sam- 
uel A. Bradley. The latter was his uncle and patron, and himself a 
man of note and influence. From 1824 to 1845 Mr. Bradley resided 

* Mr. Abbott bas more recently resided in Farmington. In 1874 he received from 
Amberst College the degree of D. D. His last few years betrayed infirmity. During, 
the summer of 1879 he had a paralytic seizure, which terminated life Oct. 31. It should 
be added that Mr. Abbott in early life held a short pastorate in Koxbury, where he 
laid the foundation of a large and strong church, but preached only occasionally in 
subsequent years. I quote from an obituary notice of him from one a native of Farm- 
ington, and who had opportunities of observing him closely. After referring to the 
versatility of his powers, the writer adds : " He was the embodiment of the noblest 
and rarest politeness. Neighbors loved him ; children revered him ; strangers admired 
him. He united the civilities of Paris — a city which in certain respects he admired 
— with the heartiness and good sense of New England politeness. The poor and 
suffering found in him a friend. With his courtesy he combined extreme modesty. It 
was with apparent reluctance that he ever spoke of himself or his works. I once 
asked him, seeing a case containing all his books, which his elder sister had collected, 
how many volumes he had written. ' So many,' was his reply, ' I never dared to 
count them.' Though he has written more volumes than any other American (over 



218 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

at Hollis. Thence he removed to Saco, where he died four years 
afterwards. For some time before this event he ranked among the 
first men of his profession in York County, and was retained in a 
large proportion of the cases. To the reputation of being a good 
lawyer and an able advocate he added the better praise which belongs 
to integrity of character and a life of active benevolence. In 1831 he 
married Jane, daughter of Hon. Isaac Lane ; his widow still lives. 
They had a son and a daughter ; the latter is now the wife of Edwin 
R. Wiggin, Esq., of Saco. 

Theodore Sedgwick Brown, born in 1803, was a son of Benja- 
min Brown of Vassalboro'. Thomas Rice of Winslow and Reuel Wil- 
liams of Augusta were his instructors in the law. He settled in his 
native town, and had for a time a large and lucrative business ; but 
early in his career, Mr. Browu, as I learn from himself, became 
deeply absorbed in the subject of religion, in the cause of temperance, 
and that of anti-slavery. He took an active part in organizations 
designed to promote these objects, and gave to their advocacy more 
attention than he bestowed on his profession. In 1837 he removed to 
Bangor, where he still lives. For many years he has been broken 
down in health. He ascribed his paralytic condition to a dose of tar- 
tar emetic injudiciously taken. Since that fatal hour he has looked on 
the drug shop as the great enemy of mankind. Should he ever regain 
his strength he is resolved what to clo. Others must fight the battle 
with slavery and with alcohol : he reserves himself for a grand 
onslaught upon the whole materia medica. Mr. Brown was married 
in 1829 to Sarah Sylvester of Norridgewock. Of three daughters one 
is married. Two of their four sons survive ; the eldest boy was lost 
at sea. Mrs. Brown is dead. 

[Mr. Brown died in 1862. — p.] 

two hundred), a conversation of hours might awaken no suspicion that he had pub- 
lished a single book. Though the literary success of his works was exceptionally 
great, it never occasioned the least sign of that vanity which distinguishes not a few 
authors. He always remained the same simple, courteous, modest Jacob Abbott. I 
must ppeak of one more element of his character, — his interest in and love for the 
young. He delighted in the companionship of children. He employed boys to 
shovel his snow-paths, to bring his mail, to work on his grounds. He taught French 
to little girls. He enjoyed watching children as they played their games, and occa- 
sionally shared in their sports. The photographs of himself usually contain one or 
more children. In one a little girl sits by his side in his library ; in another lie stands 
in his grounds with a half-dozen children around him who are coasting. The men 
and women who were ' brought up ' on his books in childhood cannot but feel deep 
sorrow when they read, 'Jacob Abbott is dead.' " 



GRADUATES. 219 

Jedediah Cobb came from Gray. He studied medicine with Dr. 
George C. Shattuck of Boston, and took his degree at Brunswick. 
He had not been long in Portland, where he had stationed himself for 
the practice, when he was appointed a professor in the Medical Col- 
lege of Ohio, at Cincinnati. From the theory and practice he was 
soon at his own request transferred to the chair of anatomy and sur- 
gery. The medical school which he thus joined in its infancy soon 
became a large and prosperous institution. Among his colleagues 
here were Dr. John Eberle, Dr. James C. Cross, and Dr. John Locke, 
all men of note and worth. In 1830 Dr. Cobb visited Europe to procure 
for the college apparatus and a library. In the 3-ears 1836 and 1837 
he lectured on anatomy and surgery at Brunswick. In the latter part 
of 1837 Dr. Cobb removed to Louisville, in Kentucky, to engage in a 
medical school just started there. Here, with a constantly rising rep- 
utation, he held for fifteen years the professorship of anatomy. Under 
him and his distinguished colleagues, Caldwell, Drake, Yandell, Miller, 
and others, the Louisville school became the greatest medical institu- 
tion of the West. 

In 1852 Dr. Cobb returned to Cincinnati and to the school with 
which he had first been connected. His chief inducement to this step 
was to aid the professional advancement of his eldest son, who had 
been appointed demonstrator of anatomy for the college. But the sit- 
uation did not meet his expectations. His health moreover had 
become impaired. Accordingly he gave up forever the teaching of 
anatomy. At this time (1853) he received unasked from Secretary 
Guthrie, who had long been his friend, the appointment of melter and 
refiner in the newly established assay office in New York ; but he 
declined to assume the responsibilities of this very important office. 
He purchased soon after in Manchester, Mass., a seat upon the sea- 
shore, which has since been his home. 

To Dr. Cobb's qualifications as a medical instructor, I have received 
the following testimony from his former colleague, Dr. Yandell : 
" Added to a clear, impressive, fluent, graceful manner as a lecturer, 
the neatness with which he made his dissections, and the fulness of 
his material illustrations, rendered him as acceptable a teacher as per- 
haps has ever lectured in our country to a class on anatomy. Nor 
were his attractions confined to the anatomical theatre. As an officer 
of the university he combined in a remarkable degree suavity and firm- 
ness, social grace and talent for business. Affable, genial, cordial, 
generous, he won universally and without an effort the admiration, 
esteem, and affection of his pupils." 

Dr. Cobb married Anne M. Morrill of Wells. They have a daughter 



220 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

and two sons living. One of these is a clerk in New York, and the 
other in Louisville, Ky. The son already referred to, a young man of 
uncommon promise, died when he had just entered on a bright career. 
[Dr. Cobb died in 1860. — p.] 

Philip Eastman was born in 1799 in Chatham, N. H., his father 
having been one of the first settlers of the town. In 1817 he went 
from Fryeburg Academy to Hanover and entered Dartmouth Univer- 
sity, a Sophomore. But the university was demolished and her chil- 
dren were scattered. In the spring of 1819 } 7 oung Eastman entered 
the Junior class of Bowdoin College. His teachers in the law were 
Stephen Chase and Judah Dana of Fryeburg, and Nicholas Baylies of 
Montpelier, Vt. From 1823 to 1836 Mr. Eastman practised law in 
North Yarmouth. During the next nine years he lived in Harrison. 
Since 1845 he has been an inhabitant of Saco. Mr. Eastman has 
made his profession the main business of his life. From 1831 to 1837 
he was chairman of the county commissioners of Cumberland. He 
has been twice in the State Senate, and in 1840 was chairman of the 
committee for revising the statutes. In 1843 and 1844 he served as 
commissioner under the treaty of Washington of 1842, to locate grants 
and possessory claims to settlers on the St. John and Aroostook 
Bivers. He published in 1849 a digest of the " Maine Beports " 
Assiduous, faithful, upright, and unassuming, he has the confidence 
and respect of all who knew him. He was married in 1827 to Mary, 
daughter of Stephen Ambrose of Concord, N. H. Of seven children, 
two sons and two daughters remain.* 

William Jewett Fakley was born in Newcastle, but grew up in 
Waldoboro', where his father, Joseph Farley, was collector of the 
port. He entered college young from Fxeter Academy, and received 
at Commencement the third honor in a class which now shows on its 
list a judge, a professor, and an author of wide renown, not one of 
whom then stood so high as he. Among his classmates he was con- 
spicuous for his commanding spirit. From the law office of his 
instructor, Hon. J. G. Beed, he went first to Camden and then to 
Thomaston, where he remained till his decease in 1839. Mr. Farley 
was highly gifted. His mind was quick and versatile, his disposition 
generous, social, manly. Few possess more of that prompt and per- 
suasive eloquence which moves an audience and sways a jury. There 

* The sons — Ambrose (Bowdoin College, 1854) and Edward (Bowdoin College, 
1857) — adopted the profession of their father. Mr. Eastman died in 1869. p. 



GRADUATES. 221 

were drawbacks certainly ; yet those who knew him could not doubt 
that should his life continue and should he prove just to himself, dis- 
tinguished eminence awaited him whether in politics or in the law. 
His first wife was Alice, 3 T oungest daughter of President McKeen, who 
died childless one }~ear after her marriage. His widow, a daughter of 
Eobert Foster of Thomaston, is living with her daughter in West 
Chester, Pa. 

Joshua Warren Hathaway was born in 1797 in the Province of 
New Brunswick. He claims descent, notwithstanding, from the best 
of Puritan and Pilgrim stock. His parents, Ebenezer and Elizabeth, 
were natives of Freetown in Massachusetts. While he was } r et a child 
they removed to Conwa}^ in New Hampshire. During their last years 
these worthy and venerated persons lived in New Gloucester, where 
the}^ died not long ago. In due time Joshua was sent to Fryeburg to 
be fitted, and thence in due time to college. His three years of pro- 
fessional preparation were passed at Alfred in the office of Mr. 
Holmes. He settled first at Bluehill, then at Ellsworth, where he 
lived twelve years, practising law and now and then representing 
town or count}- in the State Legislature. Since 1837 he has been a 
resident of Bangor. In 1849 he was appointed one of the judges of 
the District Court for the State. In 1852 he was made a justice of 
the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, and when the seven appointed 
years were completed he returned to the bar. 

Within a few months from his settlement in Bluehill, Mr. Hathaway 
married Mary Ann, daughter of Dr. C. Hathaway of New Brunswick. 
Of their three children, one boy died in early childhood ; their daugh- 
ter became a wife and mother, but died at the age of twenty-two. The 
survivor has adopted his father's profession, and is a member of the 
bar. 

[He died in 1862.— p.] 

Josiah Hilton Hobbs of Effingham, N. H. He fitted himself for 
college mainly at home, and without help from anybody, and in 1817 
entered the Sophomore class in Dartmouth University. When this 
institution, through the decision of the United States Supreme Court, 
fell back again into Dartmouth College, Hobbs came to Brunswick, 
joining the Junior class in the spring of 1819, and stepping at once 
into its foremost rank. In due time he became a practising lawj'er in 
Wakefield, N. H., in partnership at first with William Saw} T er, Esq., 
and here he passed the rest of his life. At one period he ventured 
somewhat deeply into speculations in lumber and timber lands, and 



222 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

like many others " had his losses." But he was more fortunate than 
some, for he got out of the woods at last. In 1826 he was married 
to Rhoda, daughter of A. McC. Chapman, Esq., of Parsonsfield. Of 
their nine children, four sons and three daughters, together with their 
mother, still live. "Mr. Hobbs had a vigorous mind. In mathemati- 
cal and metaphysical studies and in the discussion of abstruse and 
difficult topics he took great delight. Professionally he loved and 
sought the less travelled paths of legal knowledge. He was indefati- 
gable in the investigation of vexed questions and kno^ cases. No 
object engaged his attention which he did not pursue with enthusiastic 
ardor and perseverance. As a lawyer he had the reputation of being 
sound and skilful. He was thoroughly read in equity principles and 
practice, and as a solicitor in chancery was thought by many to be 
primus inter pares, the field of his practice extending over the most 
populous and active business portion of his State. He was impulsive 
in his feelings and rather eccentric in some respects, but he possessed 
many generous and honorable traits of character, and at his death left 
manj r sorrowing friends." To Mr. Hobbs's classmate and my kind 
friend, Hon. Philip Eastman of Saco, I am mainly indebted for the 
foregoing sketch. 

[Mr. Hobbs died in 1854. —p.] 

William McDougall was a farmer's son from Gorham, where he 
was fitted for college by Mr. Nason. He was a studious and exem- 
plary young man ; but with talents and attainments of a high order, 
he possessed unfortunate^ a cold, slow temperament and a constitu- 
tional tendency to gloom, the result probably of a diseased frame. 
To this perhaps must be ascribed the fact that Mr. McDougall, though 
always respectable, never fulfilled the promise of his 3 r outh. He 
studied medicine in Boston in the office of George Parkman, now so 
tragically famous. He was an assistant teacher in Dummer Acad- 
emy, Bjmeld, Mass. For two years he was a tutor in Bowdoin Col- 
lege. At Dixmont and at Sacearappa he practised medicine, a short 
time in each place. Then seeking a milder climate, he dwelt awhile 
in Athens, Pa. Duriug the year 1828 he was teaching in Savannah, 
Ga. A few years later, taking with him his family which had hitherto 
remained at the North, he settled as a plrysician in the new town of 
Wetumka, Ala. In 1842 he became principal of an Episcopal school 
in Charleston, S. C. Three years afterward he was compelled by ill 
health to relinquish this position. After a year devoted to travel he 
went back to Wetumka, where as a teacher he continued until he died 
in 1852. His wife was Isabella L., daughter of the now aged Samuel 



GEADUATES. 223 

Melchior of Brunswick, a man well known to all the students of 
Bowdoin. Their son and only child, Charles E. McDougall, gradu- 
ated at Brunswick in 1847, and is a practising physician in Florida. 

Samuel Morrill, son of Nahum Morrill of Wells, and grandson 
of Rev. Moses Morrill (Harvard College, 1737), minister of Biclde- 
ford, studied medicine with Dr. Gilman of Wells and Dr. Shattuck 
of Boston. In 1824 he settled in Boston, where he still practises his 
profession, a successful and much-esteemed physician. He married 
in 1828 Anne R. Carter of Boston, and has three children. Katharine 
R. is the wife of Stephen H. Williams; Anne R. J of George M. 
Hobbs, Esq. 

[Dr. Morrill died in 1872. — p.] 

Caleb Fessenden Page, son of Robert Page, was born in 1797, 
and was fitted for college in the academy of his native Fiyeburg. 
His teacher in theology was the Rev. David Thurston. His first set- 
tlement was in Liruington in 1823. Ten years afterward he became 
the colleague of Rev. Mr. Church of Bridgton, where he ministered 
for sixteen 3-ears. Next in Granby, Conn., he was a settled pastor 
for about four years. He has since supplied the church in East Gran- 
ville, Mass., preaching there for the aged and venerable Dr. Cooley ; 
and he now supplies a pulpit in the adjoining town of Tolland. 
Amid this somewhat changeful course of ministerial service, he has 
the satisfaction of believing that his labors have not been without a 
blessiug. His first wife was Sarah, daughter of Daniel Felch of Lim- 
erick, and sister of Governor Felch of Michigan. Three of her five 
children yet live : Dr. Alpheus F. pi'actises at Bucksport ; Helen M. 
is wife of Gilbert A. Taylor, a New Haven merchant ; and one daugh 
ter is yet single. He lost by death in less than two years his second 
wife, who was Mary Jefferds of Kennebunk. His third wife is Mary, 
widow of Joseph Coddington and daughter of Enoch Dow of Salem, 
Mass . They have one son. 

[Mr. Page died in 1873. — p.] 

Thomas Treadwell Stone was born in 1801 in Waterford upon 
ground which his father had redeemed from the primeval forest. 
Enfeebled health that threatened to spoil him for the farm soon turned 
him into the path of learning. Among his early teachers were the 
Rev. Lincoln Ripley, still living in Waterford, greatly venerated ; 
Bezaleel Cushman, then over Bridgton Academy ; and John Eveleth, 
then in Hebron Academy. From college, in which his proficiency 



224 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

was commendable, he went to Augusta, where he studied theology 
under the guidance of Rev. Dr. Tappan. Licensed in 1821, he was 
ordained at Andover in 1824. In 1830 he took charge of the acad- 
emy in Bridgton, and held it for two years. From 1832 to 1846 he 
was the Congregational minister of East Machias. Then for nearly 
six years he ministered to the First Church in Salem, Mass. In the 
latter part of 1852 he went to Bolton, Mass., where he still preaches. 
It will be seen from this account that Mr. Stone ranked at the 
outset of his ministry among the orthodox. That his views after- 
wards underwent considerable modification may be inferred from the 
fact that his later ministrations have been in congregations known as 
Unitarian. I am not however aware that the Unitarian body does or 
can claim him as distinctly and avowedly of their faith. That he is a 
man of perfectly sincere convictions, of a spirit most benevolent and 
catholic, of the gentlest manners, and of exemplary life, all must con- 
cede. Mr. Stone early distinguished himself as a writer. Thirty 
years ago the Christian Mirror was often enriched by his contribu- 
tions. In 1829 appeared six sermons on "War," a small volume, 
and soon after a book of sketches for Sunday schools. In 1854 was 
published a volume of sermons, twenty-four in number. " The Rod 
and the Staff," published in 1856, is the third of a series called " The 
Devotional Library." The religious and literary quarterlies have 
contained many articles from his thoughtful and graceful pen. It is 
in this field perhaps that his strength chiefly lies, and those who have 
read him with profit and delight cannot but hope that they have 
pleasures of the same kind yet in reserve. In 1858 Mr. Stone " gave 
a valuable course of lectures before the Lowell Institute, in Boston, 
on English literature, displaying uncommon familiarity with his sub- 
ject, which was handled with marked and acknowledged ability." 
Mr. Stone was married in 1825 to Laura Poor of Andover. Of 
twelve children, two daughters and six sons remain. One of these, 
Henry Stone, graduated at Bowdoin College in 1852, and is now with 
his uncle, Henry V. Poor (Bowdoin College, 1835), in the office of 
the Railroad Journal in the city of New York. 

1821. 

John Barrett is well remembered b} r the writer as having been his 
pupil in Portland, and subsequently for three years in college, — a lad 
then of grave demeanor and good promise. He was born in North- 
field, Mass. He studied medicine in Portland with Dr. John Merrill, 
and in Boston under Dr. George C. Suattuck. From 1824 to 1842, 



GRADUATES. 225 

the year of his death, he practised his profession in Portland. " He 
was a man of superior talents and attainments, peculiarly fitted by 
nature for his profession, possessing skilful tact and sound judgment 
in an unusual degree. He was liberal to a fault, kind and attentive 
to the poor both with his purse and his professional services, very 
much beloved by his patients and highly esteemed by his medical 
brethren. I always loved him, as did every one that knew him, and 
now I can think of him only as the kind friend and attentive and skil- 
ful physician. Poor Jack ! 

c Green be the turf above thee.' " 

I can add nothing to this affectionate tribute from Dr. Barrett's 
pupil and brother in the healing art. Dr. Barrett married Abby, 
daughter of Horatio Southgate, She died early, leaving a daughter 
who still lives. 

[Dr. Barrett died in 1842. —p.] 

Plummer Chase was born in Newbury, Mass., and was somewhat 
advanced when he joined his class. He was a man of moderate 
abilities but of excellent spirit. From college he went to Andover. 
In 1825 he was ordained at Machias to act as an evangelist, and in 
this capacity assisted the Rev. Mr. Moseley of New Gloucester during 
a period of revival. In 1828 he was settled at Carver, Mass., and 
remained there about seven years. Here, and in many other places 
where he ministered, his faithful labors bore rich and visible fruit. 
Saj^s one of his classmates, — a kindred spirit, though bearing ecclesi- 
astically a different name : " I cannot allude to Chase without recall- 
ing his devoted piety, which always appeared to be his most striking 
characteristic. Others excelled him in talents and learning, but for 
singleness of heart in the service of his Lord and Master he was 
unequalled. He was recognized as a man of prayer by the most 
thoughtless of the students. He carried these peculiarities with him 
into the sacred ministry." He died in Newbury in 1857, at the age of 
forty-three years. 

Daniel Clarke was from "Windham. Though not distinguished 
by personal graces, he had a good mind and some poetic power. In 
the midst of obstacles that would have discouraged many, he still 
hoped and persevered. He began the study of law with Mr. Ander- 
son in Portland, but consumption intervened and in 1825 he died. 

15 



226 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

John Payne Cleaveland is a half-brother of the late professor of 
chemistry, being about twenty years his junior. His college fitting 
was at Dummer Academy. From Brunswick he went to Andover and 
studied nearly six months in the divinity school. Appointed to the 
Wolfeboro' Academy, he passed two years on the shore of the Winni- 
piseogee teaching and studying. From Wolfeboro' he went to Roches- 
ter to be with his friend Upham, then the pastor there. Being licensed 
in the autumn of 1824, he preached three months at Barrington. He 
afterwards supplied the Bochester pulpit, Mr. Upham having gone to 
Brunswick. During his residence in Rochester Mr. Cleaveland not 
only studied and preached, but taught also. In the autumn of 1825 
he succeeded Hosea Hildreth as professor of mathematics in Phillips 
Exeter Academy. Here for a year and a half he performed the duties 
of the professorship, and preached regularly on the Sabbath. Early 
in 1827 he was ordained pastor of the Tabernacle Church in Salem, 
Mass., succeeding the Rev. Dr. Cornelius. After seven years of ser- 
vice in Salem he accepted a call from the First Presbyterian Church in 
Detroit. After a popular ministry of about four }'ears he was selected 
by the Presbyterians of Michigan to preside over a college which they 
felt it their duty to establish. The incorporated institution was located 
at Marshall, lands supposed to be valuable were given, and President 
Cleaveland (unwillingly relinquished by his people in Detroit) was 
sent to the East to raise funds. But this was in 1837. It was no 
time to get money for any purpose. Their land, so lately rated at 
fabulous values, could now hardly be given away. Dark as the pros- 
pects of the college had become, Mr. Cleaveland managed to build at 
Marshall an academy and boarding-house. Taking charge himself of 
this preparatory department, he got together a large school, and had 
at the same time a respectable class of students in theolog}^. With- 
out money, however, the college could not be started, and this article 
was scarce as ever. He then preached for about a } T ear at Ann Arbor, 
building up there a large Presbyterian society. Then returning to 
Marshall he perfoi'med a similar labor there. At the beginning of 
1844 Mr. Cleaveland went to Cincinnati, where he succeeded the ven- 
erable Dr. Beecher in the Second Presbyterian Church. In 184G he 
became pastor of the Beneficent Congregational Church, a large and 
wealthy society in Providence, R. I. After a successful ministry here 
of seven years he removed to Northampton, Mass., as pastor of the 
First Congregational Church, once under the care of the great Edwards. 
Since the autumn of 1854 he has been minister of the Appletou Street 
Church in Lowell. During the year 1857 Mr. Cleaveland served as 
chaplain to the Senate of Massachusetts, and during a part of the ses- 
sion to the House of Representatives also. 



GRADUATES. 227 

The mere enumeration of positions held and duties performed is 
sufficient to show that Dr. Cleaveland's services have been in wide 
demand, and that he has energies of no common order. In theology 
he belongs or did belong to what the Presbyterians call " new school." 
In that celebrated meeting of the General Assembly at Philadelphia 
which resulted in the separation, Mr. Cleaveland was a prominent de- 
bater and actor. Possessing a good voice, much earnestness of man- 
ner, and a fluent elocution, he has been a frequent and effective 
speaker on anniversary platforms, and even on the floors of political 
meetings. Soon after he was settled in Salem he married Susan, 
daughter of Moses Dole of Newbury. Of their two daughters the 
younger, Caroline, died during the sojourn at Ann Arbor. Upon this 
affliction came a year later t 'the mothers death. While living in Cin- 
cinnati, Dr. Cleaveland was married to Julia Chamberlain of Exeter, 
N. H. 

[Dr. Cleaveland died in 1873 in Newburyport. — p.] 

Eufus King Cushing is a native of Brunswick, where his father, 
Caleb Gushing, was well known to the earlier students. His medical 
instructors were Dr. James McKeen and Dr. John D. Wells. Dr. 
Cushing practised for a time at Appalachicola in Florida, and also for 
a time in Bangor. His present home is Brewer. He needs no 
voucher for his respectability as a physician or as a. man. His wife is 
a daughter of the eminent surgeon and physician, Hosea Rich of Ban- 
gor. They have a son and a daughter. 

William Cutter, born in 1801, son of Levi Cutter, already men- 
tioned, graduated with the highest honors of his class, studied theol- 
ogy awhile at Andover, left on account of diseased eyes, spent much 
on the doctors, passed a winter in Guadaloupe, and then went into 
mercantile business in Portland. When that place became a city, Mr. 
Cutter was one of its- common council. For several years he was 
an active and efficient overseer of Bowdoin College. But the days of 
mad speculation came, and so also came their inevitable consequent, 
the day of enlightenment and disaster. Under the irresistible pres- 
sure, the respectable firm to which Mr Cutter belonged went down. 
Mr Cutter removed soon after to New York. There he has been a 
bank clerk, an author, and a real-estate broker. At present he is 
the editor and publisher of a magazine. As an easy and elegant 
writer both of prose and poetry, Mr. Cutter has long been distin- 
guished. He wrote a valuable life of Gen. Putnam and one of Gen. 
La Fayette, which were published. Many small works written for 



228 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

others have appeared under the names of his employers, and have 
passed to their credit. He has made numerous contributions to periodic 
literature, which evince a pen of equal fertility and grace. For many 
years he has resided in the rural outskirts of Brooklyn, among neigh- 
bors who know him well, esteem him highly, and love him much. 
Mr. Cutter in 1828 married Margaret Dicks of Portland. They 
have two sons and three daughters, all now adult. 
[Mr. Cutter died in 1867. — p.] 



Daniel Evans, brother of George (see 1815), was born in 1802. 
He died in Cornville in 1867. 



Godfrey John Grosvenor was a native of Minot.' " Strange 
fellow in college : eccentric, unrefined, indolent." He began the prac- 
tice of law in Hudson, N. Y., and removed afterwards to Geneva 
in the same State, where he spent the rest of his life. " He was 
esteemed a good lawyer, and especially before a jury. He had a good 
deal of readiness and natural eloquence and a genial disposition, which 
made him very popular. He was a warm political partisan, but I do 
not know that he held any public office except that of postmaster in 
this village. He held that office when I came to Geneva in 1836, and 
so remained, I think, till ' Tip ' and ' Ty ' came in." The story of his 
later years is a melancholy one, and sadly did they end. On the 21st 
of June, 1849, he went into his garden in the morning, and there in 
the afternoon he was found prostrate and dead. He left a widow and 
several children. 

Isaac Groton, a brother of Nathaniel (see 1814), studied law with 
Gorham Parks of Waldoboro', and practised his profession in that 
place for about nine } r ears. He had attained to a lucrative business, 
when in 1833 he was suddenly taken away. Mr. Groton " had a fine 
taste for music, and skilfully played the violin in his leisure moments." 
He was not married. 

Charles Harding, son of David Harding of Gorham, practised 
law for ten years in Raymond. He then removed to Portland, where 
for several years he acted as notary public and clerk of the common 
council. Not only as a man of business but in other walks he had 
a fair reputation. His death, which occurred at the hospital in 1851, 
was also a sad one. A widow and three children survive him. 



GRADUATES. 229 

Joseph Howard's father, of the same name, having served his 
country in the War of Independence, went into the Maine woods as 
one of the settlers of Brownfield. There he became a man of note 
and influence, closing in 1851 his long and useful life of ninety-three 
years. The son was fitted at Fiyeburg, spent eighteen months at 
Hanover until the ' ; university" died, and then entered Bowdoin Col- 
lege. Having read law with Daniel Goodenow and with Judge Dana, 
he practised for twelve years in York Count}-, being for ten } r ears dis- 
trict attorney for the county. In 1837 he was appointed United 
States attorn ey for Maine, and since that time has resided in Port- 
land. In 1848 Mr. Howard was appointed justice of the Supreme 
Judicial Court of Maine. At the close of his seven years' term he 
returned to the practice of the law, in which he is still actively and 
extensively engaged. In a private letter Judge Howard makes the 
following allusion to his judiciary career : " My episode on the bench 
was on the whole satisfactory ; jet I am quite as well pleased with 
practising as dispensing law. The former has more variety, more that 
interests the heart, and rewards better. The latter is less exciting, 
more dignified, and more respected among men." Though utterly 
exempt both by nature and habit from the violence and bitterness of 
partisanship, Judge Howard was born and brought up in the Demo- 
cratic party, and his allegiance to it has never been shaken.* 

He was married in 1826 to Maria Annette, daughter of Hon. Judah 
Dana. Of their four surviving children two are sons. Joseph D. 
(Bowdoin College, 1852) is a lawyer in the city of ISfew York.f 
Henry R. (Bowdoin College, 1857) is preparing for the ministry in 
the Episcopal Church. J 

Lot Jones was born in 1797 in Brunswick. His grandfather, Lem- 
uel Jones, an approved minister among the Friends, left twelve chil- 

* Judge Howard was elected mayor of Portland in 1860. and in 1864-65 was the 
Democratic candidate for governor of the State. For several years he was president 
of the Cumberland bar. For several years he was a member of the board of over- 
seers of the college. He was of genial and gentle temper, modest and retiring, a 
friend of young men (as many a. younger member of tbe profession can testify), of a 
pure and high-toned character, of strong religious sentiment, and for several years a 
communicant in the Episcopal Church. Monday, Dec. 12, 1877, he went to Brown- 
field to visit a brother. Having arrived at noon and dined, he took an afternoon 
walk in the wood near by, and was found dead by the roadside from disease of the 
heart, of which he had felt symptoms, as was shown by arrangements which he had 
made in apprehension that he might be the victim of sudden death. p. 

t Died suddenly in New York in 1872. — p. 

\ Settled at Potsdam, N. Y. — p. 



230 HISTOEY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

dren, all of whom lived to advanced age. His father, Thomas, now 
almost ninety years old, is still an active minister in the same religious 
body. His mother, Esther, was the daughter of Jeremiah Hacker, a 
Salem merchant who removed to Brunswick at the close of the Revo- 
lution. He was fitted for college by Ebenezer Everett, Seba Smith, 
and Reuben Nason. Under new convictions of duty he early termi- 
nated his ecclesiastical relations with the people among whom he was 
born. After graduation he studied theology with Rev. Thomas Car- 
lisle, rector of St. Peter's in Salem, Mass., and was admitted to orders 
in 1823. After two } 7 ears of missionary labor in Marblehead and 
Ashfield, Mass., he went to Georgia for his health. While in that 
State he organized a church at Macon, and had charge for a time of 
Chatham Academy in Savannah. Returning to Maine, he supplied 
Christ Church in Gardiner during a loug absence of its rector, and 
then accepted the rectorship of the Episcopal Church in Leicester, 
Mass. From this place in 1833 he went to New York, which has 
since been his home. The Church of the Epiphany, which has enjoyed 
for twenty-five years his faithful ministrations, is strictly a missionary 
enterprise. It sprung from an effort of benevolence to supply the 
wants of a populous but comparatively poor neighborhood. Its sit- 
tings are all free, and its religious privileges have been blessed to mul- 
titudes of that shifting population. Long as it is since Mr. Jones 
renounced the tenets of Quakerism, he retains much of the manner 
and tone which mark the members of that placid community. Among 
the rectors of the Episcopal Church in this city, few are older than 
he ; none more respected. Besides several discourses in pamphlet 
form he has published a small volume, the "Memoir of Mrs. Sarah 
L. Taj-lor." In 1825 Mr. Jones was married in Augusta, Ga., to 
Priscilla, daughter of Alexander McMillan. Her father was a native 
of Edinburgh in Scotland, her mother the daughter of Col. Mead of 
Bedford County, Va., and her sister was the wife of Judge Wilde of 
Richmond Count}-, Ga. Mrs. Jones died in 1829 in Leicester. In 
1831 he married Lucy Ann, one of the ten children of Dr. Artemas 
Bullard of Sutton, Mass. A brother of hers, the Rev. Dr. Bullard 
of the First Presbyterian Church in St. Louis, was killed Nov. 1, 
1855, in the terrible railroad accident of Gasconade River. Another 
brother, the Rev. Asa Bullard, is the worthy secretary of the Massa- 
chusetts Sunday-School Society. One of her sisters is Mrs. Judge 
Barton of Worcester, Mass., and another is Mrs. Henry Ward 
Beecher. Of seven children Mr. Jones has lost five. Ellen M. died 
in 1853, the wife of Rev. John A. Paddock. Louise M. is the wife 
of George E. Moore of New York. Henry Lawrence is a graduate 



GRADUATES. 231 

of Columbia College, Jul} 7 , 1859. Mr. Jones has just been dubbed 
D. D. b}' the college last named. 

[Dr. Jones died in Philadelphia in 1865. — p.] 

James Larry was from Gorham. In 1822 he went to Virginia and 
engaged in teaching. In this capacity he has lived in Hanover, Cul- 
pepper, and King George counties. He now has a school in Henrico 
County, about twelve miles from Richmond. Many of his earlier 
pupils have become men of distinction. His religious connections 
are with the denomination known there as the Old Baptists. In the 
important matter of wedlock Mr. Larry took time. At the discreet 
age of fifty-five he married a Virginia lady, not so old by considerable. 
Only one of their two children is living. 

Joseph Libbet was the son of Francis and Lucy (Moulton) Libbey, 
who lived in Buxton, where he was born in 1793. He was fitted at Gor- 
ham. In college he was so steady and so mature that I used to regard 
him with a sort of veneration, even when he stood before me to recite. 
Mr. Larry devoted himself to teaching. The high school in Portland 
was under his charge for twenty-nine years. Then for five years he 
kept a private school. Since 1855 he has held the office of county 
treasurer one year, of alderman one year, and of treasurer to the 
York and Cumberland Railroad. For several years he was on the 
Board of Overseers of the college, and one of its committee on exam- 
inations. He is now engaged in active business, and appears to be 
growing 3'oung again. He was married in 1822 to Miss R. M. Davis, 
who died in 1824, leaving a son, Francis A., graduate of Bowdoin 
College, 1843. F. A. Libbey engaged in the express business, and 
was killed by a railroad accident Aug. 14, 1848. In 1826 Mr. Libbey 
was married to Lucy Jenkins of Barre, Mass. Of their six children, 
a son and three daughters are living. 

[Mr. Libbey died in 1871. — p.] 

Winthrop Gray Marston was from Portland. I knew him in 
college, but can remember nothing worth recording. Of what hap- 
pened afterwards I have only learned that he was married, and that 
his death occurred in 1825. 

George Packard was the Rev. Dr. Packard's third son. In 1825, 
after the usual preparation, he established himself in Saco as a pby-si- 
cian. For this profession he seemed to be well adapted both by nature 
and culture. After a successful practice of seventeen years he found 



232 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

himself unable longer to resist the theological proclivities of his family. 
Accordingly he abandoned medicine, joined for a time the school at 
Alexandria, and was ordained in 1843 by the bishop of Virginia. 
For about two years he had charge of an Episcopal church, which 
stands under the shadow of Andover Theological Seminary. He then 
served as a missionaiy in the eastern part of Massachusetts. Since 
1846 he has been rector of a church in Lawrence, Mass. In addition 
to professional duty, which as physician or as pastor he has faithfully 
discharged, Dr. Packard has always taken an active part in the cause 
of education. The schools of Saco long shared his care, and in Law- 
rence he has held the office of school superintendent. He was married 
in 1833 to Sarah M., daughter of Jonathan Tucker of Saco. Of 
eleven children they have lost six.* 

Ichabod Plaisted was from Gardiner. "His collegiate life was 
not alwa}'s smooth. The position assigned to him by others fell short 
of that to which he supposed himself entitled. Fluent in conversation 
and eloquent as a speaker, he aspired to the highest offices in the gift 
of his country. He chose the law and prepared to engage in the 
study with enthusiastic ardor. Having graduated he went to South 
Corolina, visiting on his way thither the sage of Monticello. His 
interview with that remarkable man aided in confirming his already 
sceptical modes of thought. The aged veteran conversed freely with 
the young disciple, and communicated the results of his long expe- 
rience with reference to men, books, and opinions. This event was 
regarded by Plaisted with much complacency, as foreshadowing in 
some degree his future career. The philosophical statesman, he said, 
had like himself relinquished the authority of the sacred volume, and 
clung to the sages of antiquity. One after another of the authors who 
were once his daily companions had been laid aside. Homer alone 
remained on the mantel near his chair, the joy and solace of his 
declining years. f 

"Filled with a train of glowing anticipations, our young friend 
entered a law office in Charleston, and applied himself da} r and night 
to his studies. Never was a student more completely engrossed by 

* Since the above was written Mrs. Packard has died, and the oldest son in the 
naval service in the late war. One son and three daughters now survive. The father 
died in 1876. • p. 

t How unlike the sentiment of Homer's translator in his later days ! 
" The grief is this, that sunk in Homer's mine, 
I lose my precious years, now soon to fail, 
Handling his gold, which howsoe'er it shine, 
Proves dross when balanced in the Christian scale." 



GRADUATES. 233 

any pursuit. He did not reflect that there are limits to human effort 
and achievement, and physical laws which if violated produce painful 
results that cannot be averted. His intense application and want of 
prudent care led to the entire loss of his sight. When I first met 
him on his return from the South, his mind was as much in the dark 
with regard to revelation and providence as his body was in refer- 
ence to surrounding objects. His prospects all blighted, his cherished 
hopes destroyed, he reproached the Author of his being, and was read}* 
to curse the day in which he was born. I never witnessed a more 
painful spectacle. A few words of sympathy and consolation were 
uttered in his hearing and such suggestions were made as his trying 
condition seemed to demand. Months passed before our next inter- 
view. Then. — joyful change ! It was my privilege to find him a 
professed disciple of the Lord Jesus. The darkness of his mental 
vision had been removed. That volume, of which he had before 
spoken with disrespect, furnished his only ground of hope. Humbled 
before the majesty of Jehovah, he desired to proclaim to others the 
riches of that grace by which he had been rescued." 

Mr. Plaisted was licensed to preach in 1826, and was soon after 
settled over a small society in North Eochester, Mass., receiving his 
support in part from the Home Missionary Society. After about four 
years of service here his health gave way. A severe cough put a 
stop to his preaching. He went back to his paternal home in Gardi- 
ner, and died in peace, June 3, 1831. About a year before his death 
Mr. Plaisted was married, and his widow is still living in Brain tree, 
Mass. 

Charles Son/E, brother of G. L. Soule (see 1818), and born in 1794, 
was fitted at Exeter. After leaving college he went to Andover, but 
did not graduate there. He was settled for a while over a parish in 
Belfast, and for a while over one in Norway. Compelled by bronchial 
disease" to leave off preaching, he spent several }"ears in Portland 
engaged in bookselling. Mr. Soule is now settled in Amherst, a new 
town on Union Eiver, far back in the " forest primeval" ; which forest, 
however, is fast disappearing beneath the sturdy strokes of the lumber- 
men. About forty years since Eev. Samuel Veazie (Harvard College, 
1800) was settled in Freeport, married Miss Bartol. and soon after 
died. His young widow became in 182-4 the wife of Mr. Soule. 
They have had two daughters. One of them died in 1847 at the age 
of twenty-one ; the other is married and lives in Portland. From 
what I remember of Mr. Soule's temperament and from what 1 have 
occasionally heard others say of him, 1 believe him to be one of those 



234 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

who go quietly about their business, and who under all circumstances 
take life easily. 

[Mr. Soule died in Portland in 1869. —p.] 

Stephen McLellan Staples of Gorham. He was ungainly in 
person and manners, and while in college, though uniformly diligent, 
made no special demonstration of power. But he kept his eye fixed 
steadily on the future, and was silently but surely preparing himself 
for action. Soon after he graduated he went to Mexico, and obtained 
a situation under government as survej'or and civil engineer. This 
respectable and lucrative post he held about ten years, when the fail- 
ure of his health compelled him to return. He now married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Col. Lothrop Lewis of Gorham. Being a good linguist 
he undertook to prepare a grammar of the Spanish language and made 
considerable progress ; but in the midst of all death came. He died 
in 1832 in Philadelphia, aged thirty- two. He had no offspring. 

Isaac Watts "Wheelwright is seventh in descent from the famous 
Rev. John Wheelwright of Exeter, N. H. If the reader has never 
heard of John Wheelwright, it is not my fault. I. W. Wheelwright 
is only four generations down from the distinguished judge, John 
Wheelwright of Wells. Jeremiah Wheelwright of Newbury port was 
one of Arnold's men, and went with that brave fellow through the 
Maine woods to take Quebec. His son Ebenezer, a respectable mer- 
chant, married Anna Coombs. This worthy couple, having reared a 
large family, died near together in 1855, having both entered on their 
tenth decade. Isaac Watts was their j-oungest son. Graduating 
with a good reputation for classical scholarship, he went to Andover 
for theological study. Then he acted as an assistant teacher in Phil- 
lips Academy and also in Dummer Academy, at that time under my 
care. At length he was licensed and attempted to preach ; but a 
temperament peculiarly excitable threw such difficulties in his way 
that he soon found his path in this direction hedged in. He again 
turned his attention to teaching, and for a time had a school in New 
Orleans. His oldest brother, William Wheelwright (now a distin- 
guished name in South America) , was then United States consul at 
Guayaquil. With a commission of inquiry from the Bible House, 
Isaac visited our great southern peninsula, and traversed the countries 
on its western coast At length he reached Quito, where he was 
kindly received by the president of the republic and invited to sta}\ 
He was there two } T ears, having apartments in the palace and giving 
lessons daily. But it was cold and uncomfortable on that grand 



GRADUATES. 235 

plateau, and he soon grew weary even of the awful splendors of 
Pichincha and Chiinborazo. He came home, but there was nothing to 
be done here, so he went back to South America. For several years 
he taught a school in Valparaiso, then his brother's residence ; but 
feeling lonely, he came home and persuaded a young lady (daughter 
of Eev. Dr. Dana of Newbury port) to return with him. It is now 
several years since they came back from Valparaiso. Carrying into 
effect one of those dreamy wishes which are sometimes formed in 
youth, he bought the old parsonage house and glebe in Byfield. It 
was a venerable, rickety mansion where some great men have lived, 
and where some good people have been near freezing. Mr Wheel- 
wright has modernized the ancient structure and made it comfortable. 
After a day of considerable travel and fatigue and of some disappoint- 
ment, my friend is passing the evening in this still spot. He sees to 
his apple-trees, tends his cows, weeds his garden, and sits under the 
elms that once shaded Trowbridge and Parsons, — the great master 
and greater pupil. Since he settled in Byfielcl, he has lost one wife 
and found another. He has three or four children, all daughters.* 

Joseph Abiel Wood, born in 1803, was a son of Joseph Wood of 
Wiscasset. He practised law in Ellsworth, where he died in 1844. 
" Wood," writes one of his classmates, " possessed many excellent 
qualities. He had a mind well balanced, and the disposition to do 
what was right. His life afforded a beautiful illustration of the exem- 
plary and consistent Christian." He married a Miss Hodges of Taun- 
ton, who afterwards became the wife of Col. Black. Mr. Wood died 
in 1844. 



1822. 
Joseph Hale Abbott was born in 1802 in Wilton, N. H., being 
sixth in degree from the ancestral George, who came from Yorkshire 

* John Wheelwright, before he came to America, had been a schoolmate and 
friend of Oliver Cromwell. Ann Hutchinson was his sister, and he held the doctrines 
which brought such odium on that famous woman. Banished from Boston for his 
heresy, he went to Exeter as one of its first settlers. There also trouble came, and 
he moved about 1643 to Wells, then just begun. Pour years later he revisited Eng- 
land, when he made a partial confession of error. He returned with recommenda- 
tions' to favor from his old friend, now the great " Protector," and was kindly received 
in Massachusetts, and soon after settled as the minister of Hampton, N. H. He died 
in Salisbury, 1679, in advanced age. 

Christopher Lawson, who was banished at the same time with Wheelwright and 
for the same reasons, settled at Brunswick under Purchase, who it seems had no 
objection to Antinomianism. 



236 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

in 1640, and settled soon after in Andover. His father Ezra, an 
intelligent and good man, originated in connection with a brother, 
Samuel A. Abbott, the manufacture of potato starch in this country, 
now a business of great magnitude. Maternally he is descended from 
Rev. John Hale, first minister of Rowley, who at a time when his breth- 
ren and neighbors generally seemed to be out of their senses, wrote a 
sensible book on witchcraft. His mother, Rebekah Hale, was a 
native of South Coventry, Conn., and was a niece of the brave 
patriot Capt. Nathan Hale. Joseph H. Abbott was fitted mostly 
at Dummer Academy, where his uncle Abiel (now just deceased) 
was preceptor. His going to Brunswick was accidental. He was 
thinking only of Cambridge, when Mr. John Abbott "dropped in." 
He had with him two chaises and two sisters bound for Maine, and 
another driver was much wanted. Joseph could perform this ser- 
vice, enter Bowdoin College, stay one year, and then go to Cambridge. 
So it was decided, and thus slight often are the incidents that give a 
lasting direction to our lives. During the three years which followed 
his graduation he taught private schools in Beverly and in Watertown, 
and resided awhile in Cambridge, where he studied and attended lec- 
tures. From 1825 to 1827 he was tutor and bibliothecarius at Bruns- 
wick. Then for six years he was professor of mathematics and 
teacher of modern languages in Phillips Exeter Academy. Since 
1833 he has had a school for young ladies in Boston, except that from 
1855 to 1857 he was interrupted by want of health. Since 1838 
Mr. Abbott has been a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, and for two j^ears he was its recording secretary. The pro- 
ceedings of the academy contain abstracts of several communications 
from Mr. Abbott, with accounts of certain discoveries made by him 
in hydraulics and in the motions of air. An article by Mr. Abbott 
on the " pneumatic paradox," or adhesion of disks, was published in 
the American Journal of Science, giving the true explanation of a phe- 
nomenon which had before been erroneously or imperfectly accounted 
for. He is the author of several articles in the North American 
Revieio ; and in June, 1848, LilteWs Living Age contained an article 
from him entitled " Principles recognized by Scientific Men applied to 
the Ether Controvers} T ," in which the pretensions of W. T. G. Mor- 
ton and his advocates are shown to be wholly unfounded. Mr. Abbott 
was appointed to give a course of lectures on meteorology before 
the Lowell Institute in 1855, but was prevented by illness. While 
Mr. Abbott has been so useful as an instructor, and not to the young 
onby, he has been highly favored in his domestic relations. He was 
married in 1830 to Frances E., daughter of Henry Larcom, and 



GRADUATES. 237 

a grand-niece of the great Nathan Dane. Thej^ have five sons and a 
daughter. Three of these boys have passed through the Boston Latin 
School with distinguished honor. The eldest, Henry L., graduated in 
1854 at the National Academy of West Point, second scholar of his 
class, is now a lieutenant in the corps of the United States Topo- 
graphical Engineers, and has already seen active and dangerous ser- 
vice in exploratory surveys of our vast regions in the West. Lieut. 
Abbott is married to a daughter of Rev. Stevens Everett. The second 
son, Edward Hale, graduate of Harvard College in 1855, became a 
tutor in 1857. Francis Ellingwood A. (third son) has just graduated 
at Cambridge. Edward Stanley (fourth son) is in a wholesale store 
in Boston. 

[Mr. Abbott died in 1873. — p.] 

James Anderson was youngest of the Rev. Rufus Anderson's three 
sons. He died June 1, 1823, in Charleston, S. C, having gone there 
for the benefit of his health. He was a } f oung man of " guileless 
temper" and social disposition, a proficient in music, and a general 
favorite. 

John Appleton, born in 1804 at New Ipswich, N. H., was a son of 
John Appleton and nephew of President Appleton. After his gradu- 
ation he was for a few months an assistant teacher in Dummer Acad- 
emy, Byfield, Mass. He taught also in Watertown. He studied law 
with George F. Farley of New Ipswich, and with Nathan D. Appleton 
of Alfred. After living a short time in Dixmont he settled in Sebec. 
In 1832 he removed to Bangor, where he became the law partner of 
E. H. Allen, now chief justice in the kingdom of Hawaii. During 
the year 1841 Mr. Appleton was reporter of decisions, and published 
two volumes of reports. In 1852 he was appointed one of the jus- 
tices of the Supreme Judicial Court of Maine, and on the death of 
Judge Tenney, chief justice, a position which he still holds. 

In 1860 he published a work, "The Rules of Evidence Stated and 
Discussed." His legal learning is extensive and varied. He has cher- 
ished a taste for the classics from his college days, is conversant with 
general literature beyond what is usual in his profession, and may 
indeed be called a devourer of books. Mr. Charles Sumner, in a let- 
ter to a friend, May, 1837, wrote : " Mr. Appleton is a writer of great 
nerve, boldness, and experience, with a Benthamic point and force." 

Judge Appleton has been a trustee of the college for several j^ears. 
In 1860 the college conferred on him the degree of LL. D. 

He was married in 1834 to Sarah, daughter of Samuel Allen of 



238 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Northfield, Mass., who was for many years a member of Congress. 
They have had four sons, John F. (Bowdoin College, 1860), died in 
1870 ; Frederic H. (Bowdoin College, 1864) ; Edward P , died in 1869 ; 
Henry A. : and one daughter, who died in childhood. Mrs. Apple ton 
died in 1874. In 1876 Judge Appleton married Ann Greeley of Port- 
land. 

Charles Barrett, brother of John (see 1821), was born in 1804. 
He studied law with his brother-in-law, Woodbury Storer, but he did 
not like the practice. For some time he was treasurer of the Oxford 
and Cumberland Canal Company, and also of the Institution for 
Savings. He was president of the Canal Bank for ten years. He 
was treasurer of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence Bailroad before it was 
leased to the Canada Company. Since that time he holds virtually 
the same office, under the title of accountant. He has been an alder- 
man of the city of Portland, and president of the common council. 
His wife (married in 1826) was Eliza Mary, daughter of Joseph 
Baker of Portland. Thej have had five children. John Henry died 
while in the Senior class of Yale College. Charles W. graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1847. He is a railroad engineer, and is married. 
Franklin R. (Brown University, 1857) is with his father. George 
P. is in Brown University — partial course. 

James Bell, born in 1804 in Francestown, N. H., was the third son 
of Samuel Bell, a distinguished citizen of New Hampshire, having 
been a judge of the Superior Court, governor of the State, and senator 
in Congress. His great-grandfather, John, was one of that famous 
Irish colony that settled Londonderry. His grandfather, John, ended 
an honored and useful life at the age of ninety-five. Maternally, 
James Bell came from the Danas. In college he was distinguished 
by substantial scholarship and by his staid demeanor. His brother, 
Samuel D. Bell of Concord, N. H., now a judge of the Superior 
Court, directed his early reading in the law, after which he attended 
the once celebrated law school in Litchfield, Conn. His first law office 
was opened with characteristic modesty in Gilmanton, a small town of 
Strafford County. But he could not keep concealed. His business 
soon became extensive and important, and he removed in 1831 to 
Exeter. He had not been here long before he took rank among the 
ablest lawyers in the State. For several years scarcely a case of 
importance that came within the range of his professional employ- 
ment was tried in New Hampshire in which he was not engaged. 
While he was thus in the full tide of success, he accepted a proposi- 





^77z^>7 




Senator in '" y'ri :ss 



GRADUATES. 239 

tion which led to a change of residence, and in some measure of pur- 
suit. The manufacturing towns of Lowell, Lawrence, and Manchester 
had for some time suffered much inconvenience and loss from the 
diminished supply of water in the Merrimac during the dry season of 
the year. To remedy this it was resolved to dam up the outlet of the 
Winnipiseogee and other lakes, thus raising and retaining the waters in 
these reservoirs of nature, to be let down at pleasure in time of need. 
It was a bold enterprise, but one which required the most delicate and 
wise management. Scarcely ever in New England has the smallest 
river or mill brook been dammed for use, that the obstruction did not 
cause damage, real or imaginary, far up the stream, involving an in- 
definite amount of hard feeling and vexatious litigation. What then 
might be expected when the farmers and proprietors on several hun- 
dred miles of lake and river shore should think, or pretend to think, 
that their rights were about to be sacrificed to make richer the rich 
lords of the spinning jenny down below ? To carry out the enterprise 
there was wanted at its head a man of scientific and of legal knowl- 
edge, a man of sagacity and prudence and high character. Such a 
man they found in James Bell. He entered on the service, settling 
at Guilford, and devoting himself untiringly to the great and complex 
duties of the position ; "to such entire acceptance as to have warded 
off the ungracious attacks of political zealots," securing for the enter- 
prise the consent, if not the approval, of those whose interests seemed 
to be threatened. The waters of the lakes were mostly bought up, 
and the spindles and looms below have had the benefit. In 1846 Mr. 
Bell represented Exeter in the Legislature. In 1850 Guilford sent 
him to the convention for revising the State Constitution. More than 
once his political friends set him up for governor and gave him their 
votes. But New Hampshire was then in other hands. The sceptre 
so long and so firmly held by the Democrats at length departed, and 
Mr. Bell was at once chosen to represent his native State in the 
national Senate. In this high position he served during the Thirty-, 
fourth Congress and in the extra session of the Senate in 1857. On 
the 26th of May that year he died at his home in Guilford. During 
his brief period in the Senate, Mr. Bell hardly engaged in debate ; 
when he did so engage, the excellence of his judgment and the clear- 
ness of his intellect were distinctly shown. If his career at Washing- 
ton fell short of expectation at home, it must be remembered that it 
' ' was checked and oppressed from the beginning by the malady which 
terminated his life." Under no circumstances, however, was he the 
man to aim at a rapid or brilliant popularity. Had life and health 
been continued to him, the sterling qualities of his mind and character 



240 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

would yearly have become more manifest to the Senate and to the 
country. Early in the session which followed occurred one of those 
days when eulogies are in order, and which are too often seized by 
Congressional speakers for the repetition of trite monitory aphorisms, 
the recitation of poetical scraps, and the display generally of rhetori- 
cal flowers. On the occasion referred to, when Messrs. Butler and 
Bell were commemorated, the praise of the latter fell into excellent 
hands. The tributes paid to him by Senators Hale and Fessenden 
were not only discriminating and beautiful, but they were touched with 
true feeling. Mr. Seward added a few kind words. In the House, 
also, his modest virtues were well presented by Mr. Tappan of New 
Hampshire and Mr. Washburn of Maine. Through the kindness of 
Judge Bell I have been favored with a sketch of his brother prepared 
by Chief Justice Perley for an expected meeting of the bar at Guilford, 
though for some cause it was not presented. Gladly could I do so 
would I give entire this admirable delineation of a great lawyer and 
good man, as drawn by a kindred and master mind. A few extracts 
must suffice : "Mr. Bell was a man of large attainments and great 
variety and versatilit}' of powers. Considered as a law} T er it would 
not be easy to name one more completely furnished for all exigencies 
in the different departments of his profession. He was an advocate 
fully equal to the conduct of the weightiest and most difficult causes. 
As a legal adviser no man gave a sounder and safer opinion on a 
naked question of law. His prudence and excellent good sense, his 
sagacity and intimate knowledge of men and business, made his coun- 
sel of the highest value. There was an even balance in his mind, and 
a just proportion in all the parts of his character. His power consisted 
not so much in the prominence of individual faculties as in the sym- 
metry and united strength of the whole." " There was nothing for 
which he was more remarkable than the variet}' and amount of labor 
which he was able to perform. Without hurry or confusion he disposed 
of his work with unrivalled ease and despatch." "He was entirely 
free from all low craft and disingenuous artifice ; yet his dexterity and 
fine tact in the handling of a cause have not been surpassed by any 
contemporary in this State." " He was the most modest and unobtru- 
sive of men, yet was never known to fail in self-possession, and in the 
perfect mastery and control of his faculties. Of professional deport- 
ment a more perfect model could hardly be proposed." It would be 
easy to accumulate such testimonials, but it is needless. I knew Mr. 
Bell During his first two years in college he was my much-esteemed 
pupil. At Exeter in 1839-40 I renewed the acquaintance, and saw 
him in the rich maturity of his powers. I last met him in Brunswick 



GRADUATES. 241 

at our semi-centennial. ' His short but kindly speech at the dinner 
board must be remembered by man}'. I do not know that Bowdoin 
has upon her record any worthier name than that of James Bell. Mr. 
Bell was married in 1831 to a daughter of Hon. Nathaniel Upham of 
Eochester. He left her a widow with five children.* 

John Boynton, born in 1801 in Wiscasset, was a son of Capt. John 
Boynton (see Alden Boynton, 1825). He was fitted for an advanced 
standing by Rev. Dr. Packard, and entered a Sophomore. He 
studied for the ministry with Rev. Asa Rand, and was for a short 
time at Andover. To secure a home for the family, now reduced by 
misfortune, he incurred obligations which made it necessary for him 
to teach, and interfered with his professional studies. In 1827 Mr. 
Bojmton was settled at Phipsburg, where he remained thirteen } r ears, 
a faithful, successful pastor, fearing God and not man. He then 
returned to Wiscasset, his present home. On a farm he finds occupa- 
tion congenial to his taste and favorable to his health ; and as occasion 
calls he still performs the duties of a Christian minister. He was 
married in 1828 to Charlotte, daughter of Hon. Samuel Freeman of 
Portland. Of eight children six remain. Three sons are engaged in 
teaching ; one is in California. He removed to Delaware in 1864, 
and died at Felton in 1876. 

Otis Livingston Bridges was born in 1798, studied law and settled 
in Calais. He afterwards removed to Worcester, Mass., and finally 
went to California. While he lived in Maine Mr. Bridges was an 
active politician, and had the reputation of being an able advocate. 
He was attorney-general of the State from 1842 to 1845. Mr. Bridges 
now lives in Stockton, Cal., and still practises his profession. He has 
two daughters, one of whom is the wife of Joseph H. Wildes, son of 
the late Asa W. Wildes of Newburyport, Mass. Mr. Wildes is a civil 
engineer. 

[Mr. Bridges died in 1870. — p.] 

Charles Parsons Chandler was born in 1801 in New Gloucester. 
He was fitted at the academies of Hebron and North Yarmouth. 
His legal studies were pursued in the office of his father, Peleg Chand- 
ler, and he was admitted at Portland in 1825. The following year he 
opened an office in Foxcroft, his home from that time. Here for 
thirty years as a lawyer, a citizen, and a neighbor he more than met 

* His son, Charles U. Upham, graduated at Bowdoin College in 1863. — p. 
16 



242 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

every requisition of duty, and won the esteem and love of all. The 
trait which more perhaps than any other gave a charm to Mr. Chand- 
ler's character was the admirable grace and patience with which he 
bore one of the most trying of all bodily infirmities. He had not 
been long in active life when his heariug became seriously impaired. 
The way in which he sustained this great affliction was a lesson of 
beauty for all, and one of the highest encouragements to those who 
are in like condition. The following extract is made from a tender, 
fraternal tribute to his memory, which appeared soon after his death. 
Apart from the deep instruction it conveys, it derives a special inter- 
est from the fact that the distinguished writer has for years been him- 
self a learner in the school he so well describes : — 

" Educated for the bar, and entering upon the profession with the 
zeal and energy and laudable ambition of an ardent spirit, and with 
prospects as fair as any man of his age, he soon perceived that a 
hereditary and increasing tendency to deafness must greatly impair 
his usefulness in this occupation, if it did not entirely debar him from 
the practice. For years he strove in silence against this strengthening 
conviction, and when at length it became certain that an}' cure or even 
slight mitigation was not to be expected, he calmty submitted to this 
darkening shadow of his professional life. He felt as all deaf men 
must and do feel, that this infirmity affects the mind as well as the 
body ; that one debarred from all the ordinary intercourse of society, 
hearing only what is specially addressed to himself, is like a traveller 
who looks on a beautiful scene in nature through an inverted telescope 
or a colored glass, receiving no adequate impression of its real char- 
acter, — or like one whose only impression of a landscape is derived 
from the sketches of an artist. He felt, too, as deaf men naturally 
feel, a sensitiveness for the defect, and a desire to withdraw entirely 
from society, from the feeling of repugnance at the prominence which 
it is apt to give them, and an .indisposition to annoy their friends by 
taxing kindness to excess in the casual intercourse of life. But he 
did what many deaf people are unable to do, — he resisted and suc- 
cessfully resisted these feelings and this course of action ; and great 
was his reward in so doing. Of a gentle and retiring nature, he could 
never force himself upon others. He neA'er made himself or his infirm- 
ity prominent ; and although entirely conscious of the overshadowing 
misfortune of his life, and often suffering intensely on account of it, 
he suffered in silence, and always maintained an outward tone of 
cheerfulness that made him a most desirable companion for the grave 
or the mirthful. Such was his manner, the delicacy, simplicity, and 
truthfulness of his character, that no one felt bound to make special 



GRADUATES. 243 

exertions on his behalf ; and when he was present there was no em- 
barrassment because he did not hear. He was never in the way, and 
no man's society was more eagerly sought bj T those who knew him, 
although it was quite difficult to converse with him at all. But he 
always preserved a just and proper self-respect. . . . Nor did he re- 
1 linquish his profession. Having become thoroughly fitted for its 
practice by long }'ears of study and experience, he had no idea of 
sacrificing the advantages so painfully acquired, but determined to 
persevere in the same direction, although fully conscious of the diffi- 
culties and mortifications to be encountered ; and this he did with fair 
success for thirty years, although, of course, debarred from some por- 
tions of its multifarious duties. He always found enough to do. A 
well-read lawj'er, a safe counsellor, a sagacious man, he was consulted 
far and near. No man was more deservedly trusted with the dearest 
rights of others. He was universally regarded as a peacemaker, and 
he annihilated in his own communit}' the prejudice against the bar, 
and forever destroyed the vulgar error that a lawyer is necessarily the 
promoter of strife or the exciter of angry passions in men. 

"Although not destitute of ambition for public life, he for many 
years discouraged all attempts to thrust him forward, but of late he 
was induced to accept some positions of honor and of trust. He had 
been a member of both branches of the Legislature, and he performed 
the duties to the great satisfaction of his constituents ; and what some- 
times seemed singular, no member seemed better posted in the daily 
proceedings of those bodies, or was listened to with greater respect in 
debate, although he could not hear one word that was said by others. 

" The departure of this good man was in harmony with his life, — 
calm, kindly, without a struggle to prevent the passing spirit from 
leaving its last impression of peace upon his features. He was sit- 
ting by his fireside, almost engaged in conversation, when he appeared 
to drop asleep, as was not unusual at this time of the day. His man- 
ner of breathing attracted attention, and it was soon found that the 
spirit had passed on, and the ear that heard not was unstopped for- 
ever." 

Mr. Chandler was married in 1830 to Sarah Murray Wheeler of 
Garland. She has two daughters, and a son Charles P., graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1854 and is now settled as a lawyer in Boston.* 

Richmond Loring came from North Yarmouth, where he was born 
in 1801. In college he made rather a poor figure. He pursued the 

* This son fell in battle in 1862. —p. 



244 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

study of medicine with Dr. Timothy Little, then of New Gloucester, 
a surgeon of some note in his day. Having obtained his M. D., 
Loring went to the island of Hayti to practise medicine and make a 
fortune. How well he practised is not known ; he undoubtedly suc- 
ceeded in the other purpose. He lived at Aux Cayes, where for 
several years he was commercial agent. In that wretched and ill- 
governed country he had, in common with other whites, more or less 
of trouble. "Once he was pursued and narrowly escaped with his 
life." Dr. Loring never revisited his native land. His name and 
existence were kept alive with some by means of commercial transac- 
tions, and with others through his two sons whom he sent to North 
Yarmouth for an education. At length an incident with which he 
was connected brought his name into disagreeable publicity. . The 
" Abby Hammond," Capt. Martin, had sailed from Aux Cayes, hav- 
ing as a part of her alleged lading $16,000 in specie belonging to Dr. 
Loring and insured in Boston. The vessel went down somewhere on 
the Haytian coast and was abandoned. The insurance companies in 
Boston resisted payment on the ground of fraud. Capt. Martin was 
arrested. Black witnesses from Hayti testified in court that holes 
were found in the vessel, but no money. The captain was acquitted, 
but the general impression was that there had been a conspiracy to 
defraud, and that the vessel had been scuttled accordingly. On the 
other hand, it has been said that Martin always, and to his most con- 
fidential friends, asserted Loriug's innocence ; that the blacks who 
testified were imported for that purpose, and that such witnesses could 
be had in Hayti at any time ; that Martin, being in prison, was unable 
to procure rebutting testimony ; and that Loring's counsel took but 
little pains with the case. Mr. George Woods of Auburn, who had 
dealt largely with Dr. Loring, states that he always found him honest 
and honorable, and that, so far as he knows, his character for morality 
and integrity (apart from the above-named imputation) was a good 
one. To what extent this view of the matter should avail towards a 
removal of the stigma, I am not prepared to say. Such as it is, I 
feel it to be just that the doctor's memory should have its benefit. 
He died in 1854 while travelling in France for the benefit of his health, 
leaving a widow and four children. 

Charles H. P. McLellan was born in 1803. His parents were 
Hugh and Rhoda McLellan of Gorham. His maternal grandfather, 
Morris, was a native of Cardigan in Wales. At the proper time he 
was handed over by Mr. Reuben Nasou to the college authorities, and 
from them in due course he went under the medical direction succes- 



GRADUATES. 245 

sivety of Dr. Folsom in Gorham, Dr. Merrill in Portland, and Dr. John 
D. Wells in Boston. Having received his diploma he practised med- 
icine, first at Gray five years, and then as many years in Portland. 
But the climate of Maine did not agree with his constitution, and he 
found air more congenial in the pleasant village of Poughkeepsie on 
the Hudson, where he settled in 1836. Here he soon became a teacher 
in the celebrated collegiate school of Mr. Charles Bartlett. In 1843 
he was made principal of the Poughkeepsie Female Academy. In 
1849 Dr. McLellan established a private school for young ladies, 
which has now grown into a large and flourishing institution. To this 
well-conducted enterprise he devotes himself with unremitting ardor 
and energy and with flattering success. His health, which was misera- 
ble when he left Maine, was long since fully restored. For six years 
he was elected by the citizens of Poughkeepsie to the superintendence' 
of their common schools. He belongs to the Reformed Dutch Church 
and is an elder in that communion. He was married in Brunswick in 
1825 to Rebecca S., daughter of Capt. Joseph McLellan. They have 
had and have lost three children. 
[Dr. McLellan died in 1862. —p.] 

Moses Parsons Parrish commemorates in his name two distin- 
guished men who for almost eighty years were ministers in sacred 
things in the humble precinct where he was born. The Rev. Moses 
Parsons was a truly good man, but is now remembered chiefly on 
account of his sons, and especially of Theophilus, perhaps the greatest 
jurist ever reared in New England. The Rev. Elijah Parrish was well 
known in his da} r as an author of historical and geographical school 
books, as an able and eloquent preacher, and as an ardent politician 
of the Federal school. Moses Parsons Parrish was born in By field in 
1803 ; was fitted at Dummer Academy, and entered the university at 
Hanover. On the dissolution of that institution he went to Bruns- 
wick. He studied law two years in Windham, Conn., and one year 
in Newburyport, where in due time he opened an office. During the 
years 1830 and 1831 he represented that town in the Legislature. He 
subsequently took charge of the High School in Portsmouth, N. H., and 
taught for a year or two a private school in Salem, Mass., and for a 
short time also an academy in Dorchester, Mass. Having skill and 
taste in music, he was more than once a leader in church choirs. In 
1840 he became the associate of Dr. Charles Jewett and Nathan 
Crosby in a temperance agency for Massachusetts. Then he became 
the principal agent for the same cause in Vermont, and conducted for 
some time a temperance journal at Woodstock. In this position he 



246 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

was active and useful. He next became a coadjutor of the late Col. 
Skinner in the Plough, Loom and Anvil, of which Mr. Parrish was the 
Boston publisher. After the death of Col. Skinner he removed to 
New York and became an assistant editor of that periodical. From 
this he has just retired, and now thinks of resuming his original pro- 
fession. Success attend him ! Mr. Parrish was married in 1829 to 
Mary Sigournej', daughter of Enoch Sawyer of Newbury. Of two 
daughters, one survives, a teacher in the celebrated school of Miss 
Haines. 

[Mr. Parrish died in 1865. — p.] 

Simeon Perkins, born in 1795 in Bridgewater, Mass., was the son 
of a worthy blacksmith, and came to Minot with his father while yet a 
boy. He studied law, then took charge of Hebron Academy, which he 
kept acceptably for several }^ears. Then he practised a little in Hebron 
and also in Otisfield. His wife was a daughter of Marshall Washburn 
of Minot. Mr. Perkins died in 1842. 

Milton Pieece was a native of Monmouth. He began the study 
of law with Joseph Adams of Portland. Sickness arrested his studies ; 
he lingered for a yeax or two, and then died where he was born. " A 
worthy young man." 

Silvanus Waterman Robinson was the son of John Robinson, a 
farmer in Litchfield. He was an early and apt scholar. While yet 
too 3 7 oung for pen and paper he was perpetually ciphering with chalk 
on shingles, or drawing pencil maps on birch bark. At eleven years 
he mastered Pike's Arithmetic in six weeks without aid. At sixteen 
he was appointed to teach a winter school in Bowdoin. The school 
had the name of being very unmanageable. It had become a matter 
of boastful pride among the scholars to turn the master out the first 
week. Before the day of opening 3'oung Robinson invited the oldest 
and largest of his expected pupils to visit him at his own room. He 
told them what he had heard, and proposed a trial of strength. One 
after another they came on, and he floored them all. It is needless to 
add that he was "master" of that school. In his college class he 
was ranked second, but it must be remembered that William Smyth 
was his competitor there. Mr. Bond of Hallowell was his law teacher. 
After practising for a few } T ears in Portland he removed, on the death 
of Mr. Bond, to Hallowell. Here he subsequently formed a partner- 
ship with Peleg (now Judge) Sprague, which continued until the latter 
went to Boston. During a portion of this time he edited a newspaper 
called the American Advocate. He was twice elected to represent 






^^// 






GRADUATES. 247 

Hallowell in the Legislature. From 1839 to 1847 he practised his pro- 
fession in Bangor. He then removed to Boston ; but soon after this 
his failing health compelled him to relinquish business. In the sum- 
mer of 1849 he sought rest and restoration in his native town ; but it 
was now too late. A few months afterward, in all the tranquillity of 
Christian faith and hope, he expired in that quiet home where he 
drew his first breath. Though a man of unquestioned abilhy, he does 
not seem to have been verj* ambitious. It is not improbable that his 
frequent removals were prejudicial to his professional advancement. 
Both mentally and morally his constitution was healthy. Mr. Bobin- 
son loved music, and found his recreation in its practice. His integ- 
rity was above suspicion. His religious connections were with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. " A Christian gentleman" he is called 
by one who knew him well, and there is no higher praise. He was 
married in 1827 to Mary O. McLellan, daughter of Gen. McLellan of 
Bath, where with her two daughters she still lives. 

Benjamin Sanborn was son of Dr. William Sanborn of Falmouth, 
where he was born in 1800. He was sent, an active, sprightly lad, to 
Fryeburg Academ} T . There in wrestling he wrenched his knee ; the 
consequence was a lameness which lasted through life. Nor was this 
the only effect : " Ever after he was remarkabl}* grave in his conver- 
sation and demeanor." As a physician he settled first in Belgrade, 
and had a good practice. But his father had become old and wished 
to be relieved, and Benjamin returned to the place of his birth. Use- 
ful and respected both as a physician and a citizen, he labored here 
until his death in 1845. His last da}'s, though passed upon a bed of 
pain, were bright with hope and peace. His wife was a Miss Pitts of 
Belgrade. With five surviving children she now lives at Port Huron 
in Michigan. 

William Smyth is a native of Pitts ton, where he was born in 
1797. His father, a ship-carpenter, removed soon afterwards to Wis- 
casset, where he died in 1816. His early and strong desire for a col- 
lege education met with many obstacles. To aid in this design he 
enlisted in the army of the United States, and served during the last 
year . of the war with England, as quartermaster-sergeant in Col. 
McCobb's regiment. The service was stationary and peaceful, leav- 
ing some leisure for stucty and yielding a small pecuniary recom- 
pense. His military duties having ended with the war, Mr. Smyth 
became a teacher and opened a private school in Wiscasset, prosecut- 
ing his studies for college often beyond midnight, and supporting a 



248 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

brother and sisters from his scant earnings. By such unseasonable 
studies he so impaired the health and strength of his eyes that his 
daily lessons through college were read to him by his room-mate. 
For two years he assisted Mr. Nason at Gorham. Then he entered 
college a Junior, and graduated in due course with the first honors. 
After one year of theological study at Andover he was wanted as a 
tutor at Brunswick. His success as a teacher led to his appointment 
in 1825 as adjunct professor of mathematics. Three years later he 
was advanced to the full charge of that department. In 1845 he 
became also adjunct professor of natural philosophy. /; 'He at once 
devoted himself with enthusiasm to his work, and very soon began 
the preparation of text-books for students in his own department. 
This series, now complete and republished lately after careful revision, 
consists, 1st, of an " Elementary Algebra," designed for schools ; 2d, 
of a " Treatise on Algebra" ; 3d, " Analytical Geometry " ; 4th, ''Ele- 
ments of the Differential and Integral Calculus " ; 5th, " Trigonome- 
try, with its Applications to Surveying and Navigation." "In clear 
and full development of the science and in adaptation to the wants of 
pupils this series is probably unsurpassed by any now in use. As a 
teacher Prof. Smyth has succeeded in inspiring his classes with a rare 
spirit and energy in mathematical study, and in this department has 
thus placed his Alma Mater in the foremost rank of American col- 
leges. In the discipline of college he is decided, fearless, and effi- 
cient. As a man he is warm-hearted, sincere, and steadfast. He has 
quick sympathies with his fellow-men, and is ready for every good 
work. Especially have his efforts in the cause of popular education 
been most earnest and efficient. To his unsparing exertions the town 
of Brunswick is largely indebted for its present liberal and improved 
school system. In works of benevolence and Christian philanthropy 
he has been ever prominent. As a Christian he has maintained under 
all circumstances a consistent character for decided doctrine, unwaver- 
ing faith, and uncompromising fidelity to all the claims of duty." 

In 1827 Prof. Smyth married Harriet P., eldest daughter of 
Nathaniel Coffin, Esq., of Wiscasset. Of nine children six sons and 
one daughter are still living.* 

*Mrs. Smyth died in 1865; the daughter, Mary C, in 1867. Of the sons, E. C. 
(Bowdoin College, 1848), William H. (1856), F. K. (1867), G. A. (1868). Prof. 
Smyth conceived the idea of the Memorial Hall, procured hy his own efforts nearly 
the amount expended in its erection to its present condition, and designs from an 
architect; and while engaged in laying out the foundations was seized with a parox- 
ysm of angina pectoris, with difficulty reached his dwelling, and in a few minutes 
expired, — March, 1868. — p. 



&* $®^ : 





I AJ , 771^1^, 




GRADUATES. 249 

Timothy Walker Stone was born in Brunswick, where bis father, 
Jotham Sawyer, as postmaster and shopkeeper, was well known to 
the students. He was a gentle and most amiable youth, of fine talents 
and honorable aspirations, manly in feeling and character, though a 
mere boy in years. He read law for some lime at Alfred with Hon. 
John Holmes. In 1826 at the age of twenty-one he fell, like so many 
others, the victim of hereditary phthisis. 

David Humphreys Storer, born in 1804 (brother of J. S. B. Storer, 
see 1812), studied medicine with Dr. John C. Warren, and settled in 
Boston, where he had full experience of the hard struggle through 
which the young physician in a large city is generalby doomed to pass. 
From the heights of a crowded practice and eminent position, he can 
now look back and rejoice that his heart did not fail him. In 1837 
Dr. Storer originated the Tremont Street Medical School for the 
instruction of students in medicine. This school, in which he has had 
able coadjutors, has been highly useful to a great number of young men. 
Since 1854 Dr. Storer has filled the chair of obstetrics and medical 
jurisprudence in the medical department of Harvard University. He 
is also dean of the Faculty. Amid the engrossing toils and cares of 
his profession, Dr. Storer has found time for other studies. As long 
ago as 1837 the Massachusetts Commissioners, who had charge of the 
botanical and zoological surve}' of the State, assigned to Dr. Storer 
the departments of zoology and herpetology. His report was made in 
1839, and is mentioned by Dr. DeKay in his " Zoolog} 7 of the State 
of New York," as a masterly and invaluable document. In 1845, at 
the meeting of American naturalists in New Haven, Dr. Storer pre- 
sented a " Synopsis of the Fishes of North America." This paper, 
with others of kindred character, has since appeared in the volumes 
of the American Academy. A more elaborate report on the same 
subject will hereafter be given to the public through the same medium. 
Dr. Storer is favorably known not only as a scholar and writer, but as 
an eas3 r and effective speaker. 

He married in 1829 Abby Jane Brewer of Boston. They have five 
children. Horatio R., graduate of Harvard College, 1850, is a plvysi- 
cian ; Francis H., graduate of the Scientific School in Cambridge, is a 
practical chemist.* 

*Dr. Storer retired from his professorship in 1868, but is still in the practice in 
Boston. The following tribute was rendered to him by his colleague, Dr. 0. W. 
Holmes, in his introductory lecture in the fall of that year. After referring to their 
connection with the Tremont School, " I can speak to many of you as late pupils of 
Dr. Storer. You know the energy and enthusiasm with which he taught you in the 



250 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Daniel Dana Tappan. Benjamin, David, and Samuel were sons 
of Rev. Benjamin Tappan, who for nearly fifty years was minister of 
Manchester, Mass. David became Hollis professor at Cambridge. 
Benjamin lived at Northampton, and had sons, Benjamin, Arthur, 
Lewis, John, names not unknown to fame. Samuel kept school and 
sojourned here and there. Of his two sons the Rev. William B., long 
connected with the Sunday-school cause, was also held in high esteem 
as a Christian poet. The other, Daniel Dana, was born in 1798 in New- 
buryport. Soon after his father's death (in 1806) he went to live with 
his uncle Benjamin in Northampton, where he was well trained for 
several years by his energetic aunt. He then became a clerk in a 
New Haven store. While here the desire was awakened in him to 
become a preacher of the gospel. After some time at Phillips Acad- 
emy, Andover, and some time in the family of his cousin, Mr. Tappan 
of Augusta, he entered college as a Sophomore. From Brunswick he 
returned to New Haven and became a pupil of his former pastor, Dr. 
Taylor, in the newly opened divinity school. Mr. Tappan's first pas- 
toral charge was in Biddeford, where he stayed a year. He was 
settled afterwards in Alfred, and still later in East Marshfield., Mass. 
During the last five or six years he has been laboring in Farmington, 
N. H. In this ministry of more than thirty }-ears Mr. Tappan has 
enjoyed a good measure of that success which is the dearest wish of 
every faithful pastor. His first wife was Catharine, daughter of Elisha 
Whidden of Portsmouth, N. H. She died childless in 1834. In 1837 
he married Abigail, daughter of Nathaniel Marsh of Newburyport. 
Of six children a daughter and three sons are living. Mrs. Tappan 
died in 1857. 

Noah Tebbets. I regret that I cannot give in full the beautiful 
and appreciative memoir of Judge Tebbets that lies before me, pre- 
pared as it was for this work. As it is printed (though not published) , 
I presume that any of the judge's classmates and friends may obtain 
a copy by applying to Rev. Theo. Tebbets, Medford, Mass. Noah 
Tebbetts was born in 1802 in Rochester, N. H., where his ances- 

lecture-room. You know the interest he took in the personal welfare of every young 
man to whom he thought he could be useful. And throughout the long period that 
I have been his fellow-worker, it pleases me to remember that no word of difference 
ever rose between us, that whether we agreed or disagreed on this or that point of 
policy, we always labored together in perfect harmony, and that whatever be the pain 
of parting company, we can both look back on an unbroken record where our names 
have stood together for a whole generation. My regrets, our regrets and affectionate 
remembrance follow him as he leaves us." p. 



GKADUATES. 251 

tors had been for a century before him. His father, James, was a 
hard-working, sensible blacksmith, who outlived the son ten years. 
His mother, Mary (Nutter), a delicate and genial woman, died when 
Noah was in hi& twelfth year. As a boy he was feeble in body and 
diffident. Being apt to learn, he was sent to the Wakefield and Saco 
academies. He was a member of the Dartmouth Universitjr when it 
expired, and went from Hanover to Brunswick with his classmates, 
Parrish and Willey. In college his health became more vigorous, his 
shyness wore off, his intellectual and social nature strengthened and 
expanded. "His classmates remember him as a quick and exact 
scholar, an inspiring companion, and a sympathizing, wise friend." 
Having studied law with Mr. Woodman of Rochester, he began its 
practice in North Parsonsfield. In 1827 he formed a law partnership 
with Rufus Mclntyre, then a member of Congress. His field of prac- 
tice was York Count} r in Maine and the old county of Strafford in 
New Hampshire. Here he passed seven happy and useful years. 
" Throughout the town he was respected and loved in a manner which 
is in itself the highest honor a man can attain." But Mr. Mclntyre 
came back from Congress ; the business would not support two, and 
Mr. Tebbets returned to Rochester. "The life of a countiy law} r er 
who is exclusively devoted to his profession has but few memorable 
incidents. However great his ability and however extensive his suc- 
cess may be, the fame of his best efforts, the reputation of his pro- 
foundest learning, pass away with the occasions which test his power, 
and leave nothing but a brief and indefinite tradition for future chroni- 
clers to gather up." During the next eight years Mr. Tebbets's life 
was unbroken by an}- remarkable events. " He was not ambitious 
of a reputation for managing difficult cases, and never allowed his 
clients to become involved in law if he could keep them out of it. He 
always considered it the privilege and the duty of a lawyer to be a 
peacemaker ; he reverenced his profession too much to prostitute it to 
venal or ambitious purposes. . . ). As a citizen he was early in sug- 
gesting and active in carrying out all social enterprises, even when 
his public spirit interfered with his private interests." He revived the 
social library of the village, did much to improve the common schools 
of the town, taught in Sunday schools and sometimes superintended 
them. In the cause of temperance, at a time when it cost something 
to be known as its advocate, he took an early and very active part. 
By lectures and addresses, not only near home but throughout the 
State, he sought to rouse his fellow- citizens to prompt action. " His 
zeal could make no compromises, but every word and act were tem- 
pered with Christian charity." In politics Mr. Tebbets was known 



252 • HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

as a Democrat. He was not, however, a partisan. " From the rough 
encounters of such warfare he shrank instructively. He regarded 
politics as a science to be calmly studied and reduced to practice, 
rather than an art dependent for success on shrewd devices and crafty 
management." He was often urged to accept nomination to office, 
" in days when such nomination was equivalent to election, but refused 
to leave the peace of private life and the duties of his professional 
career." In 1842, however, in the hope that he might thus advance 
the struggling cause of temperance, he consented to go to Concord. 
Of the Legislature for that year he was one of the most able and 
active and useful members. Iu January, 1843, he was appointed cir- 
cuit justice of the Court of Common Pleas." Though his judicial 
career was soon cut short, it lasted long enough to show his eminent 
fitness for the bench. His health seems to have been severely shaken 
by the long trial of Cummings, in Grafton County, — a trial for mur- 
der which lasted twenty-one days. In August, 1844, he opened the 
court at Guilford, which illness soon compelled him to adjourn. He 
went home and died of typhus a few da} 7 s afterward. He was in his 
forty-second year. The following estimate of Judge Tebbets is from 
the pen of his early and steadfast friend, Senator Hale : " His charac- 
ter, disposition, and habits of thought eminently qualified him for suc- 
cess in the office to which he was promoted. His great integrit}', his 
even temper, his suavity of manner, his clear perception, his modest 
distrust of his own powers which induced him to listen patiently and 
respectfully to the arguments and suggestions of others, and the clear- 
ness and distinctness with which he announced the results to which 
his reflections had led him, were such rare and estimable qualities for 
a judge that his friends and the public had already formed and were 
cherishing the most favorable anticipations of his reputation and use- 
fulness in his judicial career." " His early love of Latin and English 
literature," remarks his son, " never died out amid the engrossing 
cares of later life. He kept himself critically familiar with the ora- 
tions, the letters, the moral and speculative philosophy of Cicero, and 
his knowledge of the scientific structure of Latin was both extensive 
and exact. ... In English literature he was a universal but discrim- 
inating reader. .... His own writings were direct and forcible, full of 
glow and warmth, enlivened by apt allusion and striking illustrations, 
and expressed in simple, idiomatic, and melodious English. . . . He 
had an intense love and a large knowledge of nature." No tribute to 
his memory should leave unmentioued " his indefatigable and tender 
thoughtf ulness for the sick in his family and neighborhood. ... In his 
family Judge Tebbets was all that the most sensitive affection could 



GRADUATES. ■ 253 

desire. ... In society his extensive information, ready but never 
paraded, his constant humor, his playful imagination, his affluent com- 
mand of language, his quick sympathy, his simple and transparent 
manners, his cordial deference to others, and his utter unconsciousness 
of his own powers, charmed and astonished all who knew him." " My 
memory recalls Judge Tebbets," says another of his friends, " as a very 
fine-looking man, with a large head ; dark-brown hair ; a very massive 
forehead, high, broad, and full, having, as a phrenologist would say, 
eventuality and causality quite fully developed, as well as the ideality 
and benevolence which had play in his life and character. His eyes 
were of a dark gray, and at the beginning of an interview were apt to 
turn away a little furtively, perhaps restlessly, from the encountering 
eye of another, not with a secretive or reserved expression, but as if a 
natural diffidence struggled with a very social nature." "The fine 
qualities of Judge Tebbets's character were harmonized by a religious 
consecration. His beautiful life among men had its root in the love 
of God. He reverently attributed all that was true in his character 
to God working in him to will and to do, while he humbly confessed 
how far he fell below the standard of manliness presented in the gos- 
pel and the life of Jesus." 

Noah Tebbets in 1828 married Mary Esther Woodman. Of their 
six children four sons and a daughter are living. The eldest, Theodore, 
graduate of Harvard College, 1851, was first settled in Lowell, and is 
now minister of the First Parish (Unitarian) , Medford, Mass. 

Richard Hampton Vose was born in 1803 in Northfield, Mass. 
The year after he graduated was spent in teaching at Augusta. His 
three years of preparatory law study were passed at Worcester, Mass., 
in the office of Governor Lincoln and "Honest John Davis." He 
attended also the law lectures of Judge Howe, then at Northampton. 
Admitted to practice, he formed a copartnership with Pliny (now 
Judge) Merrick of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts. Mr. Mer- 
rick, being at that time county attorney, Mr. Vose's attention was 
very naturally directed to the stucVy of the criminal law. After two 
years' practice in Worcester, Mr. Vose returned to Augusta. Between 
1834 and 1839 he was four times elected to the House of Representa- 
tives of the Maine Legislature. In 1840 and 1841 he was senator for 
Kennebec, and president of the Senate in the year last named. Since 
that time he has adhered to his profession. For several years past, 
as prosecuting officer for Kennebec, he has turned to good account 
his early Worcester experience. Mr. Vose, if I understand him, does 
not beloDg to the restless and aspiring class. His duties he is careful 



254 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

to know and to perform, and with the consciousness of such per- 
formance he rests content. Not only as a politician and a lawyer, but 
as a man also, his reputation is of the enviable kind. In 1831 he was 
married to Harriet Chandler of Boston. Of their two children the 
eldest, George L.,* graduated as civil engineer at the Scientific School 
in Cambridge. The "Hand-Book of Civil Engineers" lately pub- 
lished by him is highly praised in the North American Review and 
other periodicals. Gardiner C. Vose graduated at Bowdoin College 
in 1855, and is soon to enter on the practice of law. 

John Hubbard White was born in Dover, N. H., November, 1802. 
He studied law, and opened an office in his native town, where he still 
resides. Of a retiring disposition and rather avoiding the severer con- 
tests of the profession, he has sustained the reputation of a prudent 
and wise counsellor, and on all occasions the character of a courteous 
gentleman. For several } r ears he was register of probate for the 
county, and when Dover became a city was chosen judge of the 
police court, discharging the duties of both offices to general satisfac- 
tion. His kind, gentle disposition, fidelity to trusts, and upright char- 
acter have won for him universal esteem. 

He married a daughter of Hon. Andrew Peirce, and has had a fam- 
ily of children. p. 

Benjamin Glazier Willey was born in 1796 in Conway, N. H. 
His father, Samuel Wille}^, a man of great strength and endurance, 
was among the . first who penetrated and laid open those wild glens 
and passes of the mountains which are now the favorite haunts of so 
many summer visitors. Samuel Willey, who perished with all his 
family beneath the great avalanche of August, 1826, was his brother. 
Benjamin G. Willey was one of those who came from Hanover to 
Brunswick at the downfall of the university. Rev. Asa Cummings 
was his theological instructor. He preached for eight years' in his 
native town. . Then followed a successful ministry of fourteen 3 T ears 
at Milton, N. H. Farmington, an adjoining town, had his services 
for three years. Then he lived in Gilmanton and in Pembroke, and 
sent his children to school. For eight years past East Sumner in 
Maine has been his home, and there too his efforts have been crowned 
with success. In 1824 he was married to Rachel, daughter of Deacon 
Jacob Mitchell of North Yarmouth. They have had two sons and a 

* Now professor of civil engineering at Bowdoin College. The father died in 
1864. p. 



GRADUATES. 255 

daughter. The youngest son alone survives. The eldest, S. Ten- 
Broeck Willey, had entered on medical studies when he died at the age 
of twenty-five. Mr. Willey' s book, " Incidents in White Mountain 
History," was prepared at the suggestion and with the assistance of 
this son. To this book, well known to the summer residents of Con- 
wajr and to White Mountain tourists, I refer those who would know 
more of Mr. Willey and his family. 
[Mr. Willey died in 1871. — p.] 

Jabez Cushman Woodman was born in 1804 at New Gloucester, 
where his father, Moses Woodman, was a farmer. He is seventh in 
descent from the emigrant Edwai'd Woodman, who settled in Newbury 
in 1635. Through his mother, Sally Cushman, eight generations carry 
him back to Robert Cushman, who as agent of the Plymouth Colony 
chartered the "Mayflower" and came himself to Plymouth in 1621. 
Jabez C. Woodman was brought up to work. At school he showed 
early a strong predilection for numbers, ciphering by stealth before 
he was permitted to begin regularly, and working out by himself the 
rules and operations of fractions before he had seen the same in 
books. Having picked up, partly at home and partly a;t Hebron 
Academy, a little Latin and a little Greek, he went to college and 
so through. Then he studied law with Peleg Chandler and with Simon 
Greenleaf. During his course both of collegiate and law study, he 
taught several district schools, and he had some practice in law busi- 
ness before he began on his own account. He first opened an office 
in Gray, then in Poland, where he stayed till 1832, when he removed 
to Minot. From this place in 1848 he removed to Portland his pres- 
ent residence. Although he has found in his profession the main 
business of his life, it has not engrossed him wholly. Farming and 
land speculation have helped him in spending what he had laid up in 
his practice. He has from the first felt a deep interest and taken an 
active part in the great questions of politics and reform which have 
divided and agitated the community. While in Poland, where Jack- 
son men were in the majority, he came out for Adams and suffered in 
consequence. 

For man} r 3-ears he was a zealous Whig ; but finding that the party 
did not come up to his views on the slavery question he joined the 
free Democrac}'. He was a delegate to the Buffalo Convention of 
1848, and to the Convention in Pittsburg in 1852. He now acts with 
the Republican party. As a member of the Maine House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1843, he introduced resolutions on the constitutional 
prohibition of slavery in the Territories, which were voted for almost 



256 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

unanimously by the Whigs, and defeated by the Democrats. In other 
measures of great importance which were passed during the session, 
he took an active part. Mr. Woodman early adopted and has alwa} r s 
observed the total-abstinence principle in regard to alcoholic drinks. 
While in Poland he became interested in religious subjects, and with 
his wife joined the Congregational church. Though he "has since 
outgrown their system of doctrines, he has never regretted a step 
which first put him on the road of religious inquiry." His printed 
writings have been mostly anonj'mous communications in the news- 
papers. These were devoted to politics and reform. In 1857 the 
Rev. Dr. Dwight of Portland published a sermon on Spiritualism. To 
that sermon, Mr. Woodman, at the request of the Portland Spiritual 
Association, replied in three lectures which were published in a vol- 
ume, " and have been received with great favor." In 1830 Mr. Wood- 
man married Louisa Rich of China. Mrs. Woodman died in 1856. 
Of their nine children seven " are living in the material body." One 
son is married and is in a store in Boston. The eldest daughter has 
been a teacher, and is a proficient in several languages. Three sisters 
and two brothers are still inmates of the home over which she presides. 
[Mr. Woodman died in 1869. — p.] 

1823. 

Charles Shaw Adams was born in Bath in 1797. His father, 
Samuel Adams, after six years spent as surgeon in the Continental 
army, settled as a physician in Ipswich, whence in 1796 he removed 
to Maine. He was four times married, and had twenty children. 
Charles Shaw was one of thirteen borne by the fourth wife, who was 
a daughter of William Dodge of Ipswich, and an Appleton by descent. 
He studied for the ministry under Dr. B. Tappan, has been a mission- 
ary both in the East and the West, and has been settled in Wells, 
Me. ; Coventry, R. I. ; and Westford, Conn. Hei'e he stayed thirteen 
years. He is now acting as "stated supply" in Strongsville, Ohio. 
Mr. Adams has published a dedication sermon, a " Poem on Temper- 
ance," and a "Poem on the use of Tobacco." His wife is Jane, 
daughter of Capt. John Parker of Georgetown. The}' have had seven 
children, four of whom survive, all daughters, three of them married.* 

George Washington Bach elder, a native of Hallo well, settled as 
a law3 r er in Gardiner. He joined the Democratic party, took an active 

* Subsequently Mr. Adams, having performed missionary service in other Western 
States, died at Hillside, Mich., in 1873. p. 




■ns.c.n, 



GRADUATES. 257 

part in politics, and was appointed to sundry offices of trust He was 
a man of military turn, and held in the militia of Maine the high rank 
of major-general. Among mere students and literary men such qual- 
ities are rare, and on certain occasions highly appreciated. At the 
Commencement festivals in Brunswick, Gen. Bachelder was a prominent 
figure For many 3 T ears he was our grand field marshal. He was fifty 
3*ears old when he died in 1852. He married Miss Emily Bradstreet 
of Gardiner. She still lives with two sons and a daughter. 

John Macclintock Bartlett derived his middle name from his 
maternal grandfather, Rev. Dr. Macclintock of Greenland, N. H. 
His parents were poor. He had however an elder brother Richard, 
who had educated himself to be a law3'er and politician, who edited 
a newspaper in Concord, N. H., and was at one time secretar} 7 of that 
State ; and another brother, Caleb, who was a successful bookseller in 
New York. By them John M. was taken up and helped through col- 
lege. It was perhaps a mistaken kindness. From Brunswick he 
went to Concord and studied law awhile with his brother Richard. 
Then in Tro} T , N. Y., he taught children. Then, being an admirable 
penman, he kept his brother Caleb's books. But constancy was not 
his forte. Lured by some ignis fatuus of hope, he went to Louisiana, 
surveyed land, studied more law, and was taken into partnership by 
an aged practitioner, who soon after died and left for him a good busi- 
ness. Had it been possible for him to stick to anything, he might have 
succeeded here ; it was not possible, and back he came. Again in 
New York he found occupation as a book-keeper, and continued it for 
some time. The last four or five j-ears of his wandering life were 
spent mostly on the sea. As clerk or supercargo he made several 
long voyages. He died by disease at Gibraltar in 1849, aged forty- 
six. 

Luther V. Bell was the fourth son of Governor Bell, and was 
born in 1806. Obeying an early predilection, he had no sooner grad- 
uated than he entered at once on the study of medicine. This he 
pursued in the city of New York, where his brother John was already 
settled. As he was not quite twenty when he received his medical 
degree, he wisely concluded to spend one year in a New York count- 
ing-room. The exactness and the punctuality which he must there 
have acquired, and the business habits which he formed, could not but 
be useful to him in the very responsible situation which he afterwards 
held so long. He had concluded to practise his profession in the great 
city where he studied it. But just then death entered the family : 



258 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

his sister and his gifted brother (Dr. John Bell) died, both at the 
South and both of consumption. The promptings of ambition yielded 
to those of affection. Settling in Londonderry, he entered forthwith 
on the hard routine of country practice. Both as a physician and sur- 
geon he soon became favorably known. Special circumstances ere- 
long occurred to raise and spread his reputation for skill. The small- 
pox, after an absence of more than fifty years, suddenly appeared in 
that healthy district. In their fancied security, the community had 
neglected to protect themselves by vaccination, and the doctors of the 
vicinity were wholly inexperienced in its nature and treatment. Dr. 
Bell, having seen much of the disease during his residence in New 
York, was very naturally called upon in this emergency. The epi- 
demic displayed some very singular features, which were subsequently 
described by Dr. Bell in a small volume entitled ' ' An Attempt to 
investigate some Obscure and Undecided Doctrines in Belation to 
Small-Pox and Varioliform Diseases." This was not the only product 
of his pen. A dissertation by him on the dietetic regimen best fitted 
for the inhabitants of New England received the Boylston prize 
medal for 1834. Jt was a refutation of the vegetarian theory of Gra- 
ham, at that time perniciously prevalent. A dissertation from the 
same hand on the " External Exploration of Diseases" was published 
in 1836 by the Medical Society of Massachusetts. The success of 
these essays introduced their author " very favorably to the profession 
in New England." "About this period the attention of certain phil- 
anthropic citizens of New Hampshire began to be turned towards 
making some provision for its insane." In this inquiry Dr. Bell 
engaged with active zeal. The more effectually to aid it, he accepted 
a seat in the Legislature, and was appointed one of the special com- 
mittee which had the subject in charge. Their report was written by 
him and drew general attention. In the mean time he was engaged 
with others in obtaining from every town in the State the statistics of 
insanit}'. He kept the subject before the public by well-written arti- 
cles in the newspapers, and urged it eloquently in assemblies called 
for its consideration. But before the cause in which he labored so 
efficiently was finally carried, Dr. Bell received an unexpected and 
important call. Early in 1837 he entered on his duties as superintend- 
ent of the McLean Asylum for the Insane. This conspicuous posi- 
tion he held for nearly eighteen years, with a constant^' growing- 
reputation. His annual reports " contain a vast body of information 
and experience upon the character, treatment, and jurisprudential 
relations of the insane." As other institutions of the same character 
were successively called into being, his experienced sagacity was often 



GRADUATES. 259 

put in requisition to help them start. When Messrs. Butler, Brown, 
and others had resolved to endow a Rhode Island hospital for the 
insane, and wished, before proceeding to build, to avail themselves of 
the latest and best results, Dr. Bell was induced to visit England for 
that purpose. Almost every hour of his absence was devoted to the 
object of his visit, and the result of his assiduous and successful 
exploration was the admirable plan which was adopted by the Butler 
Asylum. The beneficial influences of that visit were not confined to 
the Rhode Island establishment. The plans and models of foreign 
asylums thus made known to the American public were turned to good 
account in the construction and arrangements of other institutions 
among us. Especially is the community indebted to Dr. Bell as hav- 
ing been among the first to call its attention to the system of coercive 
ventilation, now generally adopted in our great hospitals. His views 
on this point and on heating by steam and hot water were published 
and widely circulated. To Dr. Bell belongs the honor of having first 
brought to the notice of his professional brethren a new form of disease 
which seems to be peculiar to the insane, and which has since been 
designated among them as " Bell's disease." 

" Among the most responsible duties which have fallen on those 
who have been at the head of our asyluins for the insane may well 
be reckoned their constantly demanded services in the courts of 
justice. For the last fifteen } T ears the cases both civil and criminal 
involving the medical jurisprudence of insanhyv have been very fre- 
quent, aud the opinions of experts have assumed a controlling influ- 
ence in such adjudications. ... It is an honorable and deserved 
testimony to the caution, sagacity, and integrity of the professional 
witnesses who have pronounced opinions in favor of insane irrespon- 
sibility in the somewhat numerous class of criminal cases in New Eng- 
land where this defence has been set up, that in every example the 
subsequent history of the acquitted has fully verified the correctness of 
the verdict. ... In discharge of this most painful, responsible, and ,. 
thankless duty, Dr. Bell has been called upon the witness stand more 
frequently, in all probability, than any other individual in this or any 
country." 

On various occasions — literary, scientific, and political — Dr. Bell's 
ability as a thinker and speaker have been successfully shown. In 
1850, during the administration of Governor Briggs, our doctor was 
one of his official advisers In the last Massachusetts convention 
for revising the State Constitution, Dr. Bell sat as a delegate. He 
was a member of the convention at Baltimore which nominated 
Gen. Scott for President. Subsequently the Whigs of the seventh 



260 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

congressional district set him up for representative and almost elected 
him. But these have been mere incidents and slight episodes in 
the current of an earnest and useful life. His great work was iu 
the hospital, and his best praise is that he has had the disposition and 
the ability to do something for the cause of science and humanity. In 
1855 Dr. Bell, though solicited to remain, resigned the office he had 
held so long and ably. In a home which he built for himself beneath 
the shadow of the great Monument, he now lives on Bunker Hill. 
His retirement, however, has been but partially successful. The asy- 
lum calls him in to supply sudden vacancies, the courts summon him 
as an expert, and the State insists that he shall help her build and 
organize new institutions of benevolence. Happy the State which 
has such sons ! Dr. Bell was married in 1834. Of seven children he 
has lost three. One of them (his eldest) died soon after entering 
Harvard College. Mrs. Bell died in 1855.* 

Edmund Bridge Bowman, son of William and Phebe (Bridge) 
Bowman, was born in 1804 at Wiscasset, where he was prepared for 
college by Bev. Dr. Packard and others. After studying law with 
Frederic Allen, he practised it successively in Pittston, Dresden, and 
Bowdoinham. In 1847 he was appointed clerk of the courts, an 
office which he still holds, and since that time he has lived iu Wiscas- 
set. In 1838 Mr. Bowman was married to Hannah D. Norris of 
Whitefield, N. H. 

[He died in 1864.— p.] 

William Browne, born in 1806, called also George William Gray 
Browne, is a son of William Browne, still living in Portland, aged 
eighty. After he graduated he went to Virginia and settled at Taze- 
well Court-House, where he held the office of clerk of the court. Being 
a man of earnest piety, he was accustomed to preach on the Sabbath 
to the Methodists of the neighborhood. After a life of thirty years 
, in Virginia he removed to Texas, and settled as a lawyer at San An- 
tonio, his present residence. f He has been twice married, and a son 
of his is a cadet at West Point. 

Jonas Burnham is a native of Kennebunkport. His parents were 
Seth aud Lydia Burnham. Trained to farm labor, he grew up stout 

*Dr. Bell was elected president of the Massachusetts Medical Society. Iu 1847 he 
received the honorary degree of J. C. D. from King's College, Nova Scotia; and in 
1855, of LL. D. from Amherst. Be died in 1802. p. 

t From a graduate residing in Texas we learn that Mr. Browne removed subse- 
quently to Austin, where he died in 1S77, or about that time; that under the Con- 
federate goverumeut he held a clerkship in the courts, and was held iu high esteem. 

p. 



GRADUATES. 261 

and strong. Desires for a wider usefulness impelling him to seek 
an education, he went to Phillips Academy in Andover, then in charge 
of John Adams. In college he was industrious and successful. I 
still remember with pleasure the accuracy and fluency of his classical 
recitations. His life has been almost wholly devoted to teaching. 
Several academies in Maine have had the benefit of his intelligent and 
efficient supervision. For several years past he has had charge of the 
academy in Farmington. Being a licensed preacher, he often supplies 
the pulpit in destitute churches of the neighborhood. By his wife, 
Jane Merrill of Kennebunkport, he has a daughter who is married, 
and one son, Seth Cornelius (Bowdoin College, 1855), now a teacher 
in New Hampshire. 

Egbert Benson Coffin, born in Bath in 1805, was son of Nathan- 
iel Coffin, Esq. He died in 1827. I learn nothing respecting his 
course since graduation that calls for special mention. 

John Crosby was a native of Bangor. In early youth he conse- 
crated his life to the Christian ministry. His college course was one 
of industry, virtue, and well -merited honors. Then a year was spent 
in teaching at Hallowell. He received his theological training at the 
Andover school. In 1828 he was ordained as pastor of a church in 
Castine. About the same time he was most happily united in mar- 
riage with Miss Catharine Hills. The prospects of eminent useful- 
ness with which his ministry began were soon clouded. After an 
interruption of several months, occasioned by an attack of pleurisy, 
he resumed his labors at Castine in the summer of 1831. It was, 
however, deemed unsafe for him to encounter the rigors of a winter so 
far north. He then labored for a year with acceptance and success in 
the State of Penns3'lvania, as agent of the American Colonization 
Society. This change seemed to recruit his feeble frame. But Mrs. 
Crosby's health had now become delicate, and a warmer clime was 
recommended. While they were passing the winter months in Savan- 
nah his own complaints returned in an aggravated form, and induced 
him to seek the tropical air of Barbadoes. He died in about three 
months after his arrival on the island in 1833, and was buried there 
with many demonstrations of respect. The following estimate of Mr. 
Crosb} T appeared in the Eastern Republican soon after his decease. 
It was written by his classmate, Nathaniel Hajnes, Esq., at that time 
editor of the paper : "Mr. Crosby possessed talents of the first order, 
— solid, discriminating, and comprehensive. His powerful mind and 
unremitting application, had his life been spared a few years longer, 



262 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

would have placed him in the first ranks of a profession to which he 
was ardently attached and piously devoted. We knew him well in 
his earlier years ; in the exercises and ordeal of college life, true to 
himself and his religious principles, — sincere, consistent, and chari- 
table " The following is from a lady who knew him well: "■With 
great nobleness and integrity of heart was mingled the very milk of 
human kindness. In his friendships he was most generous His 
piety was deep and equable, pervading the minutiae of his whole life, 
and sustaining him in calmness amid the sundering of the dearest 
earthh r bonds." Combining, as he evidently did, strong affections 
with a strong intellect, his death at the age of thhly years might well 
be deplored. He left a little boy about three years old. 

William George Crosby began life in 1805 at Belfast, and was 
fitted for college at Phillips Acadeui} 7 , Andover. He was admitted to 
the bar in Boston, and practised there from 1826 to 1828, when he 
returned to Belfast. In 1846 Mr. Crosby was elected secretary of the 
Maine Board of Education, and held this important and honorable 
office three years. In 1850 he was voted for as governor, but failed 
of an election. In 1853 and 1854 he held the office of chief magis- 
trate of the State in both instances, by election of the Legislature. 
After he retired from this high position Governor Crosby resided for 
a while in Boston, editorially connected with Mr. Littell in some of 
his publications. He has since returned to Belfast and resumed his 
profession, in which he held high rank at the bar. He was a Whig in 
politics, was active in the campaign which resulted in the election of 
President Harrison, and was a delegate to the convention that nomi- 
nated Heniy Clay, and his ardent supporter. On the dissolution of 
that party he acted with the Democrats, although refraining from 
prominent participation in the canvass. In 1866 he was a delegate to 
the National Union Convention, and the same year received the ap- 
pointment of collector for the district, his last public position. He 
was active in educational, literary, and charitable enterprises, and was 
for several years a member of the Unitarian Church. On retiring 
from the profession he devoted himself to the calls of social life, to 
his favorite studies, and the cultivation of his grounds and their 
fruits. His literary tastes were cultivated in college. His Commence- 
ment part was a poem, and subsequently he contributed poetical effu- 
sions to the public press. He delivered a poem before the Lyceum in 
Belfast. He published a series of fifty-two papers entitled *' Annals 
of Belfast for Half a Century, by an Old Settler," and delivered one 
of a popular course of lectures. In 1870 he received the degree of 




^"air-ICBttttEfioo, a.Dagueire' 




/ - Z^es/srf&Vve*-&^~^ 



WILLI AM PH 






GRADUATES. 263 

LL. D. from the college, and was for a time on its Board of Over- 
seers. He was a member of the Maine Historical Society from 1846. 
In 1-31 he married Ann M., daughter of Capt. Robert Patterson of 
Belfast, and had children, of whom four sons and two daughters sur- 
vived infancy. 

[He died in Belfast, March 21, 1881. — p.] 

Joseph Dowe was the son of a farmer in Durham, N. H., where 
he was born in 1796. He was fitted for college in part at Exeter. 
After receiving his degree, he taught in Boston for several years a pri- 
vate school for boys. The Rev. Dr. Channing, Daniel Webster, 
Nathan Hale, the Apple tons (William and Nathan), and others sent 
their sons to him. Mr. Dowe afterwards became a publisher and 
seller of books. He is still a citizen of Boston, though no longer 
engaged in business. Mrs. Dowe was the daughter of Charles Cook 
of Boston, and niece of the Rev. Amos A. Cook of Fryeburg. They 
have had no children.* 

Richard "William Dummee, Hallowell, 1802, brother of Charles 
(see 1814). f 

William Pitt Fessenden was bom Oct. 16, 1806, in New Glouces- 
ter, where his father, Samuel Fessenden, then practised law. His 
grandfather, the Rev. William Fessenden, was long the loved and 
honored pastor of a church in Fryeburg. His father " still lives, an 
honor to his honorable profession." At the immature age of twelve 
years William Pitt Fessenden entered Bowdoin College. His father 
wisely kept him away for a couple of years. He returned to college 
in 1820. and though full of ardor and buoyancy of spirits, which dis- 
played themselves in many a boyish prank, he sustained a respectable 
rank in his class. His legal studies were pursued in the office of his 
father, in that of ''Hon. Charles S. Daveis, then probably the best 
admiralty and chancery lawyer in Maine," and for a few months with 
Ketchum & Fessenden in New York. He was admitted in 1827. 
The 3"oung student's course of life was entirely changed after he 
commenced his law studies. " Consideration like an angel came." As 
his mental powers gradually unfolded, he found within himself the 

* Sis last years were spent in South Natick, where he died May, 1873, his last days 
cheered by the hopes of the gospel. p. 

t The writer, after repeated efforts, gives all that is known of him since he left 
college. He studied law, pursued the profession for a time, it is thought in Kennebec 
County, then removed with his brother Henry in 1827 to Illinois, still in the law, and 
subsequently to Kansas, where he purchased a farm and married. p. 



264 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

elements of a higher being and of higher satisfactions than his former 
life had indicated or disclosed. In the science of the law he found 
something which fully exercised and deeply interested his mind, and 
was congenial with it. Probably few 3'oung men have entered the 
courts better prepared for their duties than he was. He began the 
practice at Bridgton, but after two j'ears of fair success removed to 
Portland and "became a partner with his father and Thomas A. 
Deblois, Esq., who were then enjoying the largest and most lucrative 
legal business in the State." 

"Mr. Fessenden was not unworthy of this confidence. He had 
already taken a position at the bar which not only gave him present 
fame, but preshadowed his future eminence. But finding in this con- 
nection the truth of the maxim, ' Juniores ad labores, seniores ad 
honores,' he preferred to seek his fortune single-handed. In 1833, 
therefore, he opened an office in Bangor, a busy and enterprising town 
which afforded ample verge for a talented lawyer. He had but fairly 
entered on the practice there when the failing health of his wife com- 
pelled him to return to Portland, where in 1835 he formed a connection 
with William Willis, Esq., which continued a successful and most har- 
monious partnership for nearly twenty years, and until Mr. Fessenden 
was elected to the Senate of the United States and Mr. Willis to the 
Senate of the State. 

" At the age of twenty- five Mr Fessenden was elected by the Whig 
party as a representative from Portland in the Legislatui'e. Thus 
commenced a parliamentary career which he allowed at intervals, 
although reluctantly, to draw him from his chosen and beloved pro- 
fession, and from a family still more beloved. In 1839 he was again 
chosen to the Legislature, having previously declined a nomination to 
Congress in favor of an eminent citizen whom he esteemed more 
worth}* of the situation. That gentleman declining a nomination at 
the next election, Mr. Fessenden was unanimously nominated and 
triumphantly chosen to the first congressional term of Gen. Harrison's 
administration. For many years previous no Whig had been elected 
to Congress from that district. Though he declined a renomination, 
his party showed their confidence in him by giving him all their votes, 
and soon after by supporting him for United States senator, though 
in both cases unsuccessfully. Honors thus thickly coming on so young 
a man convey an unequivocal testimony to his worth and talents, and 
are the more to be valued as he was, and is, far removed from the arts 
and intrigues by which demagogues often achieve temporary triumphs. 
Appropriate to him is the striking language of the poet of nature, once 
applied with admirable justice to the younger Pitt : — 



GRADUATES. 265 

" 'He was a scholar, and a ripe and good one, 
Exceeding wise, fair-spoken, and persuading ; 
Lofty and sour to those who loved him not, 
But to those men who sought him sweet as summer.' 

" He was returned to the Legislature in the years 1845, 1846, 1853, 
and 1854. In 1850, notwithstanding his earnest protest, he was 
nominated for Congress in opposition to John Appleton, Esq., and 
actually received a plurality of votes ; but by the defective return of 
one town, the certificate was given to his opponent. He was urged 
by his political friends to contest the election, but having no desire for 
the situation he declined the conflict. 

"In February, 1854, while holding his seat as a representative in the 
Legislature of Maine, he was elected to the Senate of the United 
States for the term of six years. It is worthy of remark that though 
always an avowed and decided Whig, this honor was conferred upon 
him b} 7 a Legislature strongly Democratic in both branches. 

" His parliamentary efforts both in Congress and our own Legisla- 
ture have been able and honorable. He has shrunk from no labor nor 
responsibility, and to whatever subject he has applied his clear and 
discriminating understanding he has added new light. In the Legis- 
lature of Maine he was regarded as one of the clearest and most able 
debaters, and during his first term in Congress in 1841 and 1842 he 
made forcible and impressive speeches on the bankrupt law and army 
bill, which placed him among the prominent men of that distinguished 
Congress. His brilliant impromptu speech on the Nebraska bill, soon 
after taking his seat in 1854, at a long and wearisome night session, 
secured to him the respect of that honorable body as a man of ability, 
and gave him a national reputation. 

" The salient points of Mr. Fessenden's oratory are clearness of 
statement and directness of application. He keeps the attention fixed 
upon the line of his argument, and leads the hearer by compact and 
close reasoning straight to his conclusions. There is no by-play nor 
wayside flower-gathering in his addresses, but the whole force of his 
mind and all his power of expression are concentrated upon his sub- 
ject with an honesty of purpose and an elevation of sentiment which 
seldom fail to carry conviction with them. He is very happy too in 
repartee, and by a sudden and unexpected reply often disarms his 
opponent, and gives redoubled force and weight to his own argument. 
Occasionally, when it suits his purpose, he is severe and sarcastic, 
wielding a keen and polished weapon. His promptness, skill, and 
self-possession make him a dangerous adversary and an efficient ally, 
whether in parliamentary debate or at the bar. At the latter he is 



266 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

justly esteemed among the first, if not the leading advocate and coun- 
sellor in Maine. 

" We cannot omit in this connection to award to Mr. Fessenden the 
high praise of being not only a great lawyer, but a good one ; by which 
we mean that while he is ever faithful to his clients, he is honest toward 
the court and them. He will never for any selfish consideration stoop 
to do a mean action to gratify the passion or promote the cause of 
those who seek his services ; but after a patient and impartial exami- 
nation of their case, he gives such counsel as consists with a good con- 
science and fidelity to their best interests. 

"In 1832 Mr Fessenden married Ellen Maria, a daughter of James 
Deering. They have had five children, four of whom are living, all 
sons. 

k ; We have endeavored in this brief way to present the prominent 
features in the life of the distinguished senator from Maine. But as 
he has not far passed the meridian of life, filled, though that life be 
with high and useful achievements, his biography is yet to be written, 
containing, we do not doubt, a narrative of events and triumphs to 
come of higher import than an} 7 we have now set forth." 

The most important public services of Mr. Fessenden were rendered 
after the preceding was written, and deserve special mention.* As 
has been stated, when he took his seat in the Senate, he at once met 
questions which agitated Congress and the whole country, and at once 
took his stand as a strenuous, uncompromising, and fearless advocate 
of free institutions, which were seriously assailed. As was remarked 
by his colleague in his speech in the Senate in announcing the death 
of Mr. Fessenden: "His views were given upon most questions of 
importance, and his influence upon the legislation and policy of the 
country during its eventful struggle of civil war was conspicuous. 
Internal revenue, the currency, the banking system, and, finall}-, recon- 
struction, all received the touch of his hand and the influence of his 
genius. In sentiment Mr. Fessenden was thoroughly anti-slavery. 
It was his inheritance, and .through life he was faithful to it. In all 
the attempts of slavery for recognition and protection his opposition 
was inflexible ; when to be anti-slavery was to be anti- American he 
was anti-slavery ; when his party would compromise he dissented ; 
when repeal was demanded in its interest he protested ; when later, 
on the eve of rebellion, conference and concession were proposed, he 
would have no participation in it and would yield no assent ; and 
when war came for separation and independent slave power, he saw in 
it the nation's opportunit}', and that initial measure for universal 

* What follows is from the editor. — p. 



GEADUATES. 267 

emancipation, abolition of slavery in the national capital, had his 
approval and support." His independence of judgment and action 
was a marked feature in his character. "He did not defer to the 
decision of the popular judgment as the sum of political wisdom and 
the inevitable law of duty. His own and not the public sense was his 
rule of action as a senator." This was signally manifested in his 
action on the impeachment trial of the President. It brought upon 
him censure and obloquy, but his patriotism and integrity were never 
questioned by sober-minded men. The writer, soon after that event, 
met him at his home, and having referred to his part in that transac- 
tion, Mr. Fessenden, with great solemnit}' and his peculiar earnest 
look, declared that he never had acted with a clearer conscience. 

In the frequent sharp conflicts of that period, Mr. Sumner, in his 
memorial speech on the same occasion, affirmed that Mr. Fessenden 
"was without a peer." And again, "he came in the midst of that 
terrible debate on th£ Kansas and Nebraska bill, by which the country 
was convulsed to its centre, and his arrival had the effect of a re- 
enforcement on a field of battle." As another senator on the same 
occasion, Mr. Trumbull from Illinois, said, " It was a time of high 
party excitement. The majority were domineering and often offensive 
to members of the minority. They controlled the business of the 
Senate, and could take their own time to assail minorit}' senators or 
the views they entertained, and it was not uncommon for them to go 
out of their way to seek controversies with and assail certain senators ; 
but they never sought controversies with Mr. Fessenden." 

As chairman of the Senate Finance Committee he was the steady, 
ever-wakeful guardian of the national treasury, as the testimony of his 
colleagues and the public records bear witness. With great reluctance 
and at earnest solicitation, on the retirement of Secretary Chase, he 
consented to undertake the secretaryship of the treasury, with what 
relief to an anxious country is well remembered. As was said b} r Sen- 
ator Morrill from Vermont in his memorial address, " The circum- 
stances under which he was called to that department will not soon 
be forgotten. The public had confidence in the man and his sterling 
integrity, and it was this confidence which enabled him to carry the 
treasmy safely through one of the most gloomy periods in the history 
of the late Rebellion." Mr. Fessenden accepted the onerous trust as 
a temporary arrangement, and at the end of a }'ear tendered his resig- 
nation to resume his place in the Senate, to which his State had again 
returned him. 

Mr. Fessenden took a leading part in the difficult work of restoring 
order to a countiy rent asunder by four years of remorseless intestine 



268 history or bowdoin college. 

war. His repoi't from the large joint committee on reconstruction has 
been pronounced as among the ablest state papers of the nation. 

The accomplished senator from Rhode Island, Mr. Anthonj r , in his 
memorial address said: "He will long be held in grateful and affec- 
tionate remembrance for his masculine and vigorous intellect, for his 
pure and honest statesmanship, for his careful and exact acquirements, 
for the iudependence which nothing could shake, for the integrity 
which nothing could corrupt ; and underlying all, for the sound com- 
mon-sense, that intellectual as well as moral rectitude, upon which, as 
upon a basis of enduring granite, rose the beautiful superstructure of 
his character." An associate senator who knew him intimately wrote 
from a foi'eign land : "He was the highest toned man I ever knew, 
the purest man I ever knew in public life, and the ablest public man of 
my clay." 

Mr. Fessenden was elected in 1860 trustee of the college. In 1858 
it gave him the degree of LL. D., and in 1864 he received the same 
honor from Harvard. 

He was with others victim of a malarious influence at his hotel in 
Washington, from which he never fully recovered. He died in 1869. 

George Parsons Giddings was born in 1801 at Pejepscot, now 
Danville, of which place his father Andrew R. Giddings was an origi- 
nal settler and a large owner. His ancestor, George, came from 
England about 1635 and settled in Ipswich (Chebacco Parish). 
That indomitable champion, Joshua R. Giddings of Ohio, is one of 
his descendants. Another married Rebecca, the daughter of Capt. 
Andrew Robinson of Gloucester, to whom the schooner owes its rig 
and its name. Their son Andrew, in 1758, commanded a company of 
Gloucester men in Abercrombie's ill-starred expedition, and the fol- 
lowing year went with the same company to Louisburg, to guard the 
newly captured place. He afterwards took to the sea, and during 
the war of the Revolution commanded letters of marque which were 
highly successful. Even from his last cruise the prizes came in, 
though he and his war ship returned no more. His eldest son was 
the Pejepscot pioneer, himself a man of mark. Col. Isaac Parsons 
of New Gloucester, the honored progenitor of several well-known 
Bowdoin alumni, was the maternal grandfather of George P. Gid- 
dings. Like so many others, George had to force his way into and 
through college. After looking first at law and then at medicine, he 
thought he would rather teach ; so he went to Maryland, where he 
had a school for two years. Then for three years he presided over 
the academy in Germantown, Pa. Being admitted to orders in the 



GRADUATES. 269 

Episcopal Church, he served awhile as missionan r in Kentucky and 
Tennessee. Settling in Hopkinsville, Ky., he preached and taught 
there for nine years. Health failing, he gave up his school. In 1841 
he took charge of a parish in Quinc} 7 , 111. Here he labored sixteen 
years, during which he built up a strong parish and saw a city grow 
up around him In 1856, his eyes troubling him and his work being 
too severe, he resigned his post and accepted a smaller charge at 
Boonville in Missouri, his present home. Here he has presided over 
the Adelphi College, a female school. In the several branches of 
the church with which he has been connected and also in the general 
convention, Dr. Giddings has shown himself an active member, a res- 
olute and able contender for what he believed to be right. His st} T le 
as a writer exhibits vigor and good taste. He was married in 1828 
to Penelope Hayes of North Yarmouth. Their family consists of one 
adopted daughter. 

[Dr. Giddings died in 1861. — p.] 

James Gooch, born in North Yarmouth, preached awhile in Alton, 
N. H., was settled in 1828 as pastor in Hebron and West Minot, 
where he labored for six j-ears, and then for a time he held the same 
relation to churches in Hiram and Denmark. In 1839 he went into 
the Aroostook region, gathered a church in the town of Patten, and 
spent there another six years. Meeting at length with reverses and 
domestic troubles, he went back with his family to his native town. 
He died in 1848 while on a visit to Oxford. "Without personal 
attractions or the graces of eloquence, and with some undesirable con- 
stitutional qualities, } 7 et having a devoted heart and a blameless life 
he was favored with at least ordinary success as a minister. He was 
respected by men of whatever religious persuasion, for integrity, 
benevolence, and piety." 

Romulus Haskins, born in 1801, came from Hampden. He has 
long lived in Bangor, where he is engaged in trade, and sustains a 
good reputation for integrity and usefulness. He married a Miss 
Parsons of Wiscasset. They have a son and two daughters. 

[Mr. Haskins died in 1863. —p.] 

Nathaniel Haynes was born in 1799 in Hebron, where his father, 
Rev. John Haynes, was a Baptist clergyman. He had to work his 
own way to and through college, where "his quick apprehension and 
vigorous intellect won the respect of his companions and teachers," 
and gave favorable omens of his future. On graduating he became 
principal of the Gardiner Lyceum, and while thus occupied he trans- 



270 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

lated from the French and published, with improvements, an arith- 
metical work. Nor was this all, for at the same time he carried on 
his legal studies under the direction of Hon. George Evans. He 
was admitted in 1826, and established himself in Oldtown. Soon 
after he removed to Bangor, which was thenceforth his home. His 
health not sufficing for the practice of the law, he became editor and 
proprietor of the Eastern Re-publican. " During the stormy period 
that preceded the election of Jackson to the Presidency, his abilities 
as a political writer made themselves widely known, and his polished 
irony and keen sarcasm were equafiy admired and dreaded. The 
Eastern Republican was regarded as one of the most efficient sup- 
porters of the Democratic part}* in New England ; yet he was no mere 
political partisan Convinced of the truth and importance of the senti- 
ments he had adopted, he battled for them manfully, seeking no other 
reward for his labors than the consciousness of having contributed pro 
virili parte to their establishment. He refused to take the first step on 
the political ladder, and heartily despised the mean subterfuges and 
underhand manoeuvres of politicians. His sole ambition was to im- 
press his own views of public policy upon the common mind, and to 
exert on the statesmen of his countiy that influence to which his abil- 
ities entitled him." For many 3-ears Mr. Haynes suffered almost con- 
stantly from a severe asthmatic affection. This great barrier to hope 
and usefulness stood ever in his way. " It was a source of wonder 
to his friends that he accomplished so much, liable as he was at every 
moment to be stricken down with disease. The severest plrysical suf- 
ferings were unable to repress his mental energies, and his ablest ' 
political articles were often composed while laboring under such tor- 
tures as those only who have experienced them can understand. In 
the hope of alleviating his sufferings, he passed the winter of 1833-34 
in Cuba. He empkyyed his leisure in stuctying the history, the re- 
sources and condition of the island, and embodied the results in his 
correspondence with the paper. He returned with health partially 
improved, but on resuming his former habits of application his troub- 
les assumed a more alarming form.-" In the autumn of 1835 he 
went by land to New Orleans, and thence sailed to Europe, visiting 
England, Belgium, and France. It was of no avail ; he returned the 
following spring in a confirmed consumption, and died in December, 
1836. " His writings, though all intended for the ephemeral columns 
of a newspaper, were characterized by great strength and perspicuit}' 
of thought." His style was chaste and graceful. He was familial 
with the French language and literature, and found them a source of 
pleasure to the last. He was a great reader, and loved the seclusion 



GRADUATES. 271 

of his study. Yet he knew how to mingle with men, and well under- 
stood the springs of human action. " Under all circumstances he 
showed himself the same high-minded, honorable man, whose integ- 
rity was raised above the shadow of suspicion." 

Hiram Hayes Hobbs, born in 1802, was the son of Nathaniel and 
Patience Hobbs of North Berwick. He was fitted for college at Exe- 
ter. Edwin Smith of Warren and William Burleigh of South Ber- 
wick were his law teachers. With the exception of two years spent 
in Alfred while he was clerk of the courts for York County, Mr. 
Hobbs has lived in South Berwick, assiduously and successfully de- 
voted to his profession. In 1826 he was married to Mary, daughter 
of John Gushing. Their only son graduated in 1855 at Cambridge, 
and is ready to enter on the practice of law. Their only daughter is 
the wife of Horace H. Soule, a merchant of Philadelphia. 

William Bradford Holmes, eldest son of the late Hon. John 
Holmes, was born in 1801 at Alfred. In college he held a respectable 
rank. He read law in the office of his father, and became his partner 
in business. This connection continued until 1837, when his father 
removed to Thomaston. " Notwithstanding he suffered through life 
from a frail physical constitution, he possessed an acute and active 
mind, a literary taste, and a strong desire for acquiring knowledge. 
He was particularly interested in the study of history, and possessed 
a large fund of historical information. He was kind and amiable 
in his deportment, and for many years an exemplary member of the 
Congregational Church in Alfred." He was married in 1835 to Miss 
Phebe W. Little of Castine. He died in 1850. 

Josiah Stacy Hook was a physician. All that I can learn respect- 
ing him is that he " established himself in practice at Adrian, Mich., 
and died in that vicinity in 1844, aged forty-one." 

William Kufus King was the only son of Hon. Cyrus King of 
Saco. He studied law with the Hon. F. Allen in Gardiner, and com- 
menced the practice of it in Sullivan, county of Hancock. He re- 
mained there but a few 3'ears. At the age of thirty- two he died in 
Shiloh, a small village of Camden County, N. C, where he taught a 
private school. 

William Allen Lane, born in 1798 in New Gloucester, was helped 
to a liberal education by the kindness of his older brothers, Ebenezer 
and Andrew. Of these, Ebenezer went many years ago to Illinois 



272 HISTOEY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

and taught school near St Louis. Andrew soon after joined him with 
intent to trade in St. Louis ; but not liking the prospect, he dropped 
down with his goods to New Orleans, where he and Ebenezer were 
soon engaged in a lucrative business. While here Andrew made the 
civil law his study, and was appointed to a judicial office equivalent to 
the station of the old Spanish alcalde. After ten prosperous years 
the two brothers removed to Cincinnati, where they founded the " Lane 
Literary and Theological Seminar}'." Ebenezer Lane now lives in 
Oxford, Ohio ; Andrew Lane is a resident of New Haven ; William 
A. Lane passed reputably through college and then joined his brothers 
in New Orleans. He is now a cotton planter in East Feliciana, La. 
Of five children by his first wife, James T. Lane, graduate of Yale 
College (1855), and now practising law in Richmond, Va., is the sole 
survivor. There are eight children by the second wife. The eldest, 
William A. (Yale College, 1858), is in a mercantile house at Clinton, 
La. 

Benjamin Lincoln. His father was the Hon. Theodore Lincoln of 
Dennysville ; his grandfather was Gen. Benjamin Lincoln of Revolu- 
tionary name and fame. As a student in college, and for a time my 
pupil, I well remember him, — bright, manly, musical. The late Dr. 
Shattuck of Boston was his medical instructor. In 1827 he began 
the practice of his profession in Boston. In the year following he 
was invited to lecture on anatomy and physiolog}' in the college at 
Burlington, Vt. So satisfactory were his services that he was elected 
to the professorship, an office which he held with increasing reputation 
to the last year of his life. From this time Burlington was his home. 
In 1830, when Dr. Wells from failing health was compelled to leave 
his post at Brunswick, Dr. Lincoln took his place. The next year he 
did the same at Baltimore, where Dr. Wells had lectured in the Univer- 
sity of Matyland. Here too, like his predecessor, he made himself 
highly acceptable. Though strongly urged to become a candidate for 
the professorship, and though there was no doubt that he would be 
chosen, he saw fit to decline. He continued to lecture in Burlington, 
and was gaining a valuable practice there when his health gave waj\ 
He went back to Dennysville an evident and conscious victim of pul- 
monary consumption. "There, amid the attentions of his friends, 
with the cares and promises of life behind, and the haven of eternal 
rest before him, he spent some of the happiest moments of his exist- 
ence." There he died Feb. 26, 1832, aged thirty-two years. Soon 
after Dr. Lincoln's death the New England Magazine contained a 
sketch of his short life, with a careful delineation of his intellectual 



GRADUATES. 273 

and moral traits. It was written by Dr. Isaac Ray, now superintend- 
ent of the Rhode Island Asylum for the Insane. That it is judicious 
and trustworthy none can doubt who know its author. I wish that my 
limits would allow me to draw largely on this beautiful tribute to a 
beautiful character. A few sentences must suffice: "The events of 
his life were few indeed and of no extraordinary kind ; but what they 
especially impress upon our notice is the ardor of disposition and 
severity of industry, seldom if ever equalled, that' enabled him to 
triumph over every obstacle in his course, and carried him through 
with credit to himself and satisfaction to all with whom he was con- 
nected. . . . An idle moment was a thing unknown to the last eight 
years of his life ; every moment had its duties, and he was never hap- 
pier than while engaged in the severest labor of body and mind. . . . 
If such industry constrains our admiratiou, what shall we think of it 
when told that he was a martyr to rheumatism and neuralgia, that 
from his twentieth year he scarcely knew what it was to be an hour 
without pain, and that very often it was excruciating? From the time 
we mention, his back became so bent that he never afterwards was able 
to assume the erect position. . . . The distinguishing trait in Dr. 
Lincoln's character — that which endeared him to as large a circle of 
warm personal friends as a man of his age could leave behind him — 
was his active benevolence. Its spirit was manifested in every thought 
and action. It pervaded and animated his whole being. . . . No man 
ever lived more for others and less for himself Had it been otherwise 
we should not now be mourning his loss. ... In the practice of his 
profession his benevolent spirit found ample scope. His time and 
counsel were at the service of all who chose to ask for them. The 
more destitute and helpless they were, the more strongly did thej'seem 
entitled to his personal attentions and to all the resources of his art. 
. . . Ever}^ one much acquainted with him must have been struck with 
a certain purity and elevation of character, and a strict, unwavering 
conscientiousness in all his dealings with "mankind. This integrity of 
principle and purpose was admirably supported by an unaffected, un- 
flinching independence of character that added tenfold to the force and 
prominence of his example. . . . Another important trait, which as 
we are writing for the living it would be unpardonable not to notice 
here, was a fixedness of resolution, and an indomitable perseverance 
under every form of difficulty and discouragement. Whatever he 
undertook he accomplished. Obstacles which would have effectually 
deterred other men seemed only to increase his energies " Dr. Lincoln 
was not only a contented and happj 7 man, but had a buoyancy of spirit 
which in such a sufferer seems little less than wonderful. " The goods 

18 



274 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

of life he enjoyed with a keen relish ; its ills he considered as matters 
of course, and bore them without fretfulness or repining as if they were 
unworthy of a thought. . . . His talents were naturally of the highest 
order, and their power was greatly increased by a rigid system of 
mental discipline." His love of truth was ardent, scrupulous, unwa- 
vering. Not less striking was his perception and love of the beautiful. 
" As an anatomist his attainments were profound and extensive. A 
few more years would have given him a reputation second to that of 
no other man in the country. Natural history in all its departments 
received much of his attention, and his love of botany in the last year 
or two of his life had attained all the strength of a passion. ... As 
a lecturer he had all the qualities necessary to confer on him great and 
undisputed excellence. The clearness and order of his views enabled 
him to present them clearly to others ; while his fine elocution and com- 
mand of simple and precise language invested them with an interest 
that enchained the attention and impressed them strongly on the 
mind." He was a good physician, a judicious and skilful operator. 
In mathematics he was a proficient, and found in the study a recreation 
from other toils. " Of music he was all his life a passionate admirer. 
Until he entered on the active' labors of his profession he studied it 
more than anything else ; and probably no person in the country was 
better acquainted with its principles." 

John McDonald, born in 1800 in Limington, was fitted at Lim- 
erick and Exeter. He had charge of the Limerick Academy a little 
while, and pursued his law studies under Gen. Fessenden and Mr. 
Mclntyre. From 1826 to 1835 he practised in Limerick. He settled 
in Bangor in 1835, and in 1838 he was judge of the municipal court 
in that place. For several years past the purchase and sale of lum- 
ber lands has been his principal occupation. His wife, Olive Jefferds, 
whom he married in 1827, was a granddaughter of Major Jefferds of 
Kennebunk. Their only daughter is married to Isaac Beecl of Walclo- 
boro' ; one son is married and lives in Portland ; the other son resides 
at St. Louis, Mo. 

[Mr. McDonald died in 18G7. — p.] 

Samuel Millet was born in Norwa}- in 1801 ; having gone through 
college he went South, and was heard of in New Orleans and also in 
Texas. He is supposed to be dead. Though this is all that I have 
been able to gather in regard to his career, it is certain that his name 
will go down to the latest times upon the Latin catalogue. 



GRADUATES. 275 

Lort Odeel was born in 1801 in Conway, N. H. The ancestors of 
his father, Richard, lived in Salem, Mass. His mother, Molly East- 
man of Concord, N. H., was descended from Roger Eastman, one of 
the grantees of Salisbury, Mass. In 1816 and 1817 he was my pupil 
in Portland, and he afterward attended the Portland, Fryeburg, and 
Wakefield Academies. His law studies, begun under Judge Dana of 
Fryeburg, were continued in the office of Jeremiah Mason at Ports- 
mouth. After a short practice in Conway he became a resident of 
Portsmouth. He was made collector of the customs for that port by 
President Tyler, and kept the office under Taylor and Fillmore. Mr. 
Odell has never been married. In all other respects I have reason to 
believe he has discharged his duties to society ably and acceptably. 

John Otis was born in 1801 in Leeds, studied under PelegSprague, 
and became a respectable lawyer, though not known as an advocate. 
He went early into politics, and was a leader among the Whigs when 
Whigs were in fashion. He was sent to Congress in 1848, and repre- 
sented his district with credit to himself and to general satisfaction. 
In his last 3*ears he went into speculation and was unfortunate. He 
is said to have been " eminently kind and charitable." He died in 
Hallowell in 1856. His first wife was a daughter of William 0. 
Vaughan, his second wife a daughter of Samuel C. Grant, both of 
Hallowell. He left children by both marriages. 

George Lessley Parsons was of Norway and was born in 1801. 
His classmate Jonas Burnham writes that he ' ' possessed talents of 
a high order, and cultivated them with vigorous study. He was kind, 
dignified, and noble-hearted." After three years of professional 
study in Bath with Hon. Benjamin Ames, he established himself in 
Exeter, Penobscot County, and a few months afterward died of con- 
sumption. 

Isaac Parsons was a native of New Gloucester. After an exem- 
plary college course he went to Cambridge as a theological student. 
He stayed but a little while. In a little more than a year from his 
graduation he died and was buried in his native village. He is said 
to have been " a young man of great intellectual promise and good- 
ness of heart." The Portland Advertiser contained an affectionate 
notice of Parsons, written, it was said, by his classmate and neighbor, 
William Pitt Fessenden. In this he calls his departed friend " a poet, 
a scholar, and a Christian." 



276 HISTORY OF BOWDOEST COLLEGE. 

James Patten, born in 1795, is a native of Deny, N. H., and like 
the McKeens and Bells, of Scotch-Irish descent. He entered college 
at the mature age of twenty-four, was a respectable scholar, spoke 
with a decided brogue, and played ball admirably. Having graduated 
he joined his brother Moses, who was living in Albany County, New 
York ; here he studied law but never practised. When last heard from 
he was an acting magistrate and a rich old bachelor. 

William Jeffrey Read was a son of Hon. Nathan Reed of Bel- 
fast. After studying law in Bangor with John G. Dean, Esq., he 
settled in Eastport. He was beginning to occupy a respectable posi- 
tion at the bar when failing health compelled him to desist. He went 
home and died in 1829 at the age of twenty-nine. " Mr. Read," says 
his classmate, Governor Crosby, " stood deservedly high as a man 
and a lawj'er in the estimation of all who knew him." 

Jacob Smith, son of Jacob Smith, who was a native of Epping, 
N. H., was born in 1803 in Hallowell, was fitted at Gorham, was 
trained to the law under John Holmes and Joseph Sewall, and prac- 
tised it at China and at Bath. From 1836 to 1846 he lived in Wis- 
casset and was clerk of the courts for Lincoln. Since 1848 Bath has 
been his home, where he is judge of the municipal court. He has 
been twice married : first to Julia Lambard of Bath, secondly to Ann 
Robison of Portland. He had five children: four sons — of whom 
Thomas R. (Bowdoin College, 1850) settled in the practice of law 
in Memphis, Tenn., and died in 1872, — and one daughter, Mrs. 
Jameson. 

[Mr. Smith died in 1876. — p ] 

William Tyng Smith was born in 1802 in Gorham. The Hon. 
John Anderson was his law teacher, and in 1826 he opened an office 
for business in Portland. In 1843 Mr. Anderson, at that time col- 
lector of the port, made him an inspector and clerk in the custom- 
house. This office he held until within one year of his decease, which 
occurred in 1854. Mr. Smith was the son of Col. John Tyng Smith 
and the great-grandson of the Rev. Thomas Smith, first minister of 
Portland. He married in 1827 Margaret E., daughter of George Dun- 
can. Two sons and a daughter with their mother survive. 

1824. 
Harrison Allen was a native of the town of Tndustiy, Franklin 
County. He had attained the ripe age of twenty-eight when he 



GRADUATES. 277 

entered college. " He was a most conscientious, persevering, amiable, 
ancl'upright man, though not a classical scholar, and could not be." 
He was three years at Andover, entered the service of the American 
Board, and was sent in 1829 as missionary to the Choctaws. He was 
stationed at a place called Elliot, where he labored for more than a 
3^ear. His death was caused by a bilious fever. He left a widow in 
that distant region to testify how faithfully he had lived and how 
peacefully he died. 

Frederic Wait Burke, son of Solomon W. Burke, was born in 
1806 at Woodstock, Vt. Having studied law with George and Ed- 
ward Curtis of New York, he opened an office in that^ity, and still 
practises his profession there, much respected as a lawyer and as a 
man. He was married in 1833 to Ann C. Potter of New York. They 
have a son and two daughters. Of these, one is the wife of William 
Stewart. Mr. Burke resides in Brooklyn. 

Zenas Caldwell was born in 1800 in Hebron. His father, Wil- 
liam Caldwell, was from Ipswich, Mass., where the name still abound?. 
Brought up by his pious mother in the Methodist faith, and having 
early consecrated himself to the work of doing good, he resolved to 
widen his sphere of usefulness by a liberal education. It was a 
remarkable step, for at that time the American Methodists had shown 
but little favor to learning. He had the good fortune to be well 
started in his preparatory studies by Mr. E. L. Hamlin, then teacher 
of a district school in Hebron. Zenas had poor health, and was poor 
in purse, yet with Yankee energy he worked his own way into college 
and through it. He entered the Sophomore class. It must have been 
a year later when he invited Franklin Pierce to be his room-mate. The 
fact is mentioned by Hawthorne (page 15) : "His chum was Zenas 
Caldwell, several years elder than himself, a member of the Metho- 
dist persuasion, a pure-minded, studious, devoutly religious character, 
endowed thus early in life with the authority of a grave and sagacious 
turn of mind. The friendship between Pierce and him appeared to be 
mutually strong, and was of itself a pledge of correct deportment in 
the former." Prof. Vail, in his memoir of Zenas Caldwell, assures us 
that the President still thankfully acknowledges " the fact that from 
this time a new era commenced in his college life." In the winter of 
their senior year, through the agency of Zenas Caldwell, his chum 
taught the district school near Mr. Caldwell's house in Oxford, which 
was his home during the time. They parted at Commencement in 
1824 with the kindest feelings, and corresponded afterwards. There 



278 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

was a beauty in this college friendship and its fruits honorable to both 
parties, and to which the illustrious career of the survivor imparts a 
peculiar interest. Mr Caldwell spent one year acceptably as princi- 
pal of the Hallowell Academy, and at the close of the period began to 
preach. About this time the Maine Wesleyan Seminary was estab- 
lished at Kent's Hill in Readfield, and Mr. Caldwell was set over it. 
It was one of the first attempts to create a manual-labor school, and 
had many imitators, but in this respect they all alike failed. Mr. 
Caldwell had charge of the literary department. He had a large 
school to begin with, and engaged in his task with ardor and ability. 
" The first principal proved himself abundantly equal to his post. He 
was admired^and beloved by his pupils, and the church had begun to 
regard him as a special gift of Divine Providence to meet the exi- 
gency." He entered on the second year, but he had already over- 
tasked himself; his health soon gave way, he sent an affectionate 
farewell to his pupils, went home and died, as one just ready to enter 
" into the joy of the Lord." He was but twenty-six years old. A 
good scholar and writer, a good teacher and preacher, he was the edu- 
cational pioneer among the Methodists of Maine. Great things were 
expected of him, and justly ; but the important lesson of human 
dependence is one which needs " line upon line." 

William Henry Codman, born in Portland, September, 1806, son 
of William Codman, Esq. He studied law with Charles S. Daveis, 
Esq., began the practice of his profession in Portland, and in 1840 
removed to Camden, which has since been his residence. He held the 
office of county attorney for some years. During the administration 
of Gen. Pierce he was appointed to a clerkship in the treasury depart- 
ment, which he held eight or nine years. He married a daughter of 
John Eager, Esq., of Camden. The}' have had eight children, of 
whom two only, a son and daughter, now survive. The son is a civil 
engineer in Philadelphia. Another son studied medicine, was assist- 
ant surgeon in the late war, took his degree in medicine at the Bow- 
doin Medical School in 1867, and had entered a promising field of 
practice when he suddenly died. Mr. Codman, in consequence of a 
paralytic affection, relinquished active engagements of business the 
last years of his life. He was found dead in his bed on the morning 
of May 3, 1879. p. 

Ebenezer Eurbusii Deane, writes his classmate Stowe, " was a 
man of amiable temper, of very superior talent and scholarship, excel- 
lent social qualities, of great physical strength, tall and muscular ; 



GRADUATES. 279 

and had we been called upon to select a United States President from 
our class, I think Deane would have been the unanimous vote." He 
established himself at Gardiner as a practitioner of law. For a time 
he was successful in business and had much influence ; but his sky soon 
became overcast, and the fair promise of his morning was never ful- 
filled. Mr. Deane was from Minot, and in 1848 when he died was 
forty-eight years old. He left a widow and five children. 

William Hatch was born in 1806 in Exeter, N. H., where his 
aged parents still live. Mr. Hatch's father was formerly much in 
public life and a man of influence. William Hatch was fitted at 
Phillips Academy. On leaving college he took charge of the private 
school or '■' academy" in Brunswick which had been got up b} T President 
Allen and his neighbors. Having fixed on the profession of medicine, 
he entered his name with Dr. Jonathan Page, and subsequently with 
Prof. J. D. Wells. After a medical practice of four years at Sidney 
in Maine, Dr. Hatch removed to Georgetown in Kentucky. Here he 
practised for a while and then became a Christian minister. During 
the last nineteen years his time and efforts have been given alternately 
to preaching and to teaching. At the present time he is president of an 
institution in Bloomington, 111., and pastor of the Christian Church in 
that place. Mr. Hatch was married in 1827 to Mary R., daughter of 
Dr. Samuel Adams of Bath. They have one daughter ; two sons who 
are lawyers, one of them in Missouri and one in Kentucky, and two 
sons at Chicago in business.* 

William Avery Little " was a native of Castine. He entered 
college young. He was amiable, lively, bright ; of good scholarship 
and unblemished character ; a universal favorite, and Franklin Pierce's 
most intimate friend. He settled as a physician in his native town, 
and there died in 1828, — an early death universally lamented." The 
truth of this brief and pleasing sketch by an eminent classmate is fully 
corroborated by others. " Besides his chum, Dr. William Mason, 
now of Charlestown, Mass., his most intimate friend was the present 
President of the United States. In Hawthorne's ' w Life of Mr Pierce," 
page 15, occurs the following passage: "His chief friend, I think, 
was a classmate named Little, a young man of most estimable qualities 
and high intellectual promise ; one of those fortunate characters whom 

* In subsequent years Dr. Hatch exercised his ministry in Hannibal and St. Louis, 
Mo.; in 1868 became medical adviser of Mound City Life Insurance Company; in 
1873 returned to Hannibal with shattered constitution, to spend his remaining days 
with his children. He died 1876, leaving a wife and five children. p. 



280 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

an early death so canonizes in the remembrance of their companions 
that the perfect fulfilment of a long life would scarcely give them 
a higher place." And again in note A, at the end of the book, 
Mr. Hawthorne alludes to the happy influence exerted by Little over 
his friend at a turning period, — the very crisis of his career. The 
gentle interceding actor soon passed away. But how wide the circle, 
how many the years through which the results of that affectionate 
agency have already reached ! From Mr. George B. Little, the 
doctor's brother, I learn that late in 1827 he sought relief from-his 
pulmonary complaints in the often tried but generally disastrous 
experiment of a visit to the West Indies ; that in May, 1828, he 
returned from Havana, "injured rather than benefited," and that on 
the 8th of August, at the age of twenty-two, he " fell asleep, trusting 
in Jesus for pardon, with a meek and trembling hope of eternal salva- 
tion through him." 

William Mason, Castine, 1805, was a son of William and Abigail 
(Watson) Mason. After his graduation he taught school several years 
in Castine. He studied medicine under Dr. Gay of Boston and Dr. 
Stevens of Castine, and practised in Bucksport nearly twenty years. 
He now practises in Charlestown, Mass. In 1837 he married Sarah 
P. Bradley of Bucksport, and they have two daughters.* 

Thomas McDougall, born in 1799, brother of William (see 1820), 
went immediately to the South, and is now at Wetumka, Ala., a 
pedagogue and a bachelor. 

[He died in 1869. — p.] 

Theodore Lyman Moody, brother of Joseph G. (1817), was born 
in Kennebunk, June, 1804. On leaving college he engaged in busi- 
ness with his brother Joseph G, (1817) for a time, and then removed 
to New York, where he was eventually induced to enter with another 
in a wholesale diy-goods business in Mobile, Ala., which continued 
several years. The enterprise proving unfortunate, through one of the 
periodical revulsions in the commercial world and the unfaithfulness 
of those with whom he had been connected, he removed to Washing- 
ton, D. C, where he had married Adelaide Hellen, a niece of Mrs. J. 
Q. Adams. He fortunateby obtained the appointment to a clerkship 
in the Department of State, which he held more than twenty years. 
He died of pneumonia in Washington, February, 1878. His wife 

*Dr. Mason died of pneumonia in Charlestown, Mass., March 13, 1881, " one of 
its most respected and beloved physicians." p. 





£l<t c c 



• i . 



GRADUATES. 281 

died several years before, leaving a son, Theodore Barrell, and a 
daughter who died a short time before her father. 

Franklin Pierce was born Nov. 23, 1804, in Hillsboro', N. H. 
His father was a marked character, a sterling though rugged speci- 
men of our Revolutionary men. He was one of the heroes of Bunker 
Hill, and continued in the army till the war was over. Left poor in 
eveiything but spirit, he plunged into the forest and set up his log- 
cabin. A man of so much energ} T and impulse and experience could 
not remain in obscurity. He filled successivel}- various offices, civil 
and military, and at length became governor of the State of New 
Hampshire. This generous, warm-hearted, patriotic soldier, this 
stanch Democrat of the Jefferson school, transmitted to his sons his 
spirit and his principles. Of this patrimon}' Franklin evidently got 
his full share. His college preparation was made at the academies in 
Hancock and in Francestown. In 1820 he entered Bowdoin College. 
He was then sixteen years old. As yet he had formed no literary 
tastes or habits of study, and the first half of his college career was 
idled or played awa}\ But he suddenly woke up to a sense of duty \ 
to a true manhood. The entire change in his student life is thus hap- 
pily related by his friend and biographer Hawthorne, and affords a 
valuable lesson for youth. " When the relative standing of the mem- 
bers of the class was first authoritatively ascertained in the Junior 
3 T ear, he found himself occupying precisely the lowest position in point 
of scholarship. In the first mortification of wounded pride he resolved 
never to attend another recitation, and accordingly absented himself 
from college exercises for several clays, expecting and desiring that 
some form of punishment, such as suspension or expulsion, would be 
the result. The Faculty of the college, however, with a wise lenity, 
took no notice of his behavior ; and at last, having had time to grow 
cool, and moved by the grief of his friend Little and another class- 
mate, Pierce determined to resume the routine of college duties. 
' But,' said he to his friends, l if I do so, you shall see a change ! ' 
Accordingly from that time forward he devoted himself to studj'. 
His mind, having run wild for so long a period, could be reclaimed 
only by the severest efforts of an iron resolution ; and for three months 
afterwards he rose at four in the morning, toiled all day over his books, 
and retired only at midnight, allowing himself but four hours for 
sleep. . . . From the moment when he made his resolve until the 
close of his college life, he never incurred a censure, never was absent 
but from two college exercises, and then unavoidably, never went into 
the recitation-room without a thorough acquaintance with the subject 



282 HISTOET OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

to be recited, and finally graduated the third scholar of his class " 
An instructor of the class remembers distinctly his recitations in 
Locke, the text-book in the metaphysics of the Junior year, in which 
he showed a mastery of the subject not surpassed by any of the class. 
This striking experience of the young Junior reminds one of a similar 
transformation in his life at the university of Paley, who became the 
eminent Archdeacon of Carlisle. 

In college, Pierce attached himself to the Athensean Society, and 
was one of its managers ; and that respectable fraternhy, while it 
lived, had reason to be proud of a brother so distinguished in subse- 
quent years. It is still remembered that he was commander of the 
short-lived and only military company which has ever existed among 
the students of our college, and that the spirit with which he performed 
his part fully evinced those predilections and capacities which were after- 
wards developed on a broader field. After graduation he began at 
once the study of law with Judge Levi Woodbury at Portsmouth, 
N. H. ; the last two years of study he spent at the Law School, North- 
ampton, Mass., and in the office of Judge Parker, Amherst, N. H. ; 
and in 1827 he was admitted to the bar and opened an office in his 
native town. In view of his reputation in later years as an advocate, 
it ma}* be a good lesson for those entering on a legal career to know 
that his first attempt was an utter failure. But the same indomitable 
resolution which had availed so much in his Junior year at college 
did not fail him in this emergency. "To a friend, an older practi- 
tioner, who addressed him with some expression of condolence and 
encouragement, Pierce replied (and it was a kind of self-assertion no 
triumph would have drawn out) , ' I do not need that. I will try nine 
hundred and ninety-nine cases, if clients will continue to trust me ; and 
if I fail just as I have to-da}*, will try the thousandth. I shall live to 
argue cases in this court-house in a manner that will mortify neither 
myself nor my friends." The success, however, in his chosen profes- 
sion was held in abeyance by the enticements of political life. Reared 
in the atmosphere of politics, his father now having become governor 
of the State, the heated contest for the Presidency having terminated 
in the triumph of Gen. Jackson, the young kwyer, himself an earnest 
partisan for the successful candidate, could not or did not resist the 
tendencies of the time. In 1829 his native town sent him to the State 
Legislature and in three successive years ; and during the last two years 
he was elected speaker of the House. He was but twenty-seven years 
old when he accepted that responsible position, for which he proved 
himself to be eminently qualified by his courtesy, firmness, ready 
action, and mastery of parliamentary law. In 1833 we find him at 



GRADUATES. 2^3 

Washington, a member of the House of Eepresentatives ; and in 1837 
in the Senate of the United States, the youngest member of that body, 
when it was dignified by names which have given it its highest renown 
for ability, statesmanship, and eloquence, — Calhoun, Clay, Webster, 
Wright, and others. In either house he participated in debate only 
when his sense, of duty demanded. His native tact and sense of the 
fitness of things withheld him from thrusting himself into debate where 
such men were acknowledged leaders ; but whenever he did rise in 
debate he gained close attention and high respect. He never coveted 
notoriety, but gave his time and energies to the less conspicuous but 
more important labor of committees, of which he was an able and 
much-valued member. He was a vigoi*ous, unshrinking supporter of 
the Jackson policy, predisposed to a strict interpretation of constitu- 
tional law ; sympathized with the South in questions which were agitat- 
ing the country and becoming prominent in national politics. He 
enjoyed the entire confidence of his associates, and as one affirmed, 
" It needed only a few years to give him the front rank for talents, 
eloquence, and statesmanship." He resigned his seat in the Senate 
at the close of his term. When about to leave the chamber for the 
last time, " senators," writes his biographer, " gathered around him, 
political opponents took leave of him as a personal friend, and no 
departing member has ever retired from that distinguished body amid 
warmer wishes for his happiness than those that attended Franklin 
Pierce." He left the public service with the intention of devoting 
himself to his profession, which had been intermitted for the most part 
for ten years. His political career had been singularly successful. 
As is well said by his college friend and biographer, " He had never 
in all his career found it necessary to stoop. Office had sought him : 
he had not begged it, nor manoeuvred for it, nor crept towards it, — 
arts which too frequently bring a man moralty bowed and degraded 
to a position which should be one of dignuVy, but in which he will 
vainly essay to stand upright." He probably anticipated as little as 
did his friends the higher honors that awaited him. 

Mr. Pierce possessed eminent qualities to attract personal regards 
•and win popularity : an attractive person, frank and gallant bearing, 
fascination of manner, genuine kindliness of nature, with entire absence 
of stateliness and reserve that repel. He was ever accessible to the 
humblest as to the highest in social position, free and generous in dis- 
position, one in whom even those diametrically opposed to him in polit- 
ical strife could not but see much to admire. He had removed his 
residence from Hillsboro' to Concord, where he resumed his profession, 
and at once entered with characteristic zeal and energy upon full prac- 



284 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

tice, and rapidly gained brilliant reputation at a bar distinguished for 
its ability. He was engaged in most important suits. His defence of 
the Wentworths on a capital charge, and his part in the case of Morri- 
son v. Philbrick, one of great public interest, in which he was asso- 
ciated with and opposed by eminent counsel, are traditions of the New 
Hampshire bar. The latter case is referred to in a sketch of James 
Bell of the class of 1822, who was associated with him in the trial. 
His characteristics as a lawyer are given in the following extracts, in 
Hawthorne's biography, from the letter of a gentleman who at one 
period was frequently opposed to him at the bar: "His vigilance 
and perseverance, omitting nothing in the preparation and introduc- 
tion of testimony, even to minutest details, which can be useful to his 
clients' ; his watchful attention, seizing on every weak point in the 
opposite case ; his quickness and readiness, his sound and excellent 
judgment, his keen insight into character and motives, his almost 
intuitive knowledge of men, his ingenious and powerful cross-exami- 
nations, his adroitness in turning aside troublesome testimony and 
availing himself of every favorable point, his quick sense of the ridic- 
ulous, his pathetic appeals to the feelings, his sustained eloquence 
and remarkably energetic declamation, — all mark him for a k leader.' " 
The chief justice of New Hampshire thus testified to his character and 
qualifications as a law.yer and advocate, in a communication also found 
in the biography : ' ; His argumentative powers are of the highest order. 
He never takes before the court a position which he believes unten- 
able. He has a quick and sure perception of his points, and the 
power of enforcing them by apt and pertinent illustrations. He sees 
the relative importance and weight of different views, and can assign to 
each its proper place, and brings forward the main body of his reason- 
ing in prominent relief without distracting the attention by unimpor- 
tant particulars. And above all, he has the good sense, so rarely 
shown by many, to stop when he has said all that is necessary for the 
elucidation of his subject. . . . The eloquence of Mr. Pierce is of a 
character not to be easily forgotten. He understands men, their pas- 
sions and their feelings. His language always attracts the hearer. 
A graceful and manly carriage, bespeaking him at once the gentleman 
and the true man, a manner warmed by the ardent glow of earnest 
belief, an enunciation ringing, distinct, and impressive beyond that 
of most men, a command of brilliant and expressive language, and an 
accurate taste, together with a sagacious and instinctive insight into the 
points of his case, are the secrets of his success." 

In 1846 Mr. Pierce received from President Polk the tender of the 
post of attorney-general of the United States, which he declined. Just 



GRADUATES. 285 

before, Governor Steele of New Hampshire had proposed to appoint 
him to the Senate of the United States, hut he declined this offer also. 
During this period he was placed in nomination by a Democratic con- 
vention for the office of governor, but his friends could not obtain his 
acquiescence. In his letter replying to the offer of President Polk he 
had declared it to have been his purpose, when he resigned his seat in 
the Senate, never again to be voluntarily separated from his family for 
any length of time, except at the call of his country in time of war. 
That contingency actually occurred in 1847 in consequence of the 
Mexican war, when he at once enrolled himself as a private, the first 
volunteer of a company raised in Concord, and drilled in the ranks. 
He soon was commissioned colonel and shortly afterward brigadier- 
general, and in June, 1847, arrived at Vera Cruz, whence he led his 
command to re-enforce the army under Gen. Scott at Puebla. For his 
energy and skill in the conduct of an adventurous march he received 
encomiums from military men and the flattering commendation of the 
commander-in-chief. He was actively engaged in the battles of Con- 
treras, Churubusco, and Chapultepec, exhibiting bravery and conduct 
which were recognized and won respect from older generals of the 
army. On a proposal from Santa Anna for an armistice, as proof of 
the estimation in which he was held, Gen. Scott appointed him on the 
commission to arrange the terms. On the termination of hostilities 
Gen. Pierce returned to Concord and to the laborious exercise of his 
profession. He had, however, been too prominent in political life to 
escape calls for co-operation in the movements of the time ; to address 
conventions, a service for which he had peculiar gifts, and in other 
ways. He was an earnest supporter of the compromise measures of 
1850. His advice was sought in the counsels of his political party. A 
convention for the revision of the State Constitution being assembled 
in Concord, to which he was chosen a delegate, he was elected presi- 
dent of that body by the nearly unanimous vote of an assemblage 
comprising the most eminent citizens of the State, — a mark of the con- 
fidence cherished for him by the State at large. His bearing in the 
chair and in debate was sketched by Prof. Sanborn, Dartmouth Col- 
lege, in the following terms : tk As a presiding officer it would be dif- 
ficult to find his equal. In proposing questions to the house he never 
hesitates or blunders. In deciding points of order he is prompt and 
impartial. His treatment of every member was characterized by uni- 
form courtesy and kindness. . . . He possesses unquestioned ability 
as a public speaker. Few men in our countiy better understand the 
means of swa} T ing a popular assembby or employ them with greater 
success. His forte lies in moving the passions of those whom he 



286 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

addresses. He knows how to call into vigorous action both the sym- 
pathies and antipathies of those who listen to him. I do not mean to 
imply that his oratory is deficient in argument or sound reasoning ; 
on the contrary, he seizes with great power upon the strong points of 
his subject, and presents them clearly, forcibly, and eloquently. As a 
prompt and ready debater, always prepared for assault or defence, he 
has few equals. . . . He is most thoroughly versed in all the tactics 
of debate. He is not only remarkably fluent in his elocution, but 
remarkably correct. His style is not overloaded with ornament, and 
yet he draws liberally upon the treasury of rhetoric. His figures are 
often beautiful and striking, never incongruous. From his whole course 
in the convention a disinterested spectator could not fail to form a 
very favorable opinion, not only of his talent and eloquence, but of his 
generosity and magnanimity. ' 

In January, 1852, the Democracy of New Hampshire declared its 
preference of Gen. Pierce as a Presidential candidate in the approach- 
ing canvass. On the 12th of June the Democratic National Conven- 
tion was held at Baltimore. A circular letter was addressed to the 
gentlemen whose claims had been publicly discussed, requesting a 
statement of their opinions on the points at issue, and inquiring what 
would be the course of each in case of his attaining the Presidency. It 
is to the credit of Gen. Pierce that he alone of those addressed made no 
response. He received the nomination, and was elected to this great 
civic honor by a majority unprecedented in our annals ; and so as its 
fourteenth President his name is recorded for all time in the great 
d3 T nastic roll of the republic. 

The administration of President Pierce was throughout disquieted 
by the violent struggle in Kansas between those who plotted to make 
it a slave-holding and those who were resolved it should be a free 
State, — a contest which involved and convulsed the whole country. 
Whatever action the President took in measures touching the great 
points at issue, he was consistent with his previously pronounced 
opinions and all his previous political life. However men rnay differ 
regarding the policy of his administration in this particular, there can 
be no hesitation in ascribing to him high integrity and honor, and in 
affirming that the dignity and proprieties of the station were never 
more strictly or more gracefully maintained. 

Soon after the close of his term of office he visited Madeira with 
Mrs. Pierce, chiefly on account of her delicate health, and then with 
her made a protracted tour of Europe, returning in 1860 to his home 
in Concord. Henceforth he abstained from professional labor, as also 
from participation in political affairs. He was visited with impaired 




wg- 



-^ 




BEY ''A!A 7 rN E . STCTWE, E> . D . 



GRADUATES. 287 

health two or three years, which resulted in a brief but violent illness 
and in his death Oct. 8, 1869. 

In 1834 Mr. Pierce married Jane Means, third daughter of Rev. 
Dr. Appleton, a former president of Bowdoin College. Three sons 
were the fruit of this marriage, the first of whom died in infancy ; the 
second, Frank Robert, died in 1844, aged four years, of rare beauty 
and promise ; the third, a lad of eleven years, the hope of his parents, 
was killed January, 1852, in the wreck of a railway train near 
Andover, Mass., at their side, — a calamity which called forth the 
deep sj'mpathy of the country, and which cast a shade over their re- 
maining years. 

Calvin Ellis Stowe was born in 1802 at Natick, Mass. At the 
age of fourteen he was apprenticed to a paper-maker, and worked in 
his mill two 3-ears. He fitted for college partly at Bradford, Mass., 
and partly at Gorham. In college he was soon known as the first 
man in his class, — witty, brilliant, popular, and withal an acknowl- 
edged and consistent Christian. At Andover his literary tastes were 
rapidly developed. He translated from the German and published 
Jahn's "History of the Hebrew Commonwealth," and brought out 
with copious notes an edition of Lowth's "Lectures on Hebrew 
Poetry." In 1828 he was appointed assistant teacher in Prof. Stuart's 
department. In 1830 he had the editorial charge of the Boston 
Recorder. From 1831 to 1833 he was in the chair of languages at 
Hanover Lane Seminary in Cincinnati next obtained him, and here 
he remained seventeen years as professor of Biblical literature. In 
1850 the Collins professorship at Brunswick was established, and Mr. 
"Stowe was selected for its first incumbent. At the end of the year, 
Andover, more wealthy and more attractive, laid her hands upon the 
doctor and placed him in her seat of sacred literature, a seat which 
he still occupies. During his residence in Ohio, Prof. Stowe visited 
Europe, partly to buy books for the library of the seminary and partly 
by appointment of the Legislature, and with reference to the general 
interests of education. He examined man}' European institutions of 
learning, and especially the schools of Prussia. The results of his 
observation appeared in a valuable report which was published by the 
State. In addition to the works already mentioned, Prof. Stowe pub- 
lished an introduction to the study of the Bible. He has also made 
numerous and valuable contributions to the literaiy and religious peri- 
odicals. 

Mr. Stowe, it will be seen from our record, has spent the most of 
his life in teaching, his principal theme being the language and litera- 



288 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

ture of the Bible. In this department he has undoubtedly been suc- 
cessful. As a public speaker Mr. Stowe is ready and forcible rather 
than elegant or graceful. That he might have attained to eminence in 
this line had he given himself wholly to preaching, I see no reason to 
doubt. 

The removal of the family to Brunswick seems to have been an 
epoch in its history. Cincinnati had not made them rich, and their 
apparent poverty when they came into Maine excited surprise and 
compassion. They lived in the house which had been the home of 
Parson Titcomb, at that time a decayed and uncomfortable mansion. 
Here, without even a servant to aid her in the care of house and chil- 
dren, Mrs. Stowe wrote a serial tale for the Washington Era, and this 
tale, republished in book form, soon carried her name to the farthest 
corners of the earth, gave her a place among the great authors of the 
day, insured her a welcome in ducal halls, and raised the impoverished 
family to ease and independence. Mr. Stowe accompanied his wife 
on her first visit to England, and made some speeches there which, 
with all Yiay regard for him, I could not approve. He has since twice 
crossed the Atlantic with Mrs. Stowe, but his home duties have soon 
called him back. Though a divinity professor, Mr. Stowe does not 
confine himself to theological topics or to ecclesiastical occasions. 
Earnest and able, his voice is often heard in conventions, moral or 
political, and he has even been talked of for Congress. 

Mr. Stowe's first wife, married in 1832, was Elizabeth E., daughter 
of Rev. Dr. Tyler ; she died in 1834. In 1836 he married Harriet E., 
daughter of Rev. Dr. Beecher.* 

Samuel Talbot, born in Freeport in 1801, after graduation taught 
in Biddeford three years, graduated at Andover in 1831, and was set- 
tled in Wilton, where he remained ten years. From 1842 to 1859 he 
was the Congregational minister of Alna, about eighteen years. He 
died suddenly and awa}' from home, leaving a widow (his second 
wife) and one son. The Rev. J. N. Parsons (Bowdoin College, 1828) 
speaks of him as follows : "Asa man and as a Christian, his promi- 
nent characteristics were those that constitute goodness. In every 
relation of life he found his happiness in contributing to the happiness 
of others. These lovely traits made him, with but ordinary intellect- 

* They have had seven children : three daughters, — Harriet E., Eliza T., and 
Georgiana M., the last married to Rev Mr. Allen, rector of the Church of the Mes- 
siah, Boston ; four sons, — Henry E., Frederick W., Samuel C, and Charles E., the 
first three deceased; the last spent some time at the University of Bonn, Prussia, and 
is now ordained over the Congregational Church in Saco. p. 



GRADUATES. 289 

ual endowments, highly respected among all classes during both his 
pastorates, useful and successful as a minister, and beloved as a friend. 
His preaching was clear, practical, and solid, rather than showy or 
brilliant." 

1825. 
Charles Jeffrey Abbott is a native of Castine, born in 1806. 
His father, William Abbott, was a counsellor at law of high standing. 
His mother was a daughter of Dr. Israel Atherton of Lancaster, 
Mass. After graduation Mr. Abbott was for some time a family tutor 
in Charleston, S. C. For a while also he taught school in his native 
town. Then in his father's office he studied the law, which he has 
ever since practised in Castine. With the schools of Castine, which 
are highly prosperous, he has had much to do as town agent and chair- 
man of committee. He claims also an active agency in the passage 
of the public-library law of Maine. For about eight years Mr. 
Abbott was the collector of customs for the port of Castine. In 1835 
he married Sarah A., daughter of Josiah Hook of Castine. Of four 
children which she left at her death in 1843, only one survives. In 
1856 Mr. Abbott was married to Mrs. T. J. Whitney, daughter of 
Daniel Johnston, formerly a merchant in Castine. 

John Stevens Cabot Abbott, born in Brunswick in 1805, brother 
of Jacob (see 1820), was fitted for college b} 7 Rev. Dr. Packard. He 
was principal of the academ} 7 at Amherst, Mass., one year, and then 
went through the course at Andover, was pastor of the Calvinist 
Church in Worcester, Mass., five years, then for five years over the 
Eliot Church in Roxbury, then three years in Nantucket First Congre- 
gational Church. The seven years which followed were passed in the 
city of New York, where he was associated with his brother in a large 
and flourishing school for young ladies. Mr. Abbott then returned to 
Maine, having bought the house in Brunswick which had been his 
father's. Here he lived eight years, busily engaged in writing for the 
press and supplying, as occasion called, the vacant pulpits of the 
neighborhood. At Farmington, his present residence, he also writes 
and preaches. As a speaker, whether in the pulpit or before the 
occasional assembly, Mr. Abbott is widely and favorably known. In 
this respect he is always read}', easy, showj", popular ; but it is mainly 
on achievements as an author that his far-spread reputation rests. 
He began early. His "Mother at Home" and "Child at Home" 
were long ago enrolled among the religious tracts, the former having 
passed through several editions at home and abroad, and been trans- 
lated into other European languages and even some of Asia. Then 

19 



290 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

came a series of small biographies: "Kings and Queens," "Marie 
Antoinette," "Josephine," "Madame Roland," "The Fourth Henry 
of France," " The Conqueror of Mexico," and " Philip, the Wampa- 
noag Chief." The " History of Napoleon Bonaparte" first appeared 
as an illustrated serial in Harper's Magazine. It was followed by 
" Napoleon at St. Helena," " The Private Correspondence of Napo- 
leon," and " The French Revolution as viewed in the Light of Repub- 
lican Institutions." Mr. Abbott is now engaged on the " Monarchies 
of Continental Europe. "Austria" and "Russia" have already 
come out. His latest publication has attracted considerable notice. 
Something in regard to its tone and purport may be inferred from the 
fact that Republican editors and leaders recommend its circulation as a 
suitable and effective tract for the pending Presidential canvass. As 
a historical writer Mr. Abbott has been widely read and much admired. 
In this field, however, he belongs to the school of Headley rather than 
of Macaulay. Aiming more at immediate effect than at the solid 
fame which comes only from accuracy and completeness and long and 
deep research, Mr. Abbott's works are rapid compilations made from 
the nearest sources, and owe their attractiveness partly to the glow 
and smoothness of their diction, partly to the enthusiasm of the 
author. This quality, indeed, brightens and tinges almost everything 
he does, — a circumstance which his readers have need to remember. 
This trait is specialty conspicuous in the " Life of Napoleon," whom 
he presents as an almost faultless hero of the Bayard type. The jus- 
tification or extenuation of acts which had long and widety been re- 
garded as crimes, and the general tone of indiscriminate praise, called 
forth many public and sharp critiques. It is, however, undoubtedly 
true that during the passionate and blinding conflicts, the fury and 
terrors of the scene when that great man was chief actor on the 
stage, he was often misunderstood and misrepresented both in Eng- 
land and America. Mr. Abbott's strong and indignant conviction of 
this injustice may have impelled him too far in the other direction. 
In the matter of style, if I may be allowed an opinion, Mr. Abbott's 
later works show a marked improvement, though a critic of the severer 
cast might still find occasion to lop here and there. It is pleasant to 
add, what all who know him will indorse, that few men possess more 
largely the qualities which make one esteemed as a citizen and be- 
loved as a neighbor and friend. He married in 1830 Jane W. Bourne 
of Boston. The}' have had six daughters and two sons.* 

* From Maine Mr. Abbott removed to Cheshire, Conn., and subsequently to the 
pastorate of the Howe Street Church, New Haven, Conn., and as acting pastor at 
Fair Haven, where for a few years his labors, as in other places, were greatly blessed. 




(2whtfa*.{34*4* 







GKADUATES. 291 

Thomas Ayer was born in 1797 in Plaistow, N. H. As a Latin 
and Greek scholar he stood among the first in this distinguished class. 
He went into the ministry and for a short time had a parish. For 
mau}^ years, however, he has lived in Litchfield, the owner and culti- 
vator of a small farm. Here he works, smokes, reads the classics', 
and fits boys for college. His wife was Hepsibah Smith. They have 
three children. 

[Mr. Ayer died in 1863. — p.] 

Elisha Bacon, born in Freeport in 1799, was prepared for the 
ministry under private tuition, and was settled successively at Hyannis 
in Massachusetts and at Sanford and Eliot in Maine. In consequence of 
weak lungs he gave up preaching, and now keeps a boarding school at 
Centreville, Mass. By his wife, Emeline Basset of Hyannis, he has 
three children. 

[Mr. Bacon died in 1863. —p.] 

Samuel Page Benson was born in Winthrop in 1804. His worthy 
father, Dr. Peleg Benson, was a native of Middleboro', Mass., and 
settled in Winthrop in 1792. His mother was Sarah, daughter of 
Col. Simon Page of Kensington, N. H. He was fitted for college 
under Mr. Joslyn of Monmouth Academy. Gen. Benson and Samuel 
S. Warren of China were his law teachers. After practising success- 
fully for two years in Unity, Waldo County, he returned to Winthrop 
that he might be near his aged parents. Here for sixteen years he 
continued to work in his profession not without success, yet with many 
interruptions to which he submitted with a patient grace that showed 
he was not all a lawyer. During this period school committees, 
agricultural societies, academy and college boards contrived to get a 
good deal of work out of him. The town used him constantly as 
selectman, agent, or representative in the Legislature. The county 
had him in the Senate for a while, and the State employed him for 
several years as its secretary. Soon after the death of his wife in 
1848, Mr. Benson discontinued his legal practice and devoted himself 
to railroad business and agricultural pursuits. But his fellow-citizens, 
fearing perhaps that he was falling into idle habits, sent him to Wash- 
ington. Having done good service in the Thirty-third Congress, he 
was re-elected by a large majority. During the memorable nine weeks' 

His Alma Mater conferred on him the degree of D. D. in 1875. He died in 1877 
after a year of great nervous prostration, but of singular peace of mind, often rising 
to rapturous, exultant assurance of the blessedness that awaited him, on which he 
knew he might enter any hour. p. 



292 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

struggle for a speaker Mr. Benson acted as one of the tellers, and we 
have no reason to suppose that he felt very badly when at length it 
devolved on him to announce the election of Mr. Banks. During that 
Congress Mr. Benson held the important position of chairman of the 
Committee on Naval Affairs. His entire career at Washington was 
creditable to himself, to his district, and to the State. For a number 
of years after his retirement from public life Mr. Benson lived with 
his daughter, Mrs. Sewall ; first at Wenham, Mass., where the Rev. 
John S. Sewall was settled as a clergyman, and afterward in Bruns- 
wick, Me., where Mr. Sewall is now an active and honored professor 
in the college. Latterly Mr. Benson has lived in Yarmouth with his 
second wife. Mr. Benson has long presided over the Board of Over- 
seers of Bowdoin College. Though strong and active still, he has bid 
adieu to political life and to the pressing cares of business. May his 
decline be gentle and his setting bright. 

Mr. Benson married, in 1831, Elizabeth, only daughter of Dr. Ariel 
Mann of Hallo well. Of four daughters but two survive. 

[He married a second time in 1872, Esther, daughter of the late Dr. 
Eleazer Burbank of Yarmouth. After a protracted illness Mr. Benson 
died in Yarmouth in 1876. — p.] 

Alden Boynton dates his beginning from Wiscasset, 1805 ; John 
and Sarah his parents' names. Mr. Boynton, a ship-master at first, 
had become a ship-owner, and the embargo and war found him in 
possession of several vessels. At the close of that disastrous period 
he sailed to Portugal in the onby ship that remained to him. Return- 
ing with a cargo of salt, his, vessel sprung a leak in mid-ocean and 
soon went down. The captain and crew took to their boats, were 
picked up, and he came home penniless to spend the rest of his da} T s 
upon a mortgaged farm. On this farm, which was two or three miles 
from the village, Alden grew up a hard-working boy. At length a high 
school was established in the village, and though it was quite a walk, 
Alden was glad to attend it. There, learning many of his* lessons on 
the road, he was fitted for college by a youthful but thorough teacher, 
Alpheus S. Packard. At fifteen this strong, healthy lad went to 
Brunswick. Like many both before and since he shut himself up in 
his college room, took no regular exercise, soon got sick, and finally 
graduated a good scholar and a confirmed dyspeptic. Having thus 
through his ignorance and neglect of natural laws spoiled a good 
farmer, he went forth to engage in that intellectual strife which de- 
mands in its recruits a healthy body as well as healthy mind. The issue 
might have been foretold. He taught school awhile, then went back 








^ 




HON 






GRADUATES. 293 

to the farm in search of health but found he could no longer labor ; 
then spent a year in the law office of John H. Shepard ; then took 
charge of an academy. Meanwhile new views of life and duty had 
taken hold of his mind. He applied for license to preach ; and the 
Kennebec Association, dispensing in his case with the usual require- 
ments, granted his request. After some missionary labor on the 
Penobscot he was settled at Industry, preaching alternately there and 
in New Portland ten miles distant. Here he stayed seven years, his 
health growing poorer and at length wholly failing. To their sorrow 
and his own he found himself compelled to leave an attached and in- 
dulgent people. Mr. Boynton returned to Wiscasset, where he bought 
a house and small patch of ground on which he has since lived, his 
mother keeping house for him. He has been supervisor of the schools, 
has twice represented the town in the Legislature, has officiated at 
funerals and supplied vacant pulpits until increasing infirmities of 
lungs and speech have put it out of his power. Mr. Boynton has 
given me a minute narrative of the ailments which have made his life 
" one long disease," and of the way in which the}' frustrated all his 
efforts to be useful ; and it is quite evident that the foundation of all 
this mischief was laid at Brunswick. There is no evidence that 
either his college guardians or his comrades warned him of the ruinous 
process, or even suspected its existence. Those were days of darkness 
in regard to the whole subject of physical training. The student who 
is bent on the slow suicide of inaction should at least be informed that 
he cannot commit it on college ground. Had I money to bestow on 
my Alma Mater, (would I had!) I am convinced that I could render 
her and her future children no more essential service than by providing 
facilities and encouragements for the best forms of athletic sport, and 
for those kinds of gymnastic exercise which have been proved to be 
safe and salutary. Mr. Boynton died in 1858. 

James Ware Bradbury is a native of York County, where his 
father, Dr. James Bradbury, was a physician of eminence. He 
taught the Hallowell Academy for a year, and then studied law with 
Mr., afterwards Judge Shepley and with Rufus Mclntyre. In 1830 
Mr. Bradbury settled in Augusta, where he gave himself with great 
devotion to his profession for many years. He edited for a time the 
Maine Patriot, and was also attorney for the county. In 1844, first 
as a nominating delegate at Baltimore, and afterwards as president of 
the Maine electoral college, he assisted in making Mr. Polk President 
of the United States. In 1847 he was elected a member of the United 
States Senate. Scarcely had he taken his seat when the death of his 



294 HISTOEY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

colleague, Senator Fairfield, called him to the painful duty of pro- 
nouncing the customary eulogy. During his entire connection with 
the Senate he held a place in the committee on the judiciary. When 
President Taylor, following the example of his immediate predeces- 
sors in office, proceeded to displace many of the Democratic in- 
cumbents, Mr. Bradbury introduced a resolution on the subject of 
removals from office, and supported the same in the debate which fol- 
lowed. He was chairman of a select committee on French spolia- 
tions, and reported a bill for the relief of the long-enduring and much- 
abused sufferers, which he advocated in a speech of much research. 
Before the expiration of his term he declined in a public letter to be 
a candidate for re-election. Since the close of his senatorial term, 
he has been engaged as before in the practice of his profession, and 
ranks among the ablest lawyers in the State. He was an overseer, 
and for several years has been a trustee of the college. On the death 
of Prof. Cleaveland was chosen corresponding secretary of the Maine 
Historical Society, and on the death of Judge Bourne was chosen its 
president. He married in 1834 Eliza A., daughter of Thomas W. 
Smith of Augusta. Their oldest son, James W. (Bowdoin College, 
1861), had engaged in the practice of law, and was rising in his pro- 
fession when he died in 1876. 

Richmond Bradford was born in 1801 in Turner. His parents 
were Martin and Prudence (Dillingham) Bradford. Dr. Bradford 
studied medicine in Minot and in Brunswick, took his degree in 1829, 
and settled in the practice at Lewiston Falls. He now lives in Au- 
burn. The same year he married Miss A. Cary. Their oldest son 
died at the age of twenty-three ; another son is a physician at Lewis- 
ton ; the youngest son is a graduate of Bowdoin College, 1861, and is 
a plrysician in New York, having received his medical degree from the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, in 1865 ; and there is 
a daughter unmarried. 

[Dr. Bradford was highly esteemed as a physician and a Christian 
man. After long illness he died in 1874. — p.] 

Horatio Bridge, brother of Edward T. (1818), began life as a 
lawyer, practising first in Skowhegan and afterwards in Augusta with 
James Bradbury for his partner. About 1840 he became a purser in 
the United States navy, and for some sixteen years was mostly on the 
sea. Under President Pierce he was appointed chief of the bureau 
of provisions and clothing in the navy department, — a very impor- 
tant office which he has filled and still fills with great fidelity and to 



GRADUATES. 295 

general acceptance.* He married about 1844 Charlotte Marshall of 
Boston. The}' have had and lost one child. 

George Barrell Cheever, born in Hallowell in 1806, was the 
son of Nathaniel Cheever who came from Salem to Hallowell, aud 
Charlotte Barrell of York. The father was a well-known and re- 
spected printer and publisher, and established the American Advo- 
cate in Hallowell in 1810. The son was prepared for college at the 
academy, Hallowell ; after graduating pursued a theological course, 
graduating at Andover in 1830, and was ordained pastor of the 
Congregational Church, Howard Street, Salem, in 1832. While at 
Andover and Salem he contributed in prose and verse to the North 
American Review, Biblical Repository ^ and other periodicals. He also 
published a "Defence of the Orthodoxy of Cud worth," "Common- 
place Books of Prose and Poetry," " Studies in Poetry," and edited 
" Select Works of Archbishop Leighton." He engaged with character- 
istic energy and ardor in the temperance movement, and by his publi- 
cation entitled "Inquire at Deacon Giles' Distillery," which was 
interpreted to have a personal bearing, brought on himself obloquy, 
was assaulted in the street, was prosecuted for libel, and imprisoned 
thirty days in the Salem jail. Resigning his pastorate, he went abroad, 
travelling in Europe and the Levant, and contributing letters to the 
New York Observer. In 1839 he was installed pastor of the Allen 
Street Presbyterian Church, New York, meanwhile giving courses of 
lectures on "Pilgrim's Progress," and on " Hierarchical Despotism," 
which were published. In 1846 he visited Europe again as corre- 
sponding editor of the New Y r ork Evangelist, of which he became on 
his return chief editor. The same year he was installed over the Church 
of the Puritans, New York, remaining until 1870, when he resigned 
the pastorate, and has since resided in Englewood, N. J. Besides 
contributing to periodicals, in 1845 and 1846 there appeared from his 
fruitful pen "Journal of the Pilgrims, Plymouth, New England, 
1620," reprinted from the original volumes with historical illustra- 
tions, "Wanderings of a Pilgrim in the Shadow of Mont Blanc and 
also of Jungfrau," and "Windings of the Water of Life," in 1849. 
Subsequentby he published " The Right of the Bible in Common 
Schools," " Voices of Nature to her Foster Child, the Soul of Man," 
"Lectures on the Life, Genius, and Sanctity of Cowper," "God's 

*Mr. Bridge resigned this position to become inspector-general, which he held 
until the passage of the law debarring navy officers from active duty on reaching the 
age of sixty-two, when he retired with the " relative rank " of commodore. p. 

» 



296 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Hand in America," " Guilt of Slavery and Crime of Slaveholding," 
"The Punishment of Death: Its Authority and Expediency," and 
recently " Faith, Doubt, and Evidence." Several discourses, etc., 
have been published by Dr. Cheever not embraced in the above enu- 
meration. Dr. Cheever has shown great literary activity in the midst 
of parochial cares and responsibilities. He has been a zealous worker 
in different fields, has made himself known and felt in the discussions, 
vehement and unsparing, of problems which have agitated the country, 
as well as in energetic, persistent, and fearless action ; and now, with- 
out clerical charge, he is engaged, it is said, with the earnestness of 
younger days in a defence of the truth against the assaults of science. 
Dr. Cheever received the degree of D. D. from the University of New 
York in 1844. In 1846 he married Elizabeth C. Wetmore of New 
York. They have had one child, — a son, dying in infancy. Dr. 
Cheever has given proof of his devotion to the interests of his Mas- 
ter's kingdom in the liberal gift of his New York dwelling to the 
American Board of Commissioners and the American Missionary 
Association, to be held jointly. p. 

Jonathan Cillet was born in 1802 at Nottingham, N. H. His 
grandfather, Joseph Cilley, commanded a regiment in the war of the 
Revolution. His father, Greenleaf Cilley, died in 1808, leaving four 
sons and three daughters. Joseph, now the only survivor of the sons, 
served with distinction in our second war with England. In college 
Jonathan was a respectable scholar. As a debater and speaker he 
stood in the first rank. " Nothing could be less artificial than his 
style of oratory. After filling his mind with the necessary informa- 
tion, he trusted everything else to his mental warmth and the inspira- 
tion of the moment, and poured himself out with an earnest and 
irresistible simplicity. ... In few words, let us characterize him at 
the outset of life as a young man of quick and powerful intellect, 
endowed with sagacity and tact, yet frank and free in his mode of 
action, ambitious of good influence, earnest, active, and persevering, 
with an elasticity and cheerful strength of mind which made diffi- 
culties easy, and the struggle with them a pleasure. Mingled with 
the amiable qualities that were like sunshine to his friends, there 
were harsher and sterner traits which fitted him to make head against 
an adverse world ; but it was only at the moment of need that the iron 
framework of his character became perceptible." From college Mr. 
Cilley^ went to Thomastou, and began the study of law with John 
Ruggles, afterwards United States senator from Maine. Into the 
warm partisan contests of the place and the time he at once entered 



GRADUATES. 297 

with great zeal. " At a period when most young men still stand aloof 
from the world, he had already taken his post as a leading politician. 
He afterwards found cause to regret that so much time had been 
abstracted from his professional studies, nor did the absorbing and 
exciting nature of his political career afford him airy subsequent 
opportunit} r to supply the defects of his legal education." In 1829 he 
began to practise at Thomaston, and the same year was married to 
Deborah, daughter of Hon. Hezekiah Prince of that place. In 1832 
Mr. Cilley took his seat in the Legislature, as representative from 
Thomaston. To the Legislature of 1833 he was also sent, although 
vehemently opposed by many who had been his political and personal 
friends. In 1834 these new opponents attempted to read him out of the 
Democratic party, but the effort signally failed, and he soon became 
lt the acknowledged head and leader of that party in the Legislature." 
During the latter part of the session of 1836 he was speaker of the 
House. "All parties awarded him the praise of being the best pre- 
siding officer the House ever had." In this year, after a severe 
struggle which abundantly proved his great popularity, he was chosen 
to represent his district in Congress. " In the summer of 1837," 
writes his classmate and friend, Hawthorne, fc ' a few months after his 
election to Congress, I met Mr. Cilley for the first time since early 
youth, when he had been to me almost as an elder brother. The two 
or three days which I spent in his neighborhood enabled us to renew 
our former intimacy. In his person there was very little change, and 
that little was for the better. He had an impending brow, deep-set 
eyes, and a thin, thoughtful countenance, which in his abstracted 
moments seemed almost stern, but in the intercourse of society it was 
brightened with a kindly smile that will live in the recollection of all 
who knew him. His manners had not a fastidious polish, but were 
characterized by the simplicity of one who had dwelt remote from 
cities, holding free companionship with the yeomen of the land. I 
thought him as true a representative of the people as ever theory 
could portray. His earlier and later habits of life, his feelings, par- 
tialities, and prejudices, were those of the people. The strong and 
shrewd sense which constituted so marked a feature of his mind was 
but a higher degree of the popular intelligence. He loved the people 
and respected them, and was prouder of nothing than of his brother- 
hood with those who had intrusted their public interests to his care. 
His continual struggles in the political arena had strengthened his 
bones and sinews ; opposition had kept him ardent ; while success had 
cherished the generous warmth of his nature, and assisted the growth 
both of his powers and sympathies. Disappointment might have 



298 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

soured and contracted him ; but his triumphant warfare had, it seemed 
to me, been no less beneficial to his heart than to his mind. I was 
aware that his harsher traits had grown apace with his milder ones, 
that he possessed iron resolution, indomitable perseverance, and an 
almost terrible energy ; but these features had imparted no hardness 
to his character in private intercourse. In the hour of public need 
these strong qualities would have shown themselves the most promi- 
nent ones, and would have encouraged his countrymen to rally round 
him as one of their natural leaders. In his private and domestic rela- 
tions Mr. Cilley was most exemplary, and he enjoyed no less happi- 
ness than he conferred. He had been the father of four children, two 
of whom were in the grave, leaving, I thought, a more abiding im- 
pression of tenderness and regret than the death of infants usually 
makes upon the masculine mind. Two boys — the elder seven or 
eight years of age, and the younger two — still remained to him ; and 
the fondness of these children for their father, their evident enjoyment 
of his societ} r , was proof enough of his gentle and amiable character 
within the precincts of his family. In that bereaved household there 
is now another child whom the father never saw. Mr. Cilley's domes- 
tic habits were simple and primitive to a degree unusual in most parts 
of our country, among men of so eminent a station as he had attained. 
It made me smile, though with am r thing but scorn, in contrast to the 
aristocratic stateliness which I have witnessed elsewhere, to see him 
driving home his one cow, after a long search for her through the vil- 
lage. That trait alone would have marked him as a man whose great- 
ness lay within himself. He appeared to take much interest in his 
garden, and was very fond of flowers. He kept bees, and told me 
that he loved to sit for whole hours watching the labors of the insects, 
and soothed by the hum with which they filled the air. I glance at 
these minute particulars of his daily life, because they form so strange 
a contrast with the circumstances of his death Who could have be- 
lieved that with his thoroughly New England character, in so short a 
time after I had seen him in that peaceful and happy home, among 
those simple occupations and pure enjoyments, he would be stretched 
in his own blood, slain for an almost impalpable punctilio?" 

* The story of Cilley's tragic eud, so fully recorded and commented on in the press 
of the time, and one of the saddest traditions of our political history, need not he 
repeated. That the man whose young life and lofty ambition were thus suddenly 
quenched in blood was in some respects eminently fitted for a public career, it seems 
impossible to doubt. Indeed, there is the best reason for thinking that but for his 
untimely e,ud his name might have been enrolled among the brightest and most 
famous, uot only of his class and college mates, but of his countrymen. p. 



GRADUATES. 299 

Cyrus Hamlin Coolidge, born in Canton in 1800, entered Sopho- 
more ; settled as a physician in Buckfield, where he tried both practice 
and business with moderate success. Here he married and had chil- 
dren. In 1852 he removed to California ; in 1860 to Austiu, Nev , 
where he practised his profession six years, and thence returned to 
California and died in 1871, and was buried with Masonic honors. 

Gorham Deane, born January, 1803, was the son of the late Dr. 
Ezra Deane, formerly of Biddeford, and subsequently of Cambridge, 
Mass. From an early age his love of reading was intense. Twice 
during his boyhood he was placed in a store ; but so prone was he to 
get absorbed in some book, that all idea of making him a business man 
was abandoned. Being permitted at length to devote himself to study, 
he took for sleep but four hours of the twenty-four. He entered 
college at eighteen, having already taught school acceptably a winter 
in Baldwin and a summer in Kennebuukport. Though his nervous 
and sanguine temperament made a large amount of exercise essential 
to his 'health, he continued at Brunswick the sedentary and fatal course 
which he had previously pursued. The consequences soon appeared. 
More than once he was interrupted by disease ; but rallying, returned 
to his studies only to break down again. At the Senior exhibition he 
received the second appointment in the class, and the same in the 
assignment for Commencement. He went home the evident victim 
of dj'speptic consumption, feeble, emaciated, sinking rapidly, and died 
in Providence, R. I., whither he had gone to seek relief, Aug. 11, a 
few weeks before his classmates took their degrees. In his disposition 
he was uncommonly amiable : he was seldom depressed and seldom 
excited ; even in his last illness he was calm and cheerful, and hopeful 
and resigned. In every action he appeared to have been governed by 
the strictest and highest principles. His fondest hope was to devote 
his life to the service of his Master as a minister of the gospel. 

Jeremiah Dummer, brother of Charles (see 1814), was born in 
1805, graduated in medicine in 1828, and practised a while somewhere 
in Kennebec County. He went in 1833 to Jacksonville, 111., and soon 
after to Boonville in Missouri. After a year he pushed still farther 
west and made Westport, Kan., his home. Here he died in 1856. In 
faith and life he was an earnest Methodist and a man of warm piety. 
He practised largely among the Indians, and did much for their spirit- 
ual welfare. Dr. Dummer died unmarried. 



300 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Nathaniel Dunn was born in Poland of this State in 1800. From 
childhood he was conversant with narrow circumstances and a con- 
stant struggle ; was fitted for college chiefly at Hebron and Gorham 
Academies, and entered Sophomore. At his commencement he was 
assigned a conference with Cilley. The lives of the two young men 
thus connected soon became widely sundered. Dunn, after graduatiug, 
received a flattering invitation to study law in the office of Judge 
Ruggles of Thomaston. Having just accepted a position at the Wes- 
leyan Academy, Wilbraham, Mass., and embarrassed by debt, he 
declined ; Cilley took the place, and the young men began their re- 
spective careers in quite opposite directions. At Wilbraham Dunn 
taught chemistry and natural philosophy. In 1829 he opened a private 
school in the city of New York, which he continued five or six years. 
In 1840 he opened a family school in Tarrytown, N. Y. ; in 1844 
was made principal of a seminary at Hampstead, L. I. ; in 1849 re- 
turned to New York and again established a school for seven years. 
He then turned his attention to lecturing on scientific subjects, chiefly 
c hemical, travelling with his apparatus through different States until 
1869, when he was appointed to lecture for a time in Rutgers College, 
New York, on chemistry and natural philosophy. He has since relin- 
quished the labor of teaching, has written for the press, and in 1875 
published a poem bearing the title " Satan Unchained," now in a second 
edition. 

Mr. Dunn has been twice married and has four children living, two 
sons and two daughters : one son a lawyer in Minnesota, and auother 
a lawyer in New York. 

Mr. Dunn has from early life maintained a Christian profession in 
the Methodist communion. p. 

Joseph Jenkins Eveleth, Augusta, 1805 ; studied law with Hon. 
Reuel Williams of Augusta, and spent a year at the law school of 
Judge Howe, Northampton, Mass. He then emigrated south to Wil- 
kinson County, Miss., and engaged in his profession. "His ability," 
writes a classmate, " integrity, and irreproachable character, his frank 
and gentlemanly bearing, secured signal success." After four years, 
prompted by filial affection, he relinquished brilliant prospects and 
returned to his native town to minister to the comfort of his parents 
in their declining years. His kindness of heart and his steadfast 
integrity won the confidence of bis townsmen. For more than twenty 
years he was cashier of the Augusta Bank ; was also treasurer of a 
savings bank ; at different times he filled other positions of trust and 
importance. In 1867 he travelled in Europe for a year. He was then 



GRADUATES. 301 

employed for several } T ears in the office of the Kennebec Land and 
Lumber Company of Augusta, and for two successive terms was 
mayor of the city. In 1873 he made a second and more extensive 
tour abroad. On his return he declined to enter again on active busi- 
ness. Mr. Eveleth inherited a spirit of ready co-operation in what- 
ever promotes the welfare of society and the institutions of religion. 
He led the choir iu the Congregational church for nearly twenty years. 
His generous sympathies and gentle benevolence can be testified to by 
the widow and orphan whom he has befriended. 

David Haley Foster was a native of Topsham. From 1830 to 
1839 he practised law in Kennebec County, having " a respectable 
share of business," and being " highly esteemed for his urbanity.'' 
During the last twelve years of his life he was employed as a teacher 
of languages and of music in the States of Virginia and Maiyland. 
In this capacit} T he is said to have been " highly popular and success- 
ful." Late in 1851, from Berlin, Md., where he had charge of a 
female seminary, he went in quest of health to his paternal home, and 
there died soon after. Mr. Foster left a widow and three children. 

Patrick Henry Greenleaf, born in Gray in 1808, studied law 
with his distinguished father, Simon Greenleaf, then living in Port- 
land, and practised in the courts of Maine about seven years. Hav- 
ing become in 1830 a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
Mr. Greenleaf engaged with ready activity in church duties, and soon 
became a conspicuous lay member. Through the Children's Guide, a 
monthly paper which he started and published at Portland, Mr. Green- 
leaf became known to Bishop Doane. At the suggestion and request 
of that ardent prelate, and in conformity with a long-cherished wish, 
he left his profession and joined the bishop at Burlington in 1835. 
Here he became at once a student in divinity, editor of the Mission- 
ary, editor of the Spirit of English Magazines, and superintendent of 
St. Mary's Sunday school. Not agreeing entirely with the right rev- 
erend doctor, and declining a nomination to the chair of languages in 
Bristol College, Pa., Mr. Greenleaf returned to his father's in Cam- 
bridge, and completed his studies under Bishop Griswold. He was 
ordained deacon in 1836, and soon after became the first pastor of the 
Church of the Ascension at Fall River, Mass. From 1837 to 1841 he 
was rector of St. John's Church, Carlisle, Tenn. ; then until 1850 of 
St. John's in Charlestown, Mass. ; and then for three years rector of 
St. Mark's in Boston. In 1853 Mr. Greenleaf became rector of 



302 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Christ Church in Madison, Incl., and in 1855 of St. Paul's, Cincin- 
nati. In this important position Dr. Greenleaf appears to be actively 
engaged, and prosecuting no less earnestly than in youth the gTeat 
and useful work to which he has devoted his life. Dr. Greenleaf has 
written much for the press, as might be shown by reference to the 
Portland Magazine, the Portland. Gazette, the Maine Wesley an Jour- 
nal, the Episcopal Watchman, and the Mis io nary. To these may 
be added numerous tracts and sermons, with several small volumes 
original or edited. He was married in 1829 to Margaret, daughter of 
Capt. W. P. Johnson of Newburyport, Mass. They have six chil- 
dren : Henry L. Greenleaf is a merchant in New Orleans, married, 
with three children ; James E., merchant in Boston, married, two chil- 
dren ; George H. is a partner of James ; Charles P., student in medi- 
cine ; Henrietta T., wife of Rev. Charles W. Homer, Lowell, Mass., 
three children ; Charlotte, at home. 

[Mr. Greenleaf received the degree of D. D. from the University of 
Indiana. He died in 1869. — p.] 

William Hale, son of Hon. William Hale, was born at Dover, 
N. H., Dec. 10, 1804, where he has always resided. He fitted for 
college at Phillips Exeter Academy. After graduation he engaged 
in the hardware business, in which, at this writing, he retains an in- 
terest, and is well known and highly respected in this as well as other 
relations as a business man. He was the first president of the Cocheco 
Railroad, and is now president of the Dover and Winnipiseogee Rail- 
road. He represented his native town in the State Legislature in 
1833 and 1854. p. 

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem in 1804. The family 
came from England, and settled in Salem early in the last century. 
The men in successive generations followed the sea. His father was 
a ship-master, who died in Cuba of yellow fever when the son was yet 
a child. His mother ' ' was a woman of great beauty and extreme 
sensibility." At the age of ten, on account of feeble health, the boy 
was sent to live on a farm on the borders of Sebago Lake in Maine, 
and at the proper age was sent back to Salem to complete preparation 
for college. In college, though singularly retiring in his habits, as 
described by a classmate, " dwelling in unrevealed recesses which his 
most intimate friends were never permitted to penetrate," his winning 
countenance and gentle manners won esteem and even popularity. 
Though fond of being present at festal scenes, " he never told a story 
or sang a song. His voice was never heard in any shout of merri- 




(^X—C-C^ 



'€>&. 



GRADUATES. 303 

ment ; but the silent, beaming smile would testify to his keen appre- 
ciation of the scene and to his enjoyment of the wit. He would sit 
for a whole evening with head gently inclined to one side, hearing 
every word, seeing every gesture, and yet scarcely a word would pass 
his lips. But there was an indescribable something in the silent pres- 
ence of Hawthorne which rendered him one of the most desired guests 
on such occasions. Jonathan Cilley was probably his most intimate 
friend in the class ; and yet his discrimination would lead him to say, 
' I love Hawthorne ; I admire him : but I do not know hini. He lives 
in a mysterious world of thought and imagination which he never per- 
mits me to enter.' " 

In later years, it may here be stated, the same singular trait was 
equally noticeable. One winter evening at the residence of Mr. 
Ralph Waldo Emerson there was a gathering of friends, Hawthorne 
among them, and the well-known G. W. Curtis of New York, who 
thus refers to Hawthorne: "I, who listened to all the fine things 
which were said, was for some time scarcely aware of a man who sat 
upon the edge of the circle, a little withdrawn, his head slightly 
thrown forward upon his breast, and his bright eyes clearly burning 
under his black brow. This person, who sat silent as a shadow, 
looked to me as Daniel Webster might have looked had he been a 
poet. He rose and walked to the window, and stood quietly there 
for a long time watching the dead white landscape. No appeal was 
made to him ; nobody looked after him. The conversation flowed as 
steadily on as if every one understood that his silence was to be re- 
spected. It was the same thing at the table. In vain the silent man 
imbibed aesthetic tea. Whatever fancies it inspired did not flower at 
his lips. But there was a light in his e\-e which assured me that noth- 
ing was lost. So supreme was his silence that it presently engrossed 
me to the exclusion of everything else. There was brilliant discourse ; 
but this silence was much more poetic and fascinating. Fine things 
were said by the philosophers, but much finer things were implied by 
the dumbness of this gentleman with heavy brows and black hair. 
As Hawthorne retired, Mr. Emerson remarked with a smile, ' Haw- 
thorne rides Well his horse of the night.' " 

To return to his college life : he was a great reader, and gave indi- 
cations of the facility and felicity so marked in subsequent years. 
His Latin and English exercises were specially commended by his 
teachers ; one of them certainly, Prof. Newman, being a competent 
judge. If the writer had the gift of the pencil he could portray Haw- 
thorne as he looked in the recitation-room of those days, eastern side 
Maine Hail, with the same shy, gentle bearing, black, drooping, full, 



304 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

inquisitive eye, and low, musical voice that he ever had. Little did 
the teacher imagine what work he might be doing for the budding 
genius near the end of that front bench, or for the other genius, even 
then bursting into bloom, two seats back, — Longfellow, — and others 
in that group. Would that teachers could realize the possibilities of 
their pupils ! 

After graduation Hawthorne returned to his Salem home. He had 
no fancy for either of the professions. For some time he lived a soli- 
tary life of reading and meditation, walking out by night, passing the 
day alone in his room, writing tales which he burned or some which 
appeared in newspaper, magazine, or annual, "leading a wandering, 
uncertain, and mostly unnoticed life." His classmate again records 
what he styles a rumor, the accuracy of which he does not vouch for, 
though affirming the truth of the main fact. "The Rev. George B. 
Cheever became pastor of one of the Salem churches. He hunted up 
his classmate, Hawthorne, and found him solitary and forgotten in his 
chamber." Recalling his promise in college, he urged him to write 
for the press, and infused into his desponding friend somewhat of his 
own life and spirit. Hawthorne sent an article to Goodrich, who was 
editing an annual in Boston. Goodrich discerned the promise of his 
genius, and sought for more contributions from his pen, and thus Haw- 
thorne was set forth on his shining way. In 1832 he published anony- 
mously a romance, which however he never acknowledged. Contri- 
butions to periodicals were collected in 1837 in a volume with the title 
" Twice-Told Tales," of which Mr. Curtis wrote, " They are full of 
glancing wit, of tender satire, of exquisite natural-description, of 
subtle and strange analysis of human life, darkly passionate and 
weird." The new star was thus hailed with generous enthusiasm by 
his classmate Longfellow in the North American Review of July, 
1837 : " This star is but newly risen, and erelong the observations of 
numerous star-gazers, perched upon arm-chairs and editors' tables, 
will inform the world of its magnitude and its place in the heaven of 
poetry ; whether it be in the paw of the Great Bear, or on the fore- 
head of Pegasus, or on the strings of the Lyre, or in the wings of the 
Eagle. Our own observations are as follows : To this little work we 
would say, ' Live ever, sweet, sweet book ! It comes from the hand of 
a man of genius. Everything about it has the freshness of the morn- 
ing and of May. These flowers and green leaves of poetry have not 
the dust of the highwa}' upon them. The} T have been gathered fresh 
from the secret places of a peaceful and gentle heart. There flow 
deep waters, silent, calm, and cool, and the green leaves look into 
them and God's blue heaven. The book, though in prose, is never- 



GRADUATES. 305 

theless written by a poet. What is worthy of mention, he never 
wrote poetry, not even a carrier's address." * 

In 1838 Mr. George Bancroft, then collector of Boston, appointed 
Hawthorne weigher and gauger in the customs. A change of admin- 
istration, respecting neither rising genius nor official fidelity, displaced 
him for political reasons. He then joined the association at Brook 
Farm, Roxbury, of which he was one of the founders. He confesses 
to dislike of the physical labor in his " Mosses from an Old Manse" : 
" It has been an apophthegm," he wrote, " these five thousand } r ears, 
that toil sweetens the bread it earns. For my part (speaking from 
hard experience acquired while belaboring the rugged furrows of Brook 
Farm), I relish best the free gifts of Providence." Yet he took satis- 
faction in his small garden : " My garden that skirted the avenue of 
the Manse was of precisely the right extent. An hour or two of 
morning labor was all that it required ; but I used to visit it a dozen 
times a day and stand in deep contemplation over my vegetable 
progeiry, with a love that nobody could share or conceive of who had 
never taken part in the process of creation." After a few months' 
trial of Brook Farm he returned to Boston, was soon happily married, 
then removed to Concord and took up his abode for three years in the 
"Old Manse," its first lay occupant, where "in the most delightful 
little nook of a study that ever afforded its snug seclusion to a scholar," 
in which Emerson wrote " Nature," he wrote " Mosses from an Old 
Manse." In 1845 appeared " The Journal of an African Cruiser," by 
Horatio Bridge of his college class, and intimate friend, which he 
edited for the press. In 1846 another political change made Mr. Ban- 
croft Secretary of the Navy, and by his instrumentality, Hawthorne 



*The following is from Horatio Bridge, Esq., of Washington, late chief of bureau 
of provisions and clothing, navy department, a classmate and intimate friend of Haw- 
thorne : "It was not until 1836 that S. G. Goodrich agreed to publish a volume of 
Hawthorne's writings, but postponed its publication from time to time until Haw- 
thorne's friend Bridge, suspecting the cause of the delay, interposed and guaranteed 
the publisher against loss ; but knowing the unwillingness of Hawthorne to allow a 
friend to assume pecuniary risk on his account, he exacted a pledge that the arrange- 
ment should be carefully concealed from Hawthorne. Soon afterwards the book 
came out. In his beautiful prefatory letter in ' The Snow Image,' addressed to 
Bridge, he thus alludes to the transaction just mentioned : ' For it was through your 
interposition, and that moreover unknown to himself, that your early friend was 
brought before the public somewhat more prominently than theretofore in the first 
volume of " Twice-Told Tales," ' etc. The book was well received in England as well 
as in this country. Hawthorne became reassured, and uever thereafter despaired of 
ultimate success as an author. Eor some reason, however, he chose another pub- 
lisher, and had no further business relations with Mr. Goodrich." 
20 



306 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

surveyor of the port of Salem. During the years of service which 
followed, he wrote "The Scarlet Letter," which critics extolled as 
" exhibiting extraordinary powers of mental analysis and graphic 
description." A second time removed from office, for like cause, 
in 1849, he became resident at Lenox, Mass., and here wrote 
" The House of Seven Gables," soon followed by " The Blithedale 
Eomance." His peculiar and intense individuality, it may be here 
remarked, is shown in these, as well as all his productions ; a trait in 
his character thus referred to as giving a prominent, perhaps the chief 
charm to his writings, by a reviewer in the April number of the North 
American Review for 1853: "They are, in the truest sense of the 
word, autobiographical ; and with repeated opportunities for cultivating 
his acquaintance by direct intercourse, we have learned from his books 
immeasurably more of his mental history, tastes, tendencies, sympa- 
thies, and opinions, than we should have known had we enjoyed his 
daily converse for a lifetime. Diffident and reserved as to the habi- 
tudes of the outer man, yet singularly communicative and social in 
disposition and desire, he takes his public for his confidant, and 
betrays to thousands of e} T es, likes and dislikes, whims and reveries, 
veins of mirthful and of serious reflection, moods of feeling both 
healthful and morbid, which it would be beyond his power to disclose 
through the ear, even to the most intimate of friends or the dearest 
kindred." 

" The Snow Image," " True Stories," "Wonder Book for Girls and 
Boys," and other volumes for the young followed at different dates 
from his fruitful pen in successive editions and alwa}'s welcome to 
youthful readers. 

In 1852 Concord became his home for the remainder of his life. 
During the Presidential campaign of that year he published a " Life 
of Franklin Pierce," one of his few intimate friends, who was the suc- 
cessful candidate, and President Pierce appointed him to one of the 
most lucrative posts in his gift, the United States consulate at Liver- 
pool, England. 

Mr. Hawthorne, having resigned his consulate in 1857, spent two 
years in travel with his family on the Continent, residing some time in 
Rome and Florence, and then returned to his Concord home, where he 
lived the same sort of life he had lived before, mingling seldom in 
village society, but ever kind, winning, welcoming friends, loving 
the gentle river and woodlands. " The Marble Faun" was one of the 
fruits of his Italian travel, published in 18G0 ; and " Our Old Home," 
sketches of England contributed to the Atlantic Monthly. Passages 
from American, English, French, and Italian Note Books, are posthu- 








jJA 



HOH JOSIAK £ 



■ 



GRADUATES. 307 

mous publications, " exhibiting the same exquisite charms of style," 
ease and grace, delicate satire and refined humor, fidelity of touch and 
subtile insight, that characterize all his writings. " Septimius Felton ; 
or, The Elixir of Life," a psychological romance, the scene laid in 
Concord in 1775, was found among his papers, and was edited by a 
daughter and published in 1872. 

In the spring of 1864 to regain health, which had been failing for 
some time, he set out on a journe} 7 through New Hampshire, accompa- 
nied by his lifelong friend Ex-President Pierce. They reached Plym- 
outh. Hawthorne once in a moment of weakness said that his work 
was about done. The two occupied adjacent chambers, and parted, 
each to rest and sleep. Not a groan was heard from Hawthorne's bed 
during the night. At earl}' morning the ex-President went to the bed- 
side of his friend and found him dead. His wife, Sophia Peabody, 
had died in London. He left two daughters and a son Julian. p. 

John Dafforne Kinsman was the onlj T son of Nathan Kinsman, a 
respectable law} T er in Portland. In 1816-17 he was nry pupil, and 
well do I remember the bright, amiable boy. He settled a lawyer in 
his native town and practised for a while with considerable success. 
He could speak with ease and effect ; his manners were affable, his 
talents popular. He gave some attention to military affairs and much 
more attention to politics. In the famous electioneering campaign of 
1840 he took an active part, and under the administration then elected 
became United States marshal for Maine. In 1845 he removed to 
Wisconsin, but subsequently returned to Maine and died in 1850 at 
Belfast, aged forty-four. Mr. Kinsman married Angela, daughter of 
Levi Cutter. She and her son still live. 

Josiah Stover Little is a son of Michael Little, and was born in 
Minot in 1801. In consequence of his mother's death, which immedi- 
ately followed his birth, he was taken into the family of his grand- 
father, Col. Josiah Little of Newbury, Mass., where he grew up. He 
was early destined for business, but an accident befell him and he was 
sent to college. To his studies, preparatory and collegiate, he gave 
himself with an ardent and persevering ambition ; nor did he fail to 
attain his object. To be proclaimed the best scholar in the best class 
that had graduated at Brunswick was no mean honor. Having studied 
the usual term in the office of Fessenden & Deblois, he practised law 
in Portland four years and then relinquished the profession for more 
active business. Mr. Little has repeatedly represented Portland in 
the Legislature, and twice at least has been Speaker of the House of 



308 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Representatives. He has been also several times a candidate for 
Congress, but has not yet been run by a party which had the majority. 
In politics, a Whig while that party existed, when it broke up he pre- 
ferred the Democrats to the Republicans ; but it is chiefly with the 
railroad enterprise that Mr. Little has identified his exertions and 
fortune and name. By appointment of the city in 1844 he was 
associated with Judge Preble to present to the authorities and citizens 
of Montreal the project of a railway communication between that 
place and Portland. When in 1848 Judge Preble resigned the presi- 
dency of the company, Mr. Little was chosen in his place and held 
that office seven years. It was he who first suggested to the board of 
directors the idea of leasing the road to the Grand Trunk Railway of 
Canada. With all the negotiations for that lease, which has proved 
so great a relief to the stockholders and so beneficial to the city and 
State, he was from his official position intimately connected. Mr. 
Little attends the Episcopal service, and has been an active contrib- 
utor to the building and sustaining of St. Luke's Church. He was 
married in 1833 to Miss Chamberlain, a daughter of Daniel Chamber- 
lain of Boston. Their daughter and only child is married. By an 
accession of property at the death of his grandfather Mr. Little was 
early placed at his ease, and thus missed the stimulus which might 
have pressed him forward to eminence in the forum, or which might 
have drawn him into the more dazzling and turbulent arena of politics. 
It is probably quite as well that things happened as the} 7 did : Mr. 
Little's life has been neither inactive nor unuseful. 
[Mr. Little died in 1862. — p.] 

Stephen Longfellow, born in 1805 in Portland, was the oldest 
son of the Hon. Stephen Longfellow. " On leaving college he entered 
immediately on the study of the law in the office of his father. But 
he had no fondness for this occupation ; all his thoughts and fancies 
were centred on militar}' affairs. It was in the navj' that his uncle 
Heniy had acquired an imperishable name ; and there another uncle, 
the gallant Commodore Wadsworth, had gained a high reputation and 
was still enjoying his laurels. In the army too the example of his 
maternal grandfather, Gen. Peleg Wadsworth, excited his enthusiasm, 
and from his early boyhood his greatest pleasure was in drawing plans 
of fortifications and reading of military achievements. But he sacri- 
ficed his cherished inclinations to the wishes of his honored father, 
who earnest^ desired that his eldest son should share the burdens and 
transmit the honors of a profession to which he was himself devotedly 
attached and which he had highly adorned. Stephen therefore entered 





Ovw_^j 



\S 




Cra cV oSlSU)^^ 



Yl 



GRADUATES. 309 

into business with bis father as a partner, albeit his mind was averted 
from its duties and responsibilities. Within a year from that time 
— viz., in December, 1829 — Judge Preble of Portland, having been 
appointed ambassador extraoi'dinary to the Hague in the matter of the 
New England boundary, took Longfellow with him as his private 
secretary. He returned in 1830 to the cold embraces of his profes- 
sion, and in 1831 he was united in marriage with Mary Ann, the 
eldest daughter of Judge Preble. By her he had six children, five 
of whom survive, viz., Stephen, a lieutenant in the revenue service; 
William P. Preble, Ellen T., Henry W., and Mary Ann. It cannot 
be disguised that Longfellow in the profession of his life was in a 
false position. He was unsuited by taste and temperament to the rude 
conflicts of the forum. He was amiable, exceedingly sensitive, diffi- 
dent of his own powers, and of a fine literary taste. His mind was 
" quick and forgetive," his nienKny excellent, and he had a far greater 
ease in acquiring knowledge than in applying it or turning it to account. 
His fine disposition and gentlemanby manners endeared him to his 
friends ; but like many other well-read and accomplished men of quiet, 
retiring habits, and lively sensibility, he failed to accomplish important 
ends in life. Had his lot been cast in a more favorable sphere, a 
different fate and a higher fame would have awaited him. He died in 
Portland in 1850, at the age of forty-five. 

Henry Wads worth Longfellow was born in Portland in 1807, a 
younger brother of Stephen. In his school-days when he was entering 
on his fourteenth year, we are informed by a schoolmate, he gave 
decided indications of poetic taste, anonymous pieces from his pen in 
the poet's corner of a Portland newspaper having attracted atten- 
tion. During his college life he contributed to periodicals of the time. 
" An April Day," " Autumn," " Hymn of the Moravian Nuns," " The 
Spirit of Poetry," " Woods in Winter," and " Sunrise on the Hills" 
belong to this period, and were received with favor as "early blos- 
soms " of a spring of promise.* An incident of his college days 
is related by his classmate, J. S. C. Abbott, of interest as it had 
important influence in determining his future career. At an annual 
examination of his class, his fine rendering of an ode of Horace 
attracted the notice of one of the examiners, a trustee of the college, 
the eminent counsellor and advocate, Benjamin Orr, himself a lover of 

* The editor of the United States Literary Gazette, the late James G. Carter, Esq., 
asked me once about a young man in our college who sent them so fine poetry. It 
was Longfellow, ± Junior in the college/a fair-haired youth, blooming with health and 
early promise. I reported of him as one whose scholarship and character were quite 
equal to his poetry. 



310 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Horace. At this Commencement the professorship of modern lan- 
guages was established, and Mr. Orr proposed the name of Long- 
fellow for the place, referring to that examination as his warrant for 
the young man's fitness for the position. Subsequently Mr. Longfellow 
received the appointment with the privilege of going abroad to prepare 
himself for his duties. He had entered his father's office to stud}^ law ; 
but his predilections were in another direction , and the flattering call from 
the college was cheerfully accepted. He soon took passage for Europe, 
where he spent from three to four years in Spain, France, Italy, and 
Germany. With unusual facility in acquiring language, he faithfully 
and successfully improved his opportunities, rare at that period, and 
returned to assume his duties in the college in 1829, accomplished in 
French, Italian, and German, and subsequently added rare familiarity 
with more northern languages of Europe. 

In 1835, to the great regret of his associates and the authorities of 
Bowdoin, he accepted the professorship of French and Spanish lan- 
guages and literature and belles-lettres at Harvard, succeeding Prof. 
Ticknor, who had resigned the position. He again went abroad, spend- 
ing two years in Denmark, Sweden, Holland, Germany, the Tyrol, 
and Switzerland. In 1842 he visited Europe the third time. Mr. 
Longfellow was greatly esteemed and respected as an instructor during 
his twenty-two years of service. In addition to his labors in the class- 
room, he contributed articles to the North American Review which gave 
him reputation. During his Bowdoin professorship he published a 
translation of the French grammar of L'Homond for his classes, 
which passed through repeated editions. " Proverbes Dramatiques," 
Novelas Espanolas y Coplas de Manrique," a translation of Coplas de 
Manrique, with an essay on the moral and devotional poetry of 
Spain, referred to by Mr. Ticknor, in his " History of Spanish Litera- 
ture," as a " beautiful version" ; "Syllabus de la Grammaire Itali- 
enne"; and "Outre Mer." While in the Harvard professorship he 
gave to the world " Hyperion " and " Voices of the Night," which gave 
him extended reputation ; " Ballads and other Poems" ; " Poems on 
Slavery " ; " The Spanish Student" ; " Poets and Poetry of Europe," 
with biographical sketches and translations of selections from about 
three hundred and sixty authors in ten languages, himself giving 
versions in all but two of them; "The Belfry of Bruges and other 
Poems " ; " The Waif and the Estray " ; " Evangeline," in hexameter, 
— the first considerable attempt at that metre in this country, which he 
managed with remarkable skill and success ; " Kavanagh " ; " The Sea- 
side and Fireside" ; " The Golden Legend," which was highly com- 
mended by " Blackwood" and Kaskin. 



GRADUATES. 311 

In 1854 Mr. Longfellow resigned the professorship at Harvard, but 
still continued his residence in Cambridge. In 1837 the historic man- 
sion, the Craigie House, became his home, noted as tbe headquarters 
of Washington, and in later years the temporary residence of Presi- 
dents Everett and Sparks. Though retired from official duties, it was 
not to gratify a spirit of self-indulgence. In 1855 appeared what, 
from its immense circulation, has seemed his most popular as it has 
been pronounced his most original work, "Hiawatha." It was soon 
translated into German. Then followed ' ' The Courtship of Miles 
Standish," "Tales of a Wayside Inn," "Flower de Luce," "New 
England Tragedies," a " A Translation of the Divina Commedia of 
Dante," " The Divine Tragecby," " Christus," " Drames et Poesies," 
"Aftermath," and "The Hanging of the Crane." In 1875, at the 
reunion of his class on the fiftieth anniversary of graduation, he read 
his " Morituri Salutamus," which was received with great interest at 
home, and was regarded in England as not inferior in conception and 
execution to his best. This poem is published in "The Masque of 
Pandora," 1876. At this writing several volumes of his "Poems of 
Places " have been given to the public. 

The works of Mr. Longfellow have been translated into several of 
the languages of Europe, have passed through numerous editions 
at home and abroad, and have called forth admirable specimens of 
contemporary art in their illustration. Their popularity may be judged 
from the fact stated by Allibone that iu 1857 the sales of them in this 
countiy alone had amounted to 325,550. Besides those collected in 
his volumes, many have appeared in periodicals, which have not been 
thus collected. His wide culture and unwearied industry are manifest 
from their number and variety, the rich thought which they contain, 
their cosmopolitan character, and the exquisite finish and the melody 
of versification which mark all the productions of his pen. His 
translations show unsurpassed facility in transfusing the ideas and 
spirit of the original, and extraordinary mastery over the rhythmical 
resources of the language. In his own and other lands and from high- 
est sources his productions have received most cordial and discrimi- 
nating commendation. 

A critic of high reputation in Edinburgh, quoted by Allibone, thus 
remarks : " The distinguishing qualities of Longfellow seem to be 
beauty of imagination, delicacy of taste, wide sympathj r , and mild 
earnestness, expressing themselves sometimes in forms of quaint and 
fantastic fancy, but always in chaste and simple language. . . . One 
of the most pleasing characteristics of this writer's works is their in- 
tense humanity. A man's heart beats in his every line. . . . He loves, 



312 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

pities, and feels with., as well as for, his fellow human mortal. . . . 
He is a brother, speaking to men as brothers, and as brothers they 
are responsive to his voice." 

The Irish Quarterly Review expresses its estimate of his merits : 
" In golden harmony, mellifluous diction, and erudite polish, Long- 
fellow can successfully compete with our most fastidious poets ; and 
few can surpass him in richness of fancy, imaginative capacity, and 
elevation of thought. The admiration which his poetr} T must necessa- 
rily elicit from us will be heightened considerably when we reflect 
that this elegance and unalterable deference to the laws of beauty is ' 
altogether unattended by any poverty of substance, contracted range 
of thought, tameness in origination of idea or its embodiment. Phi- 
losophy, and that generally of the purest and the most hopeful kind, 
enhances the value of his poetry," 

Cardinal Wiseman's estimate of him is worth a record : " There is 
no greater lack in English literature than that of a poet of the people, 
of one who shall be to the laboring classes of England, what Goethe 
is to the peasant of Germany. It was a true philosopher who said, 
' Let me make the songs of a nation and I care not who makes its 
laws.' There is one writer who approaches nearer than any other to 
this standard, and has already gained such a hold on our hearts that it 
is almost unnecessary to mention his name. Our hemisphere cannot 
claim the honor of having brought him forth ; but still he belongs to 
us, for his works have become as household words wherever the Eng- 
lish language is spoken. And whether we are charmed by his imagery 
or soothed by his melodious versification, or elevated by the moral 
teachings of his pure muse, or follow with s^ympathizing hearts the 
wanderings of Evangeline, I am sure that all who hear my voice will 
join me in the tribute I desire to pay to the genius of Longfellow." 

In 1868-9 Mr. Longfellow revisited Europe and was received with 
such welcome from royalty, nobles, and the cultured classes generally, 
as few if any of his countrymen have experienced. This visit to 
England was signalized by the highest university honors of Cambridge 
and Oxford, each conferring on him the degree of D. C. L. 

The un mingled respect and warm affection cherished for him were 
pleasantly and gracefully testified on his seventieth birthday, Feb. 27, 
1877, when hearty congratulations from near and distant friends 
poured in upon him during the day. His Alma Mater expressed her 
interest in the event b}- sending a greeting to her distinguished son. 

At. a meeting of the Faculty and students, a committee having been 
raised for the purpose, the following note was addressed to him : — 



GRADUATES. 313 

The president, Faculty, and students of Bowdoin College embrace the oppor- 
tunity to convey to Prof. Longfellow their sincere congratulations on reaching 
his seventieth birthday. We congratulate him that from " the snowy summit 
of his years " he may look back on a career of usefulness, honor, and fame sel- 
dom realized; on manifold productions of his own genius and cultured taste, ■ 
which are household treasures wherever the English language is spoken or 
read ; above all, that by elevation and purity of sentiment, and by tender sym- 
pathy for the lowest no less than for the highest of his fellow-men, enshrined 
as they are in verse of matchless simplicity and beauty, he has won for him- 
self a home in human hearts. We would add our cordial wishes for the health 
.and happiness of Prof. Longfellow and family, and that his last days may yet 
be his best days. 

(Signed) Joshua L. Chamberlain. 

Alpheus S. Packard. 

Henry L. Chapman. 

To which Mr. Longfellow returned the following reply : — 

March 10. 

Dear Mr. Chamberlain : Pardon my long delay in answering your most 
kind and friendly letter communicating to me the resolutions of the Faculty 
and students of Bowdoin College on my seventieth birthday ; I have been pre- 
vented from writing sooner by an unusual amount of occupations and inter- 
ruptions. 

Believe me, I am deeply touched by these tokens of remembrance and regard, 
and beg you to say to the Faculty and students how much I appreciate such 
expressions of sympathy and good-will. 

Nothing my birthday brought me was more agreeable or more highly valued 
than these kind words and good wishes. They are sincerely reciprocated and 
many fold by Yours faithfully and truly, 

Henry W. Longfellow. 

The winter which Mr. Longfellow spent in Holland, 1835, was sad- 
dened by the sudden death of his wife, who was, Miss Potter of Port- 
land, and had been the companion of his travels. In 1843 he married 
Miss Appleton of Boston. The distressing event which made him a 
widower the second time threw a deep shadow on his charming home. 
Two sons and three daughters are now living. 

The class of 1825 had a reunion in 1875, the fiftieth anniversaiy 
of their graduation. Of the thirteen surviving members, eleven were 
present. Their public exercises were held in the Congregational 
Church the afternoon before Commencement, the class being seated 
on the platform with Prof. Packard, the only survivor of their college 
instructors. The exercises were introduced bj T Prof Egbert C. Smyth 
of the theological seminaiy, Andover, Mass., president of the associa- 
tion of alumni. Prayer was offered by Rev. Dr. John S. C. Abbott 
of the class. A poem was pronounced by Prof. Henry Wadsworth 



314 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Longfellow, and an address by Rev. Dr. George Barrell Cheever. An 
occasion so notable in the histoiy of the college, which attracted a 
large number of the alumni and of visitors, justifies the introduction 
of the poem in the history of the class. p. 

MORITTTRI SALTTTAMTTS. 

Tempora labuntur, tacitisque senesoimus annis, 
Et fugiunt freno non remorante dies. 

Ovid, Fastorum, Lib. vi. 

" O Csesar, we who are about to die 
Salute you ! " was the gladiators' cry 
In the arena, standing face to face 
With death and with the Roman populace. 

O ye familiar scenes, — ye groves of pine, 
That once were mine, and are no longer mine; 
Thou river, widening through the meadows green 
To the vast sea so near, and yet unseen; 
Ye halls, in whose seclusion and repose 
Phantoms of fame, like exhalations, rose 
And vanished, — we who are about to die 
Salute you; earth and air and sea and sky, 
And the imperial sun that scatters down 
His sovereign splendors upon grove and town. 

Ye do not answer us! ye do not hear! 
We are forgotten ; and in your austere 
And calm indifference ye little care 
Whether we come or go, or whence or where. 
What passing generations fill these halls, 
What passing voices echo from these walls, 
Ye heed not; we are only as the blast, 
A moment heard, and then forever past. 

Not so the teachers who in earlier days 

Led our bewildered feet through learning's maze; 

They answer us — alas! what have I said? 

What greetings come there from the voiceless dead? 

What salutation, welcome, or reply? 

What pressure from the hands that lifeless lie? 

They are no longer here; the} r all are gone 

Into the land of shadows, — all save one. 

Honor and reverence, and the good repute 

That follows faithful service as its fruit, 

Be unto him whom livinar we salute. 



GEADUATES. 315 

The great Italian poet, when he made 

His dreadful journey to the realms of shade, 

Met there the old instructor of his youth, 

And cried, in tones of pity and of ruth: 

" Oh, never from the memory of my heart 

Your dear, paternal image shall depart, 

Who while on earth, ere yet hy death surprised, 

Taught me how mortals are immortalized; 

How grateful am I for that patient care, 

All my life long my language shall declare." 

To-day we make the poet's words our own, 

And utter them in plaintive undertone: 

Nor to the living only be they said, 

But to the other living called the dead, 

Whose dear, paternal images appear 

Not wrapped in gloom, hut robed in sunshine here; 

Whose simple lives, complete and without flaw, 

Were part and parcel of great Nature's law; 

Who said not to their Lord, as if afraid, 

" Here is thy talent in a napkin laid," 

But labored in their sphere, as those who live 

In the delight that Avork alone can give. 

Peace be to them; eternal peace and rest, 

And the fulfilment of the great behest: 

il Ye have been faithful over a few things, 

Over ten cities shall ye reign as kings." 

And ye who fill the places we once filled, 

And follow in the furrows that we tilled, 

Young men, whose generous hearts are beating high, 

We who are old, and are about to die, 

Salute you; hail you; take your hands in ours, 

And crown you with our welcome as with flowers I 

How beautiful is youth! how bright its gleams 
With its illusions, aspirations, dreams! 
Book of beginnings, story without end, 
Each maid a heroine, and each man a friend! 
Aladdin's Lamp, and Fortunatus' Purse 
That holds the treasures of the universe ! 
All possibilities are in its hands, 
No danger daunts it, and no foe withstands; 
In its sublime audacity of faith, 
" Be thou removed! " it to the mountain saith, 
And with ambitious feet, secure and proud, 
Ascends the ladder leaning on the cloud! 



316 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

As ancient Priam at the Scsean gate 

Sat on the walls of Troy in regal state 

With the old men, too old and weak to fight, 

Chirping like grasshoppers in their delight 

To see the embattled hosts, with spear and shield, 

Of Trojans and Achaians in the field; 

So from the snowy summits of our years 

We see you in the plain, as each appears, 

And question of you: asking, " Who is he 

That towers above the others? Which may be 

Atreides, Menelaus, Odysseus, 

Ajax the great, or bold Idomeneus? " 

Let him not boast who puts his armor on 
As he who puts it off, the battle done. 
Study yourselves; and most of all note well 
Wherein kind Nature meant you to excel. 
Not every blossom ripens into fruit: 
Minerva, the inventress of the flute, 
Flung it aside, when she her face surveyed 
Distorted in a fountain as she played; 
The unlucky Marsyas found it, and his fate 
Was one to make the bravest hesitate. 

Write on your doors the saying wise and old, 
" Be bold! be bold! and everywhere be bold; 
Be not too bold I " Yet better the excess 
Than the defect ; better the more than less ; 
Better like Hector in the field to clie, # ■ 
Than like a perfumed Paris turn and fly. 

And now, my classmates, — ye remaining few 
That number not the half of those we knew; 
Ye against whose familiar names not yet 
The fatal asterisk of death is set, — 
Ye I salute! The horologe of Time 
Strikes the half-century with a solemn chime, 
And summons us together once again, 
The joy of meeting not unmixed with pain. 

Where are the others? Voices from the deep 
Caverns of darkness answer me, " They sleep! " 
I name no names; instinctively I feel 
Each at some well-remembered grave will kneel, 
And from the inscription wipe the weeds and moss, 
For every heart besl knoweth ils own loss. 
I see the scattered gravestones gleaming white 
Through the pale dusk of the impending night; 



GRADUATES. 

O'er all alike the impartial sunset throws 

Its golden lilies mingled with the rose; 

We give to all a tender thought, and pass 

Out of the graveyards with their tangled grass,- 

Unto these scenes frequented by our feet 

When we were young, and life was fresh and sweet. 

What shall I say to you? What can I say 
Better than silence is? When I survey 
This throng of faces turned to meet my own, 
Friendly and fair and yet to me- unknown, 
Transformed the very landscape seems to be; 
It is the same, yet not the same to me. 
So many memories crowd upon my brain, 
So many ghosts are in the wooded plain, 
I fain would steal away, with noiseless tread, 
As from a house where some one lieth dead. 

I cannot go: I pause; I hesitate; 
My feet reluctant linger at the gate ; 
As one who struggles in a troubled dream 
To speak and cannot, to myself I seem. 

Vanish the dream! "Vanish the idle fears! 

Vanish the rolling mists of fifty years! 

Whatever time or space may intervene, 

I will not be a stranger in this scene. 

Here every doubt, all indecision ends; 

Hail, my companions, comrades, classmates, friends! 

Ah me! the fifty years since last we met 
Seem to me fifty folios bound and set 
By Time, the great transcriber, on his shelves, 
Wherein are written the histories of ourselves. 
What tragedies, what comedies, are there; 
What joy and grief, what rapture and despair! 
AVhat chronicles of triumph and defeat, 
Of struggle and temptation and retreat! 
What records of regrets and doubts and fears ! 
What pages blotted, blistered by our tears! 
AVhat lovely landscapes on the margin shine, 
What sweet, angelic faces, what divine 
And holy images of love and trust, 
Undimmed by age, unboiled by damp or dust! 
Whose hand shall dare to open and explore 
These volumes, closed and clasped forevermore? 
Not mine: with reverential feet I pass; 
I hear a voice that cries, '' Alas! alas! 



317 



318 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Whatever hath been written shall remain, 
Nor be erased nor written o'er again; 
The unwritten only still belongs to thee; 
Take heed, and ponder well what that shall be." 

As children frightened by a thunder-cloud 

Are reassured if some one reads aloud 

A tale of wonder, with enchantment fraught, 

Or wild adventure, that diverts their thought, 

Let me endeavor with a tale to chase 

The gathering shadows of the time and place, 

And banish what we all too deeply feel 

Wholly to say, or wholly to conceal. 

In mediaeval Rome, I know not where, 

There stood an image with its arm in air, 

And on its lifted finger, shining clear, 

A golden ring with the device, " Strike here! " 

Greatly the people wondered, though none guessed 

The meaning that these words but half expressed, 

Until a learned clerk, who at noonday, 

With downcast eyes, was passing on his way, 

Paused, and observed the spot, and marked it well, 

Whereon the shadow of the finger fell; 

And coming back at midnight, delved and found 

A secret stairway leading under ground. 

Down this he passed into a spacious hall, 

Lit by a naming jewel on the wall; 

And opposite a brazen statue stood, 

With bow and shaft in threatening attitude. 

Upon its forehead, like a coronet, 

Were these mysterious words of menace set: 

" That which I am, I am; my fatal aim 

None can escape, not even yon luminous flame! " 

Midway the hall was a fair table placed, 

With cloth of gold, and golden cups enchased 

With rubies, and the plates and knives were gold, 

And gold the bread and viands manifold. 

Around it, silent, motionless, and sad, 

Wei'e seated gallant knights in armor clad, 

And ladies beautiful with plume and zone, 

But they were stone, their hearts within were stone; 

And the vast hall was ailed in every part 

With silent crowds, stony in face and heart. 

Long at the scene, bewildered and amazed, 
The trembling clerk in speechless wonder gazed; 
Then from the table, by his greed made bold, 
He seized a goblet and a knife of gold, 



GKADUATES. 319 

And suddenly from their seats the guests upsprang, 
The vaulted ceiling with loud clamors rang, 
The archer sped his arrow at their call, 
Shattering the lambent jewel on the wall, 
And all was dark around and overhead; — 
Stark on the floor the luckless clerk lay deadi 

The writer of this legend then records 
Its ghostly application in these words : 
The image is the Adversary old, 
Whose beckoning finger points to realms of gold ; 
Our lusts and passions are the downward stair 
That leads the soul from a diviner air; 
The archer, Death; the flaming jewel, Life; 
Terrestrial goods, the goblet and the knife; 
The knights and ladies, all whose flesh and bone 
By avarice have been hardened into stone; 
The clerk, the scholar whom the love of pelf 
Tempts from his books and from his nobler self. 

The scholar and the world! The endless strife, 

The discord in the harmonies of life ! 

The love of learning, the sequestered nooks, 

And all the sweet serenity of books; 

The market-place, the eager love of gain, 

Whose aim is vanity, and whose end is pain! 

But why, you ask me, should this tale be told 
To men grown old or who are growing old? 

It is too late! Ah, nothing is too late 

Till the tired heart shall cease to palpitate. 

Cato learned Greek at eighty; Sophocles 

Wrote his grand CEdipus, and Simonides 

Bore off the prize of verse from his compeers, 

When each had numbered more than fourscore years; 

And Theophrastus, at fourscore and ten, 

Had but begun his Characters of Men. 

Chaucer, at Woodstock with the nightingales, 

At sixty wrote the Canterbury Tales; 

Goethe at Weimar, toiling to the last, 

Completed Faust when eighty years were past. 

These are indeed exceptions; but they show 

How far the gulf -stream of our youth may flow 

Into the arctic regions of our lives, 

Where little else than life itself survives. 



320 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

As the barometer foretells the storm 

While still the skies are clear, the weather warm, 

So something in us, as old age draws near, 

Betrays the pressure of the atmosphere. 

The nimble mercury, ere we are aware, 

Descends the elastic ladder of the air; 

The telltale blood in artery and vein 

Sinks from its higher levels in the brain; 

Whatever poet, orator, or sage 

May say of it, old age is still old age. 

It is the waning, not the crescent moon, 

The dusk of evening, not the blaze of noon: 

It is not strength, but weakness; not desire, 

But its surcease; not the fierce heat of fire, 

The burning and consuming element, 

But that of ashes and of embers spent, 

In which some living sparks we still discern, 

Enough to warm, but not enough to burn. 

What then? Shall we sit idly down and say, — 
The night hath come; it is no longer day? 
The night hath not yet come; we are not quite 
Cut off from labor by the failing light. 
Something remains for us to do or dare; 
Even the oldest tree some fruit may bear: 
Not (Edipus Coloneus, or Greek Ode, 
Or tales of pilgrims that one morning rode 
Out of the gateway of the Tabard Inn, 
But other something, would we but begin; 
For age is opportunity no less 
Than youth itself, though in another dress, 
And as the evening twilight fades away, 
The sky is filled with stars, invisible by day. 

Alfred Martin was a native of Hallowell, where after his gradua- 
tion he studied law with William Clark. "He settled in Winthrop, 
was a good law3*er, had begun well and bade fair to become highly 
respectable, but consumption carried him off in 1881." 

Alfred Mason was born in Portsmouth, N. H., where his father, 
the justly celebrated Jeremiah Mason, then lived. His mother, a lady 
still living and beloved, was a daughter of Col. David Means of 
Amherst, N. H. Dr. Abbott of Exeter trained him for college. At 
Brunswick in a class of rare ability he exerted a commanding influ- 
ence, due not only to his noble and generous nature, but to his liter- 
ary and scientific acquisitions. He selected the medical profession, 



GRADUATES. 321 

for which his taste and talents alike fitted him. Under Dr. Pierre- 
pont of Portsmouth and other instructors and in the best medical 
schools of the country, he pursued his object with great ardor and 
success. He had passed through the course prescribed, and deemed 
himself fortunate in obtaining a position as assistant iu the New York 
Bellevue Hospital. But he had breathed its contagious air only a few 
weeks when he was himself cut down. Such was the rapidity of the 
fever that his family were unable to reach him before he died. He 
was twenty-four years old. From the oral testimony of many who 
knew and loved him, I have always been led to think of him as one 
who, had time and opportunity been given, would have shone even 
among the brilliant names of the year 1825. An address occasioned 
by his death was delivered by Dr. C. A. Cheever in the Forensic Hall 
at Portsmouth, and now lies before me in pamphlet form. This 
address and several obituary notices which appeared from different 
hands and in different places confirm the impressions otherwise re- 
ceived. Especially interesting is the tribute of his classmate George 
"W. Pierce, a } T oung man of kindred worth, but destined soon to fol- 
low him, whom he so well depicted and so truly mourned. A few 
extracts from this notice will do something toward reviving the mem- 
ory of both : " Those who are wont to form their estimate of scholar- 
ship by observing the displays of the recitation form, and who point 
to the order of exercises as to a magic scale whereon every degree of 
intellectual character is nicely graduated and accurately ascertained, 
will hardly believe that a 3 r oung man who possessed an ascendant 
influence in his class, who was generalby acknowledged first in general 
information and indisputably first in natural science, and who pos- 
sessed the most happ} r and impressive manner of communicating what 
he knew, — they will hardly believe that such a one should not have 
received the highest collegiate distinctions. The mystery is to be 
solved, not b} r pointing out any moral blemishes or mental defects, 
but by the existence of rare excellences which will long be remem- 
bered with a kind of admiration by his classmates and instructors, 
and which invested him with a beautiful and moral elevation of char- 
acter. Very early in college life Mason came to the conclusion that 
the recitation-room was at best but a doubtful and limited field for 
the exercise and development of talents, and he was endowed with a 
noble and self-denying disposition that would not permit him to con- 
tend for objects which he deemed of inferior worth, however high they 
might stand in the estimation of others. He discovered in boyhood 
a decided partiality for natural science, and as he increased in j r ears it 

ripened into the most devoted and exclusive attachment. He flung his 
21 



322 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

arms around her inanimate form, and like Pygmalion's statue, nature 
grew into life and beauty and intelligence beneath his warm embrace. 
Neither mathematics nor poetry, politics nor pleasure, could shake his 
constancy or estrange his love from those charms that won his youth- 
ful heart. . . . When the light of a bright and joyous morning is 
quenched in an early storm, we sigh not only for the beauty that has 
departed, but we sigh to think what its beaut} 7 would have been. 
When a bitter frost cuts off the budding promise of the year, we 
mourn for summer's gay livery and autumn's golden stores. When, 
therefore, the. storm of disease has quenched the brighter dawning of 
genius, when the bitter frost of death has nipped the budding glories' 
of intellect, shall not the wounded spirit outrun its immediate calam- 
ity and weep over the ruin of well-grounded anticipations ? It is no 
less an act of justice to say what Mason would have been, than to 
speak of what he was while living. . . . Patriarchs in science, whose 
increasing }-ears gave warning that the places which had known them 
should soon know them no more, cast their eyes upon him as one of 
those favored young men who might be called to fill the high places 
which they occupied and on whom their descending mantles might fall. 
, It was the language of one whose commendation of itself is fame, 
that ' of all his pupils he had never known one whose prospects for 
eminence were fairer than Mason's.' " He then dwells a moment on 
his friend's "sympathy for distress in every form, whether real or 
imaginary, mental or bodily," and fancies the almost fortunate sick- 
chamber that might have been cheered by so much skill and such 
manly tenderness: "He would have hung round the bedside, turn- 
ing the heated pillow, shutting out the too brilliant light, and care- 
fully administering those minor comforts which rarely fall from the 
hand of skilful eminence. . . . He was very remarkable for his con- 
versational powers. In a class the largest that had ever graduated from 
Bowel oin, and certainly not deficient in wit or attainments, he was 
acknowledged the first talker. Of all the men I ever knew, he had the 
greatest love for truth, and showed the most intrepid perseverance in 
its pursuit. . . . No man could long remain in his compan}' without 
being let into a discovery of what important information he possessed. 
But while his deep, sagacious, and pointed queries * formed easj- and 
delightful avenues for the egress of substantial truth and real knowl- 
edge, they opened before the eyes of aspiring ignorance and shallow 
pedantry like so many gaping pits of destruction. . . . His good 



* Those who knew the father can easily understand how the young man came by 
this trait. 



GRADUATES. 323 

breeding was of higher descent, and his powers of pleasing rested on 
a surer foundation than mere companionable qualities. With the 
greatest kindness and generosity of nature he united the most manly 
firmness and the noblest principles of honor, and the most lively and 
social disposition with the gentlest and warmest affections." 

Frederic Mellen was a son of the distinguished jurist, Chief Jus- 
tice Mellen, and younger brother of Grenville Mellen, who had repu- 
tation as a poet. The following extract from an obituary notice is 
given by Mr. E. P. Weston : " With a native character of great suav- 
ity, simplicity, and instinctive correctness of moral sentiment, an 
intuitive perception of poetic beauty, and peculiar quickness of ap- 
prehension and susceptibility to the influences under which he was 
reared from infancy, and imbibing at home the purest principles of 
virtue, he seasonably received the advantages of an education at Bow- 
doin College, which nourished a love of classic and polished literature, 
and enabled him to cultivate those powers with which he was gifted, 
with an upward aim to excel in whatever belonged to mental or pro- 
fessional accomplishment. A pervading taste for one favorite art 
early discovered, and displaj'ing a peculiar aptitude for the finest 
combinations of forms and colors, — the art of painting, — obtained 
the mastery of his pursuits and purposes, and he bade fair to arrive 
at distinction in the most elegant branches of this polite department. 
He also possessed a "very delightful and delicate poetic talent. A 
number of gems have been preserved among the choicest and sweetest 
which grace the annuals." Three pieces by Mr. Mellen given in the 
volume of the " Bowdoin Poets " seem to justify this praise. He died 
in 1834. 

Mark Haskell Newman was a younger brother of Prof. Newman. 
After graduation he lived awhile in Amherst, Mass., where he sold 
books and let horses to the students, and where he married a Miss 
Dickinson. He next went into business in Andover as a publisher 
and seller of books, at first with his father and afterwards with Flagg 
and Gould. A few years later he removed to New York, where the 
business was continued and greatby extended. Though not specially 
literary he was a good judge of books, so far at least as their salable- 
ness was concerned, and as a natural result he was highly prospered. 
A painful disorder which for man}* years scarcely left to him an hour 
of ease was seldom deemed by him a sufficient reason for omitting 
any personal or social duty. He is said by his friend, the Rev. Dr. 
Badger of New York, to have been " a man of consistent character 



324 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

and piety, really benevolent, without display." He continued to work 
almost to the day of his death, which occurred in 1852. His wife's 
decease preceded his own. After providing quite moderately for his 
five children, of whom four were daughters, he devised the bulk of 
his handsome estate to missionary societies. 

Hezekiah Packard, brother of Alpheus S. (see 1816), was born 
in 1805 ; taught in Warren ; chose physic and studied two years ; pre- 
sided over Saco Academy eight years ; taught Portland boys (a pri- 
vate school) eight years, and Portland girls for thirteen years more. 
This veteran teacher and worthy man, compelled by ill health to aban- 
don a work which he loved, is now a bookseller in Portland. " His 
literary attainments, his cordial manners, and his unswerving integ- 
rity made him universally popular." The bronchial affection which 
had driven him from the school-room pursued him with relentless 
severity until his death in 1867. He was for several years an active 
member and an officer of the Congregational Church. His wife, whom 
he married in 1833, was Charlotte Montgomery of Haverhill, N. H. 
They have had a son and a daughter. 

George Washington Pierce, born in 1805 at Baldwin, was the 
eleventh and } r oungest child of Josiah and Phebe Pierce. His father, 
born in Woburn, Mass., and half-brother of Benjamin Thompson 
(Count Rumford) by the mother's second marriage, was the great- 
great-grandson of John Pierce of Woburn, born in 1643. It is not 
certain whether John Pierce of London, the grantee in trust of Wil- 
liam Bradford and his associates of the first Plymouth charter, was 
the father or grandfather of the ancestor last named. Mrs. Phebe 
Pierce was a daughter of Daniel Thompson, who at the fight of Lex- 
ington was shot through the heart by a retreating British soldier. 
George Washington Pierce "from his earliest childhood was remark- 
able for an ardent temperament, a desire for noble distinction, for 
lively fancy and quick intelligence, for prepossessing manners and 
social tact, for becoming the especial favorite of his old friends and 
for easily gaining new ones." He was prepared for college partly in 
the academies of Fiyeburg and Saco, and partly at home under the 
tuition of Mr. Joseph Howard, now judge of the Supreme Court of 
Maine. His chum throughout the college course was the Rev. David 
Shepley. " As a member of the Peucinian Society he diligently im- 
proved its opportunities for debate and practice in writing, and among 
the many Bowdoin students of that day, since so distinguished at the 
bar, in the pulpit, and in general literature, as writers and speakers, 



GRADUATES. 325 

he was soon acknowledged eminent for ability in discussion and for 
vigor and elegance in composition. He observed strictly the maxim 
of Apelles, ' Nulla dies sine linea,' in permitting no day to pass with- 
out studiously writing at least a page on some subject of present 
interest. Although he ranked well in the reeitation-room, he became 
a greater proficient in the libraries, and was doubtless a more earnest 
student of the English classics than of the college text-books. Being 
among the youngest of his class, and verj 7 social, active, and mirthful, 
he was a loved and constant companion in the joyous and open-hearted 
intercourse of college gayety and sports, but wisely and fortunately 
avoided college disgrace, and was graduated honorably." His Com- 
mencement exercise was a " Discussion" with George B. Cheever, 
and the two disputants were thought to be well mated. "After leav- 
ing college he never ceased to manifest a worthy and reciprocated 
attachment and respect for the officers and the fellow-graduates of his 
Alma Mater." He chose the law. One 3*ear of the required period 
was passed at Gorham in the office of his brother Josiah, part of 
another year in Portland with Mr. Longfellow, and more than a year at 
the law school in Northampton, Mass. "At Northampton Frank Pierce 
of the preceding class (now President) was his room-mate, fellow- 
student, and most intimate friend. The learned and clear-minded 
Judge Howe was his instructor, and encouraged him with many 
marked expressions of interest and praise. A refined society, of 
which the historian George Bancroft, residing at Round Hill, was a 
leader and example, admitted him to the communion of its courtesies 
and enjoyments." He passed the spring and summer of 1828 at his 
brother's house in Gorham, an invalid but an active one. It was a 
time of warm political conflict. The Presidential canvass was pend- 
ing ; Mr. Pierce advocated the election of Gen. Jackson, and "no one 
wrote more circulars, or spoke at more caucuses, or communicated 
more articles to the newspapers than he did." In looking for a place 
to settle, the great West seemed most strongly to invite him, and he 
determined to go and see for himself. Taking Washington on his way 
he remained there several weeks. " His letters to his friends at this 
time are filled with most animated and graphic descriptions of the 
men he met and heard, — of Clay and Calhoun and McDufiie and 
Adams and John Randolph, — of his conversations with them, of 
their personal appearance and manners, of the Congress generally, 
the Capitol, the city, and Mt. Vernon, which he visited with deep 
emotion." His Western tour was extended to St. Louis. In April 
he returned from the slow, difficult, and sometimes dangerous journey, 
quite willing to be governed by the friends who advised and besought 



326 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

him to stay where lie was. In July, 1829, he opened an office in 
Portland. "After thus committing himself to his profession, distinc- 
tion in it became the chief object of his care. He read law diligently, 
and never ceased to do so while he lived. He admired physical 
accomplishments and acquired some skill in fencing, boxing, and other 
manly exercises ; became tolerably versed in the French language, 
and was a prominent actor in the literary society of the town. He 
had already become known to the Democratic party in the vicinity as 
a ready and able writer, and the services of his pen were soon desired 
and freely given for political ai'ticles in the Portland Argus, the chief 
journal of that party in Maine. Newspapers of that day, and indeed 
during both terms of Gen. Jackson's administration, were savage in 
their attacks on men and measures connected with the hotly disputed 
questions between the two great parties. It was a time of revolution- 
ary excitement throughout the world ; of intense discord in the United 
States regarding the bank, the tariff, internal improvements, and the 
right of secession, to which was added extraordinary local agitation 
in Maine upon the negotiations respecting the northeastern boundary, 
and from the new current of speculation in her State lands. Mr. 
Pierce was an unceasing contributor to the Argus in these contro- 
versies, and once so enlisted he could not withdraw from it. The 
applause of his party, his warm personal feelings, his facility in 
writing, the necessity of defending positions he had taken, secured 
him and made him well known as a political disputant. . . . Many 
young men of great ability who have since attained high national dis- 
tinction were then in Maine as rivals or opponents ; and the leading 
Whig journal was then edited by the Hon. James Brooks, now of the 
New York Express, with his well-known ability in the keenest opposi- 
tion to the Argus. 

"Thus led into political strife, Mr. Pierce continued actively en- 
gaged in all the public movements of the Democrats in his county dur- 
ing the years 1831 and 1832. At their caucus meetings, conventions, 
and festivities, he was constantly in requisition for speeches, resolutions, 
etc. On the 4th of July, 1832, at a great Democratic celebration he 
delivered the oration." But amid all this he endeavored to give " his 
best thoughts and work to his profession." In September, after a 
warm contest, he was elected a representative to the Legislature. In 
November " he married Anne Longfellow, daughter of his former 
instructor and sister of his classmates, and at once began house- 
keeping." During the session of the Legislature he was constant in 
attendance and active and useful. One speech in particular on the 
"South Carolina Resolutions " was thought to be very able. In March, 



GRADUATES. 327 

1833, he was appointed county attorney for Cumberland and entered 
at once upon the duties of the office. At the following city municipal 
election he was chosen a common, councilman. Such was his popu- 
larity that the Democrats insisted on again sending him to the Legis- 
lature : he resigned, not without reluctance, the county attorneyship, 
and was elected by a large majority. After another busy and useful 
winter at the seat of government he returned' to Portland, quite re- 
solved "to give himself thenceforward strictly to his profession and 
to the beneficial influences of his happy and refined home. His legal 
practice increased and extended to all the courts, but he most esteemed 
and sought the liberal and less technical sj^stem of civil law in the 
Admiralty Court. Evidences of his industry and ability may be seen 
in the law reports of the time. Sometimes he appears to have relieved 
the severe labors of his profession by literary writing for the magazines. 
Late in the summer of 1835 the Argus was enlivened by a series of 
letters from his pen, descriptive of a northern journey in which he was 
accompanied by his wife and her parents. At that time Canada and 
the White Mountains were not quite so familiar as they are now. . . . 
On the 14th of October he was appointed reporter of the decisions of 
the Supreme Court of Maine, an important and then a lucrative office. 
. . . His reputation as a law3 T er, as an influential and public-spirited 
citizen had become well and widely established. Conscious of matured 
abilities and accomplishments, certain of devoted political and per- 
sonal Mends, of a dignified and pleasant professional position, and of 
means to secure him from want, and secure in the possession of sooth- 
ing and ennobling domestic life, he was now suddenly cut off by death, 
— making an impression so striking and sad of bereavement to his 
friends and of loss to the whole society of which he was a part that it 
has never yet changed its hue. He was attacked with typhus fever, 
and after a painful illness of four weeks died on the fifteenth day of 
November." For the preceding sketch (slightly abbreviated in parts), 
I am indebted to Josiah Pierce, Jr., Esq., a nephew of George W. 
Pierce, and now secretary of legation in the United States embassy at 
St. Petersburg. 

Edward Deering- Preble was the only child of Commodore 
Edward Preble and Mary, only daughter of Nathaniel Deering of 
Portland. In the summer of 1807, when the whole nation mourned 
the premature death of his heroic father, Edward D. was but a year 
old. The mother survived her son, dying in 1851 at the advanced age 
of eighty-one years. 

" Young Preble was prepared for college principally at the Portland 



328 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Academy, under the tuition of Master Cushman. On leaving college, 
at the age of nineteen, he formed a connection in mercantile business 
with his relative Nathaniel F. Deering ; but the details of trade and 
the drudgery of business had no charms for him, and he returned to 
literary pursuits which were more congenial to his tastes and habits. 
To indulge these more freely he broke away from business connections 
and sought recreation and intellectual improvement in foreign travel. 
In 1828 he became matriculated as a member of the University of 
Gottingen. Here he devoted himself diligently to the study of 
languages, of science, and philosophy. After an absence of over two 
years he returned and entered the office of the Hon. Charles S. Daveis 
as a student at law. He did this", not with a view to make law his 
profession, but for the purpose of general cultivation, to dignify his 
leisure hours, and to have the benefit of the example and guidance of 
the able counsellor and excellent scholar with whom he wisely asso- 
ciated himself. What many young persons consider a favorable cir- 
cumstance in life was to Mr. Preble, as it has been to countless others, 
its greatest evil. He was born to a fortune which, however, he did 
not live to possess ; but the expectation of it, and the gratification of 
every desire, paralyzed exertion, rendered him versatile, morbid, and 
unhappy. With talents capable of high achievement, with consider- 
able literary attainment, he failed of accomplishing anything useful 
by irresolution and want of a settled purpose of action." In a brief 
obituary notice published soon after his death, Mr. Daveis, who knew 
him intimately, thus speaks : " He was a gentleman in every sense, — 
of great courtesy and urbanity in his demeanor, although rather shun- 
ning than seeking the intercourse of general society ; and though thus 
failing to fill up the sphere for which he seemed qualified, he was not 
only distinguished for the acquirements he had made in those pursuits 
to which he was most devoted, but he was no less fond of promoting 
their cultivation and improvement in the daily paths of his fellow- 
citizens." 

"In 1833 Mr. Preble married Sophia E. Wattles, daughter of 
Nathaniel Wattles, Esq., of Alexandria, Va., by whom he had one 
son bearing the same name, and two daughters, all of whom, with 
their mother, survive. He died Feb. 12, 1846, at the age of fort}'." 

Cullen Sawtelle, born at Norridgewock in 1805, studied law and 
opened an office in Norridgewock, was made register of probate, and 
being a popular man was sent to Congress for four years. For sev- 
eral years past he has been connected in some way with a mercantile 
house in the city of New York, his residence being at Euglewood, 
N. J. He is married and has children. 



GRADUATES. 329 

David Sheplet was a son of Daniel and Eunice (Blood) Shepley 
of Solon. He graduated at the age of twenty-one, went through the 
Andover School of Theology, and was settled in 1829 as the successor 
of Asa Cummings at North Yarmouth. After a faithful ministry of 
twent}' years, during which the church and congregation received 
large accessions, he left North Yarmouth, and was resettled (1851) 
in Winslow. After twenty years of useful and honored labor in 
Winslow, he retired from the active duties of the ministry and 
removed to Providence, R. I., where he now resides. His name is 
cherished with high respect and warm affection for his active sympa- 
thy, his excellent judgment, calm wisdom, unflinching integrity and 
firmness, and steadfast devotion to truth and the duties of his high 
calling. He was for several years an overseer of the college, and for 
ten years on its Board of Trustees. In 1868 the college honored him 
with the degree of Doctor of Divinity. His wife, Myra Nott (married 
in 1830), was of Saybrook, Conn., where her great-grandfather, Rev. 
Abraham Nott, was the first minister of Pettipaug. They have had 
six children, of whom two are not living. A daughter is the wife of 
Mr. Charles Parsons, merchant in Savannah, and at this writing a 
broker in New York. Another daughter was a teacher in the semi- 
nary, Blairsville, Pa., under Rev. S. H. Shepley, and subsequently in 
Brookbyn, N. Y. ; and a third is in the home at Providence, where 
also a son resides. 

[Dr. Shepley died in Providence Dec. 1, 1881. — p.] 

Charles Snell, born in Winthrop in 1805, was a Monmouth 
Academy scholar, and entered a Sophomore. His father, Dr. Issa- 
char Snell, taught him medicine. After five years given to his pro- 
fession in Augusta he settled in Bangor, where he has seen a fine city 
and a valuable practice grow up around him. I believe he is a good 
doctor, but I cannot praise him as a correspondent. Of several chil- 
dren by his wife, Charlotte R. Palmer of Waterville, one daughter 
alone survives. 

[Dr. Snell died at Bangor in 1868. — p.] 

William Stone was born in Livermore in 1804. An obituary 
notice in a newspaper states that " for fifty years he was a public 
man of Southern Mississippi, and for seventeen of them a representa- 
tive in both houses of the Legislature, also judge of the Circuit Court. 
The greatest grief of his later days was being prevented by sickness 
from attending the meeting of the survivors of his class at Bruns- 
wick in 1875." He died at Hazelhurst, Copiah County, Miss., 
November, 1877. p. 



330 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Edward Joseph Vose of Augusta was from a family which sent 
several sons to Brunswick, all good. He read law in Worcester, Mass., 
with Governor Davis, and there opened an office. " But consumption, 
which attacked him during his Senior year in college, rendered him 
unfit for professional life, and he died in 1831, about three years after 
being admitted to practice, at the age of twenty-four. He was 
regarded by his friends as a young man of uncommonly fine promise." 
His widow, originally Miss Burling of Worcester, is now the wife of 
Rev. Thomas S. Vail of Westerly, R. I. He left also a son, Edward 
J., now living in Westerly, and a daughter who is the wife of Dr. 
Burge of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Eugene Weld was born in Boston. His father, Benjamin Weld, 
Esq., was deputy collector in Boston under Gen. Lincoln, and in 
1821 settled with his family in Brunswick, and Eugene in due time 
went to college. He was graduated as doctor of medicine in the city 
of New York. In 1834 he stationed himself at New Iberia in the par- 
ish of St. Martinsville, La., and there he labored usefully and faith- 
full} 7 for fifteen years. In the winter of 1849 a malignant epidemic 
raged around him. Dr. Weld went fearlessly into the midst of it, 
and while many through a miserable dread of the infection abandoned 
their own kindred, he gave to comparative strangers his kindest atten- 
tions and best skill. To the friends who still hold his virtues in fond 
remembrance, it must be a consolatory thought that he fell in so good 
a cause. 

Seward Wyman was born in 1803 at North Yarmouth. His father, 
Capt. Robert Wyman, was a ship-master. His mother was Prudence, 
daughter of William Reed. Reuben Nason prepared him for college. 
During the year 1826 he had charge of the North Yarmouth Acad- 
emy. He graduated at the Andover Seminary, but want of health 
compelled him to abandon his profession and to let study alone. For 
ten } r ears he was discount clerk in the Phenix Bank of New York. 
Since that time he has lived in Portland, and is engaged in the West 
India trade. He was married in 1837 to Louisa F., daughter of 
Joseph Hoole and Huldah Fischer of Portland. They have three 
daughters. He died in 1860. 

1826. 

Gorham Dummer Abbott, born in Brunswick in 1807, was brother 
of Jacob (1820) and of John S. C. (1825). Five brothers of the 
famity graduated at the college, pursued a theological course at 



GRADUATES. 331 

Andover, exercised the ministry of the gospel, and became successful 
teachers. Gorham, after graduation, taught for a time in Castine. 
For several 3'ears he was pastor of the Presbyterian Church, New 
Rochelle, N. Y. ; was then employed for a time in the literar}- depart- 
ment of the American Tract Society, New York ; in 1843, in connec- 
tion with his brothers Jacob and Charles, opened a seminary for 
young ladies in New York. This enterprise was very successful. 
The school became at length the well-known Spingler Institute, Union 
Square, and with him at its head one of the honored and eminent 
features of the city. Nothing was spared to insure its efficiency. A 
gallery of paintings, an ample philosophical apparatus, a full and able 
corps of teachers, and courses of lectures from men of reputation 
were provided. Mr. Abbott made repeated visits to Europe in its in- 
terests, and its reputation attracted pupils from all parts of the coun- 
try. The school was removed eventually to what was known as the 
" Townsend Mansion," and took the name of the Abbott Collegiate 
Institute. Mr. Abbott rendered important service to the cause of 
education by his more than twenty years of active and enterprising 
labors. Amidst the manifold cares and anxieties of such a life he 
devoted himself to Biblical study, published the results of such re- 
search and of his experience as a teacher, leaving manuscripts 3'et 
unpublished in the field of Biblical literature. He was active also in 
promoting the interests of the Evangelical Alliance. His interest in 
useful inventions and a tendency to enlist in ventures in that direction 
led him into enterprises which proved unfortunate. He suffered many 
misfortunes, some of them following him to the last, and among them 
the unfaithfulness of trusted friends ; but his severest disappointment 
was that his school would not survive him. Failing health compelled 
him to relinquish the charge of the institute, and he retired to' South 
Natick, where he was acting pastor of the Congregational Church for 
a year. It should be stated that he had been in fact pastor of the 
seminary in Union Square for several years, and thus exerted an im- 
portant influence in hundreds of homes in the land. The gradual 
wasting away of plrysical powers, attended by frequent attacks of 
severe pain and prolonged suffering, at last terminated in paralysis 
and death in 1874. In 1860 Mr. Abbott received the honorary degree 
of LL. D. from Ingham University. p. . 

William Appleton, born in 1808, was the president's elder son. 
As a boy, most prepossessing in appearance and amiable in temper. 
In college he was respectable, though, entering as he did at thirteen, 
he was quite too young to do himself justice there. After graduation 



332 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

he remained awhile at Amherst, N. H., where his mother then lived, 
reading law in the office of his uncle, Robert Means. He then en- 
gaged as an assistant teacher in the Pinkerton Academy at Derry, 
N. H., and so continued for about two years. During this period he 
kept up a correspondence with his college classmate and chum, Sear- 
gent S. Prentiss. Several of his letters are given in the published 
memoir of Prentiss, and may still be read with interest, boyish though 
they are, as the unpremeditated effusions of a good head and warm 
heart. From Derry he went to Portsmouth and studied law about six 
months under the able direction of his uncle, Jeremiah Mason. But 
having determined to plant himself in the West, it was thought best 
that he should there complete his legal preparation. Accordingly in 
midsummer, 1830, he bade adieu to his friends and set out for Ohio, 
in compan} r with his cousin, Robert Means. This journey was not 
then the work of a few hours ; it occupied our young travellers just a 
month. One week was spent at Detroit, where they were kindly re- 
ceived by Gen. Cass, Gen. Root, Mr. Schoolcraft, and the Masons, 
father and son. Some ten da}'S more were passed very delightfully at 
Columbus, Ohio, and on the road to Cincinnati. At Columbus they 
found Henry Clay, who took them along as his guests. This journey, 
which was but an every-day affair to that great man, seemed to his 
young admirers much like a triumphal march, being daily enlivened 
by a public dinner and speeches. Mr. Clay manifested a warm inter- 
est in young Appleton, nor is it strange that the feeling was more 
than reciprocated. William Appleton immediately became a student 
in the office of Stephen Fales, Esq. Two months afterward he was 
attacked by brain fever, and died on the 19th of October. His re- 
mains were placed in the private lot of Hon. Bellamy Storer, and a 
monument was erected over them by his uncle, Mr. Amos Lawrence 
of Boston. Thus early perished this son and brother and friend of 
many hopes. The Rev. G. L. Prentiss thus introduces him in his 
Memoir, Vol. I. page 35 : " William Appleton was my brother's chum 
during his last year in college, and one of his most intimate and be- 
loved friends. He accompanied him home to spend the vacation pre- 
ceding Commencement, and charmed the whole household as well as 
neighboring families by his gentlemanly bearing and quiet, scholar- 
like tastes. His name for many years was closely associated with 
that of my brother." "He had," says one who knew and loved him, 
" great depth and tenderness of feeling." Another intimate friend of 
his thus writes : " My memory of him is most pleasant. As a com- 
panion and friend he was agreeable and true. His manners were 
refined and gentlemanly, his conversation was always entertaining 



GRADUATES. 333 

and instructive. He was a person of good height, with a fine figure 
and a strongly intellectual face and head. When I recall what he was 
I cannot avoid fancj'ing what he might have become. There are other 
men who went from New England to Cincinnati about the same time 
with William Appleton who have now a national reputation, but who 
were then much less promising than he was." 

Leonard Foster Apthorp, born in 1805, was a son of Col. J. T. 
Apthorp of Boston. The Rev. Dr. East Apthorp, rector of Christ 
Church, Cambridge, Mass., well known in the controversies of that 
day, was Col. Apthorp' s uncle. For two or three years Leonard served 
in a mercantile apprenticeship ; but he had higher aspirations, and at 
length obtained consent that he should go to college. From the judi- 
cious training of Dr. Packard of Wiscasset he went to Brunswick, 
where his rank as a scholar was high, and as a writer the highest. 
In the respect last named he obtained what is very uncommon in col- 
lege, — a reputation that reached a good way beyond its walls. This 
was specially due to his "Confessions of a Country Schoolmaster," 
first published in the Escritoir. and copied afterwards in a multitude of 
periodicals. It was a ludicrous description of his own experience in 
"boarding round" while he was teaching a school among the then 
primitive people of Harpswell. Unintentionally on his part, it came 
out with names or initials which left no doubt as to the locality. All 
Harpswell was aroused. One man actually brought a libel suit against 
the author, in order to vindicate the fair fame of his ' ' pork and dough- 
nuts." It was thought best to compromise the matter. In the neigh- 
borhood these circumstances added much to the zest of the story, 
which elsewhere on its own merits was widely copied, read, and 
praised. Mr. Apthorp was constitutionally shy, and suffered the em- 
barrassment of a slight deafness. But his disposition, social and 
kindly, his pure morals, and his conversation genial with humor and 
spicy with wit, made him a charming companion and friend. "His 
habits," writes one who knew him, " were prematurely and peculiarly 
methodical, though he was anything but a formalist." He was as 
remarkable for industry as for natural ability. With powers of close 
observation, with a quick sense of the ludicrous, and with the skill of 
a true artist in delineating for others what he saw and felt so keenly, 
he possessed also a logical mind. The productions of his pen, not a 
few of which were published, gave undeniable promise of rare excel- 
lence. What he would have become had life and health continued we 
shall never know. What he might have accomplished we can easily 
conceive, and still must we regret the early death which blighted so 



334 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

many hopes and so fair a prospect. He died of consumption near the 
close of 1827. 

Samuel Stillman Boyd was born in 1803 in Portland. His father, 
Joseph C. Bo} T d, was a respectable merchant and magistoate. His 
mother was a daughter of Dr. Eobert Southgate. In college he was a 
close student, and at his graduation he stood first on the roll. Follow- 
ing the western star, he went at once to Cincinnati, where his cousin, 
Bellamy Storer, was alreacby in successful practice. Here, with great 
assiduit} r and thoroughness, he studied law for two years. Early in 
1829 he went to Mississippi, where he soon attracted the attention of 
John Henderson, a distinguished lawyer, and subsequently United 
States senator. From Mr. Henderson he received attentions and 
facilities which cheered and smoothed his opening career. ' ' Obtain- 
ing a special license, he accompanied the judge of the circuit to his 
several courts in the district, familiarizing himself with the duties of 
his new profession, and taking part therein as opportunitj' presented." 
His earliest case was decided on a new point of law, then first raised 
by him in Mississippi. He had been engaged by the courtesy of Mr. 
C. S. Smith, afterwards judge, etc., to assist in the defence of several 
suits brought against certain indorsers upon notes. The point raised 
was upon the plaintiff's proof. Mr. Bo3'd sustained his positions in 
a speech of an hour or more. Mr. Smith and Mr. R. H. Adams — 
then at the head of the bar, and also engaged in the defence — were 
so well satisfied with this effort of the young debutant, that they 
declined to argue the case further. The judge charged in favor of 
Mr. Boj'd's positions, and the juiy found accordingly. After this 
brilliant outset, Mr. Boyd never lacked a case in Wilkinson County, 
where he passed his next six years in uninterrupted success. 

During the year 1832, being then only twenty-five years old, he 
declined the office of attorney-general, and also an appointment as 
judge of the Supreme Court, successively tendered to him with flatter- 
ing urgency by Governor Scott. In 1837 Mr. Boj'd became a resi- 
dent of Natchez, and formed a partnership with Alexander Mont- 
gomery. A vast amount of important and profitable business was 
transacted bj* this firm, daring the fourteen years that the connection . 
lasted. During the } _ ear 1837, Mr. Boyd held for a short time, by 
temporary appointment of the governor, a seat on the bench of the 
Supreme Court. 

The number of constitutional arguments and of difficult cases in law 
and equity in which Judge Boyd has taken a leading part has not 
probably been surpassed by any member of the bar in our Southwest- 




"-Vj.c 



Butte iim a. Dagi' 




HOIST. SAMUEL S . BOTD 
. rssrppi 



GRADUATES. 335 

era States. Few if an}' have evinced a higher ability or won a more 
distinguished success. Among the great questions referred to may 
be mentioned the Colonization Cases, involving the right to send 
slaves to Liberia ; the Bank Usury Cases, turning on the use of 
Eoulett's interest tables, and implicating, as was supposed, the entire 
bank capital of the State ; the " slave clause " in the State Constitution, 
and the right to receive the purchase money for slaves introduced 
into the State as merchandise, involving many nice questions of law 
and equity, as presented not only in the State but in the Federal 
courts, between whose decisions (to complicate matters still more) 
there was a serious conflict ; the Quo Warranto and Bank Cases, in 
which the right of garnishees of banks to pay in bank paper was 
thoroughly discussed ; the law prohibiting suits on bank paper trans- 
ferred ; the thousand questions in law and equity growing out of the 
Anti-Bank Laws passed in Mississippi, from 1840 to 1845 ; also the 
controversy with the trustees of the Commercial Bank, a most inter- 
esting and difficult case decided by the high court in favor of the posi- 
tions assumed by Judge Boyd, against the general opinion of the bar 
and five of the ablest counsel in the State. 

During his arduous professional career, Judge Boyd sometimes 
encountered in the lists of forensic combat, and not always unsuccess- 
fully, his gifted friend and classmate Seargent S. Prentiss. To the 
masterly and wonderful powers of that extraordinary man no one 
testifies more cordially than Judge Boyd. 

When in 1852 a place on the Supreme Bench of the United States 
was opened by the death of Judge McKinle}^, the name of Judge 
Boyd was strongly pressed on President Fillmore for the vacant seat. 
"The Supreme Court," says Mr. Hillyer, "is a position for which 
he is peculiarly fitted by severe powers of analysis, by long and pro- 
found study, by thorough acquaintance with every branch of the law, 
by a ripe scholarship, by high integrity, and unbending firmness." 

During his whole professional course, Judge Boyd, as a lawyer, 
never forgot that he owed a duty to the court as well as to his client, 
and thus by his candor, no less than by his talents and learning, he 
secured a right to be regarded by the bench as a judicious and safe 
adviser. Having achieved, at an age comparatively early, a reputa- 
tion and a fortune that might well satisfy a far more ambitious man, 
he retired from the more active labors of his profession to enjoy the 
ease which he had so fairly won, and amid the endearments of a 
pleasant home to revive and cultivate anew those literary tastes which 
have slumbered only amid more engrossing cares. 

On the fierce arena of political life Judge Boyd has never figured ; 



336 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

not, however, from want of opportunity or urgent solicitation. Though 
never a partisan, his relations were with the Whig party. During the 
excited strife of 1849 and 1850 he attended by legislative appoint- 
ment the famous Nashville Convention. " No abler man," says Mr. 
Hilly er, " no man of more sound, national, and conservative senti- 
ments, attended that convention." 

In 1838 Judge Boyd married Catharine C. Wilkins, daughter of Col. 
James C. Wilkins, who was a distinguished citizen and soldier. They 
have a large family.* 

Peter Allan Brinsmade was born in Hartford, Conn., in 1804. 
After the usual course at Andover he was licensed and began to 
preach. From failure of voice he left the pulpit and sold books in 
Augusta. After a while he went to the Sandwich Islands, and with 
his brother in-law Ladd established a commercial house at Honolulu. 
While living here he was commissioned as United States consul for 
that port. Mr. Brinsmade settled afterwards in San Francisco and 
was connected with one of the newspapers. Of his subsequent life 
and present abode I can learn nothing. His wife was a Miss Good- 
ale of Hallo well. 

[He died in Lowell, Mass., in 1859. — p.] 

Samuel Lewis Clark, born in 1807, was son of Capt. Samuel 
Clark of Winthrop. He pursued medical studies in Philadelphia, and 
settled as a physician in Bangor about 1834. Subsequently he went 
to the South and stayed a few years, returning in 1844 to Bangor. 
The last years of his life were years of suffering. In 1851 he went to 
Northampton, Mass., hoping to find relief from constantly recurring 
attacks of acute rheumatism in the severe remedy of the water cure. 
But the heroic treatment proved too much for him, and he sank under 
the terrible infliction. Dr. Clark is said to have been " frank, manly, 
and generous, a man of good sense and of a kind heart, highly esteemed 
among those who knew him." 

John Cleaveland, born in Topsfield, Mass., in 1804, brother of N. 
Cleaveland (see 1813) , was fitted at Dummer Academy. In the autumn 
of 1826 he took charge of the academy in Andover (North) but soon 
after entered the office of Hon. Hobart Clark in Andover (South). 
Having completed the course of law study under Elijah (afterwards 

* Judge Boyd had suffered nearly eighteen months from a disease of the heart 
which had confined him most of the time to his house, lie died very suddenly in 
May, 1867. p. 



GRADUATES. 337 

Judge) Paine of New York, he was admitted to the bar in that city 
in 1831. His first law partner was William W. Campbell, afterwards 
member of Congress and judge of the Superior Court, ctty of New 
York, and at this time judge of the Supreme Court of the State of 
New York. 

John Cleavelaud formed a second partnership in business with 
George N. Titus, Esq., which lasted several 3 x ears. The amount of 
legal business transacted by this firm was very great. As counsel for 
the receiver of the North American Trust and Banking Company, John 
Cleaveland became engaged in a series of litigated cases involving vast 
amounts of property and an almost endless complication of persons and 
interests, during a sharp, incessant conflict of sixteen years. The 
weight of care and the immense labor, too unremittingly and I must 
add quite imprudently pursued, have been disastrous to his health. 
Although he has been for some years crippled in his lower limbs, and 
subject to occasional severe attacks of rheumatic gout, he still attends to 
business, aud does a great deal. Confining himself to his profession, 
he has sought no office. In 1836 he was assistant alderman for the 
Third Ward, -a position at that time which it was no discredit to hold. 

In 1837 he married Ellen Maria, daughter of William Stone of New 
York. She died in 1842, having previously lost a little daughter. In 
1847 he married Hai'riet Hoyt of New York. Of five children by 
this marriage, two daughters and a son remain. 

[Mr. Cleaveland died in 1863. — p.] 

Obadiah Ebiery Frost, a native of Topsham, born in 1807, left col- 
lege with a fair reputation, studied and practised law for a short time, 
was appointed register of deeds for Lincoln County (West) , and for 
many years discharged the duties well. He then went into trade, and 
so continued until his death in 1849. He left a wife and several chil- 
dren. " Though not eminent, he was a worthy man." 

John Taylor Gilman was born in Exeter, N. H., in 1806. His 
father, Nathaniel Gilman, lived to the verge of ninety. His mother, 
Dorothea (Folsom) Gilman, died recently. Dr. Gilman, after stucby- 
ing for his profession with Dr. Perry, completed his course in Phila- 
delphia. Since 1832 he has lived in Portland in the constant and 
successful practice of medicine, highly esteemed as a man of integrity 
and skill. His wife (married in 1837) was Helen Augusta, daughter 
of Reuel Williams of Augusta. They have one daughter.* 

* He has been an overseer, and is now a trustee of the college and one of the 
Faculty of the Medical School. p. 

22 



338 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Daniel Tristram Granger, born in 1807, was from Saco After 
studying law with Mr. (afterwards Judge) Shepley, he began its prac- 
tice in Newfield, but soon removed to Eastport. Here, in the discharge 
of his professional duties and in the cultivation of eveiy social, domestic, 
and personal virtue, he spent his days, with a steadily advancing repu- 
tation and usefulness. Not long before his death he was appointed by 
the executive of the State a justice of the Supreme Judicial Court- 
Considerations partly of health, and partly it was supposed of mod- 
esty, prevented him from accepting the well-merited honor. His 
death was sudden and peculiar. For a year or more his health had 
been delicate. On the 27th of December, 1854, having papers of 
importance to prepare, he returned after dinner to his office, though 
manifestly unwell ; an hour or two afterward he was found where he 
had fallen upon the office floor, just breathing his last. The paper 
which he had been writing evinced by the faltering penmanship the 
effort which he had made to continue his work after his power began 
to fail. Examination showed that his heart was diseased. It does 
not appear that brilliancy was ever claimed for Mr. Granger ; few, it 
is certain, leave behind them stronger evidence of solid worth. At the 
opening of the Supreme Court soon after his death, Mr. George F. 
Talbot introduced the resolves with a prefatory speech of much beauty 
and feeling, after which Judge Hathaway briefly but fully confirmed 
the discriminating eulogy. We are informed that as a lawyer Mr. 
Granger was punctual, thorough, logical, and learned ; that towards 
his brethren he was ever urbane and considerate ; that his orderly 
habits enabled him to economize both time and brain ; that he was 
never absent-minded or forgetful or perplexed ; that as a counsellor, 
if not bold, he was yet safe and sagacious. " As an advocate Mr. 
Granger was fluent, earnest, and dignified ; his weight of character, 
the candor and sincerit}' of conviction that shone in his face, carrying 
deeper impressions to the minds of jurors than all the elaborate graces 
of oratory. As a practitioner and legal tactician he was above all sus- 
picion of duplicity and finesse. He had no art but the justice of his 
cause, and no management but the presentation of truth. As a citizen 
Mr. Granger will always be remembered with affectionate admiration. 
He never made his profession an instrument of elevating and enriching 
himself at the expense of his fellow-citizens. He freely gave time, 
mind, and money to all the great accredited objects of benevolence. 
As a man, it will be no exaggeration to assert that for many years Mr. 
Granger has been generally pointed to as a model of integrity." Be- 
sides and more than all this, we are assured that Mr. Granger was a 
man of consistent, unaffected piety. He was married in 183G to Anna 



GRADUATES. 339 

Maria Bartlett, daughter of Jonathan Bartlett, Esq., and left five 
children. 

William Tyng Hilliard, born in Gorham in 1806, son of Rev. 
Timothy Hilliard, an Episcopal clergyman, was fitted by Mr. Nason, 
studied law in Gorham with Hon. Josiah Pierce, and in Thomaston 
with Judge Ruggles, and began the practice in Buxton. Then he 
lived at Oldtown until 1840, when he became a citizen of Bangor, 
where he still lives and practises. He has been clerk of the courts. 
He was married in 1831 4o Frances O. Smith of Warren, and thej r 
have two daughters. 

[Mr. Hilliard died in Bangor, Nov. 19, 1881, of pneumonia. — p.] 

Edward Davis Learned was born in Gardiner in 1800. After 
teaching for a while in Maine, settled in 1830 at Monticello, Miss., as 
a practitioner of law. In 1832 he went into partnership with a law- 
yer in Gallatin. Two years later he was elected prosecuting attorney 
for the district in which he lived. In 1836 he removed to Jackson, 
the capital of Mississippi, where he formed a new partnership and 
entered on a very extensive business. He died September, 1837, 
aged thirty-seven, of an epidemic fever, and after an illness of nine 
days. He was " a man much esteemed.'' He left five sons, three of 
whom still live. His widow is now Mrs. Andrew Brown of Natchez. 

Joseph Warren Leland was born in Saco in 1805. His worthy 
father had been an officer in the army of the Revolution ; his mother, 
a sister of Rufus King, was " distinguished for her domestic virtues, 
her piety, and her good works." His preparatory studies, begun at 
Saco Academy, were completed at Amherst, N. H., under his 
brother-in-law, Dr. (now President) Lord. His law studies, begun 
in Lowell under another brother-in-law, Hon. B. B. French, were 
completed at Saco in the office of George Thacher and John Fair- 
field. He practised law in his native town from 1829 until he died in 
1858. During eight or nine of these years he held the office of 
county attorney. " As a lawyer he was courteous and honorable in 
his deportment towards his professional brethren ; he was quick in 
his perceptions, ready and earnest and often eloquent in debate, and 
considerably distinguished as an advocate. He was genial in his 
temperament, social in his disposition, and popular with his friends 
and the conmiunuy." He was married in 1835 to Hannah P., daugh- 
ter of John F. Scamman. They had no children. Mrs. Leland is 
still living. 



340 HISTORY OP BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Charles Austin Lord was born in Kennebunkport in 1806, son of 
Nathaniel and Phebe (Walker) Lord. His energetic father died early, 
leaving a large estate ; his venerable mother still lives. He passed 
the preparatory course under Mr. Nason in Gorham, and in Phillips 
Academy, Andover. Ill health precluding the idea of a profession, 
he engaged in book publishing in the city of New York. He was in 
the firm of Lord, Leavitt & Go. five years. The nine years that fol- 
lowed were passed in Missouri : first as principal of a high school in 
Marion County ; secondly as professor of languages in Marion College ; 
thirdly as head of the classical department of a high school in St. 
Louis ; and fourthly as editor for four years of a temperance news- 
paper. In 1849 and 1850 Mr. Lord returned to Maine, and soon 
after became the associate of Dr. Cummings as secular editor of the 
Mirror. In 1855 Mr. Lord became sole proprietor of the paper, and 
held the position until 1874. During the year previous he held, by 
appointment from Governor Crosby, the office of State superintendent 
of common schools.* 

Isaac McLellan was born in Portland in 1806. He studied law, 
opened an office in Boston and practised his profession a few years ; 
was associate editor of the Daily Patriot, afterwards incorporated with 
the Advertiser ; began the publication of a monthly which was subse- 
quently merged in the Weekly Pearl; was a frequent contributor to 
Willis's Monthly Magazine, the Neio England Magazine, the Knicker- 
bocker, etc., both in poetry and prose. At different dates he wrote 
" Fall of the Indian, and other Poems," " The Year, and other Poems," 
"Miscellaneous Poems," " Journal of a Residence in Scotland, and 
a Tour through England and France," compiled from manuscripts of 
H. B. McLellan. His productions were favorably noticed in Gris- 
wold's " Poets of America," and in Blackwood's Magazine. He made 
a two-} r ears' tour in Europe, and on his return renounced his profession 
and withdrew to the country. Devoted as ever before to field sports, 
he wrote on subjects which they suggested. This taste especially 
made him familiar with resorts on the Massachusetts coast, and 
brought him into intercourse with lovers of the sport, and especially 

*Mr. Lord led a life of activity and energy. He cultivated literary tastes and a 
public spirit. From early years a Christian man, he cherished a lively interest in 
whatever concerned the progress of the kingdom of Christ, lie was a faithful officer 
of the WillistOD Church from its beginning. For several years he was on the Board 
of Overseers of the college. 

In 1831 lie married Miss Ernestine Libby of Scarboro'. They had six children, 
daughters. He died Aug. 7, 1878, at the age of seventy-two. p. 



GRADUATES. 341 

with Daniel Webster at his summer retreat at Marshfield, where he 
passed two seasons at one of the farm-houses of the statesman. He 
removed to New York, exercising his inveterate passion in its neigh- 
borhood, passing apart of the season for several years on the Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina coasts. Of late years he has made his 
residence at Greenport, L. I. His poems suggested b}^ his favorite 
amusement alone would make a volume. p. 

Jonas Meriam, born in Topsfield in 1804, was thought in boyhood 
to resemble in person and promise the gifted Henry Kirke White, and 
was accordingly sent to college. After leaving college he taught a 
school in Amherst, N. H., with considerable success. But his eyes 
became diseased, so that for a long time he was nearly blind and 
utterly helpless. He went afterwards into Maine, where he joined some 
new sect and became a preacher. Still later he lived in Lowell, and 
edited a small paper which advocated Millerism or some kindred doc- 
trine. When the utter failure of all their predictions put an end to 
the power of these ill-omened prophets, Jonas Meriam found his way 
to Concord, N. H. Here a kind-hearted widow with some property 
made him her husband and took him to her home. His classmates and 
friends will all rejoice that this simple-hearted and well-meaning man, 
after so many woes and wanderings, has dropped at last into so snug 
a harbor. 

[Mr. Meriam died in 1871. — p.] 

Benjamin Moody was born in Falmouth. " In college he sustained 
a good character, had quite a fondness for some branches of natural 
science, and allowed his predilection for them to withdraw him from 
the regular studies. He was a young man of very fair talents, but did 
not take high rank in the class. After graduating he studied medi- 
cine with Dr. Mussey, and completed his studies in France. I think 
he went at once to Pernambuco, S. A., where for some } T ears he had 
an extensive practice, and where he died." (D. T. Granger. ) Another 
classmate confirms the above with added particulars : " He would often 
neglect the college studies, absent himself from recitation, and devote 
himself most assiduously to studies not included in the regular course. 
On one of these occasions he made himself master of the science of 
astrology and qualified himself to calculate nativities according to the 
ancient formulae. His favorite study was mathematics, and he was 
undoubtedly among the ablest mathematicians in college. He was also 
an acute metaphysician and quite a proficient in natural philosophy 
and chemistry. Owing to his eccentricities he was not appreciated 



342 HISTOEY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

while in college, except by a very few who were intimate with him. By 
those few he was highly respected for his talents, and beloved for his 
really good qualities which he seemed to endeavor to conceal. The 
officers of the college government knew nothing of him ; his careless- 
ness and frequent absences from recitation precluded him from receiv- 
ing any college honor, and although he was of a high order of intellect, 
I doubt not those but slightly acquainted with him thought him below 
mediocrity." Dr. Moody died in 1839 at the age of thirty- two. 

Horatio Nelson, born in 1 807, was a son of Judge Nelson of Castine. 
The first use which he made of his college training was as a foremast 
hand in one or two sea voyages. Then in company with a brother he 
settled at Gross's Point in Bucksport, put up a small cabin which 
sheltered them tolerably when it did not rain, and, living in more than 
primitive simplicity, undertook to farm on scientific principles ; but 
the climate seemed to be unpropitious. In fact, the winter sometimes 
locked up his entire crop of potatoes before he found time to dig them. 
He got discouraged at last, and left Bucksport with a high reputation 
for integrity, though (through a prejudice but too common) his neigh- 
bors failed to discover his merits as a "gentleman farmer." Mr. 
Nelson then bought a farm in Franklin, Mass., where he pursues his 
favorite science under somewhat milder skies. I think I hear some 
classmate asking whether any " Triptolemus " has yet appeared to 
inherit a father's tastes as well as acres. Unfortunately Nr. Nelson is 
still single. 

[Mr. Nelson died in 1861. —p.] 

William Paine, born in Portland in 1806, son of Seth Paine, well 
known in his day as a mail contractor and large stage-coach proprie- 
tor. William Paine studied law under Nicholas Emery, and prac- 
tised awhile in partnership with J. Stover Little. From Portland he 
moved to Bridgton, and from Bridgton to Bangor, where he staid sev- 
eral years, sometimes representing the town in the State Legislature. 
He went back to Portland in 1849. Under President Fillmore he was 
United States marshal for Maine. He has also been judge of the 
municipal court in Portland. His wife was Martha L Chamberlain of 
Boston. Their only child Daniel, a graduate of Harvard College (1858) , 
intends to be an architect. 

[Mr. Paine died in 1861. — r.] 

Seargent Smith Prentiss, born in Portland in 1808, was descended 
from the Puritan emigrant, Henry Prentice, who settled at Cambridge, 



GRADUATES. 343 

Mass., before 1640. His grandfather, Samuel Prentiss, who was a 
graduate of Harvard College, spent his last years iu Gorham. His 
father, William Prentiss, who lived for some time in Portland, fol- 
lowed the sea, a much respected ship-master. An early fever left his 
infant son with crippled limbs, and made him for many years the spe- 
cial object of his mother's care. The use of his right leg he never 
fully recovered. Among the earlier influences which gave impulse 
and color to his mind may be named the ardent preaching of the elo- 
quent Pay son, to whose church Captain Prentiss's wife belonged. In 
his earl}' }'Outh the family removed to Gorham, where lived his maternal 
grandfather George Lewis and his uncle Lothrop Lewis, and took up 
their abode on a farm. Seargent was nearly ten years old before he 
could walk without crutches. From that time a cane answered all 
his needs. His habits then became intensely active. He grew up a 
keen sportsman, an indefatigable angler. He sometimes worked with 
the other boys, but not if he could avoid it. An eager reader, he 
devoured every book within his reach, and knew almost by heart the 
"Pilgrim's Progress " and large portions of the Bible. When occu- 
pied with none of these things he would often give a greedy ear to the 
animated talk of his veteran grandfather, Major George Lewis. This 
brave old man could tell him stories of the tented field. He had 
borne a command among those rustic heroes who fought the battle of 
Bunker Hill. With the narrative of daring and of suffering which is 
so captivating to a generous boy, he mingled often warm discussions 
of political topics. It was not without important issues in later da}s 
that the bright-eyed grandchild was wont to hear this stanch old 
Federalist dilate with pride on the virtues and the principles of Wash- 
ington and Hamilton, while he denounced with unsparing severity the 
policy and the conduct of Jefferson and his party. 

From the district school — that humble institution whose picture 
his grateful and graceful pencil drew long afterward beneath a sky 
more indulgent but not more wholesome — he was sent to Gorham 
Academy. There, under the classic teaching and vigorous ferule of 
the venerable Reuben jNason, he was prepared for the Junior class in 
college. At the age of fifteen he entered Bowdoin, and seldom if 
ever, unless all testimony is fallacious, have its walls received a hand- 
somer, braver boy, a brighter intellect, or a warmer heart. On the 
two j'ears which he spent at Brunswick it is not necessary to dwell. 
Young as he was, tbey gave large promise of the eminence which he 
afterwards attained. After his graduation in 1826 he passed several 
months in the law office and in the family of Judge Pierce of Gor- 
ham. Of his studious and his social habits, his literary and his plrysi- 



344 HISTOEY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

cal recreations at that time, the judge has given a pleasing description. 
" In my office he read law studiously in the former part of the day, 
but in the afternoon perused other works. The writings of Walter 
Scott, Washington Irving, Cooper, Byron, afforded him much amuse- 
ment and pleasant instruction. His favorite author was Shakespeare, 
and I think a week never passed without his perusing more or less of 
the productions of the great dramatist." 

While he was yet in college his thoughts had been turned toward 
the rapidly growing West. In the summer of 1827 he put those 
thoughts into act. He paused first at Cincinnati. He was received 
kindly by Bellamy Storer, who introduced him to Nathaniel Wright. 
After a few weeks spent in Mr. Wright's office, and an ineffectual 
endeavor to find some employment that would support him, he turned 
his face toward the Southwest, and in due time we find him at Natchez. 
Here he was more fortunate. Mrs. Shields, a widow lady living on 
a plantation near that city, engaged him as a private tutor for her 
children. As the house contained the valuable law library of her late 
husband, his position was peculiarly favorable. A few months later 
he took charge of an academy with a more liberal salary. In June, 
1829, he was admitted to the bar, and immediately went into partner- 
ship with Gen. Felix Huston, a gentleman of high standing and 
extensive practice in Natchez. This connection continued until 1832, 
when he removed to Vicksburg. During these early years of prepara- 
tion and action in Mississippi', he was ill reconciled to the idea of 
making that region his permanent home. But as the prospect opened 
and brightened before him, he relinquished his fond intention of return- 
ing to New England. As a lawyer his success was instantaneous and 
brilliant. In the winter of 1833 he spent several weeks at Washing- 
ton, called there by a case in the Supreme Court of the United States, 
which he argued at length with marked ability. His life at this time 
was very laborious. His attendance on the State courts compelled 
him to ride much on horseback, the only mode of conveyance then 
existing. Fortunately he was remarkably strong and well. He 
formed a law partnership , with Hon. John I. Guion, whom he speaks 
of as " a good lawyer and a very excellent man." As an advocate 
his success was great and his services in constant requisition. In 
1834 he received a decisive proof of his rapid advance in public esti- 
mation in being urged b} r men of influence throughout the State to 
allow his name to be presented as candidate for Congress. The sig- 
nificance of the movement is the greater as Mississippi then consti- 
tuted but one congressional district, and sent only two representatives, 
who were chosen by general ticket. He declined at once, having no 



GRADUATES. 345 

desire for office and taking little interest in the party questions of the 
time, though observant of the course of public affairs. But he could 
not maintain his seclusion. Having been elected to the Legislature of 
the State in 1836 from his county, reluctantly yielding to the urgency 
of friends, he entered on a political career of eight years. In 1837, 
having consented to stand at a critical period as a candidate for Con- 
gress, he engaged in an electioneering campaign, as was the custom 
of the Southern States, and visited, he writes, forty-five counties, and 
performed a labor in riding and talking unparalleled, he thought, in 
electioneering annals. " For ten weeks I averaged thirty miles a day 
horseback, and spoke two hours each week day. My appointments 
were made in advance, and I did not miss a single one, rain or shine." 
His seat and that of his colleague being contested, — ungenerously and 
unjustly, he always maintained, — in the nearly balanced state of parties 
in the House of Representatives, the greatest interest was felt in the 
issue throughout the country. Prentiss and his colleague appeared and 
claimed their seats, and were allowed to defend their claim before the 
House. Prentiss made the argument, which lasted into the third day. 
He was a young man and as yet a stranger to a large portion of his 
hearers, although vague reports of bis uncommon powers had pre- 
ceded him. On the day assigned for him to address the House 
" nearly all the members were in their seats, and the galleries were 
crowded with eager expectation. Soon after he began the lobbies and 
every vacant spot on the floor were thronged by senators, ex-members 
of Congress, officers of the army and navy, eminent jurists, and foreign 
ministers." He had confessed to a friend fears lest he should not be 
able to sustain himself, but the event proved such fears to be ground- 
less. " He had never before addressed such an audience ; and when 
he witnessed the rapt attention and caught in their look the nrystic 
signs of delight and approval from such veteran statesmen and orators 
as John Quinc}'" Adams, Clay, and Webster, whose names and elo- 
quence had been the inspiration of his boyhood, no wonder if he was 
greatly excited and somewhat astonished at himself. Still both the 
excitement and surprise were chiefly those of unusual pleasure, the 
pure gaudia certaminis. His entire self-possession never failed him ; 
there was no straining for effect, no trick of orator} 7 , but from the 
first to the last sentence, evetything, in manner as in matter, seemed 
perfectly natural, as if he were addressing a jury on an ordinary ques- 
tion of law. Indeed, the great charm of this as of all his speeches 
was the simple, unfeigned sincerity which marked his whole bearing 
and every word he uttered. He felt that he was asserting a great 
principle, and in his devotion to that seemed to forget all personal 



346 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN college. 

claim." As Mr. Webster left the hall on the conclusion of the speech 
he said to a friend, " Nobody could equal it." Mr. (afterwards 
President) Fillmore thus wrote regarding it : "I can never forget that 
speech. It was certainly the most brilliant that I ever heard, and as 
a whole I think it fully equalled, if it did not exceed, an} r rhetorical 
effort to which it has been my good fortune to listen in either House." 
By a strictly party vote the claimants lost their seats by the casting 
vote of the Speaker, Mr. ( subsequently President) Polk. Immediately 
after he wrote, " I am sick of the whole matter, and shall be greatly 
obliged to the people of Mississippi if they will allow me to retire." 
But he yielded from a sense of obligation to his constituents and sub- 
mitted to the trial of another election, with the explicit avowal that he 
would not go into a general canvass of the State again, adding, " I am 
as thoroughly cured of ambition as were the Spartan 3 r ouths of drunk- 
enness by viewing its effect on others." He was elected with his col- 
league and they took their seats in Congress, June, 1838, but with 
the affirmation that they held b} 7 the preceding election, which they held 
to be the only legal one. Mr. Prentiss's speech on the Sub-Treasury 
Bill was his only special effort in that session. 

After Congress rose he made a visit North to Portland, and while 
there was invited to participate in a public dinner to Mr. Webster in 
Faneuil Hall, one of the most brilliant political festivals ever known 
in this country. He accepted, and great curiosity was excited to see 
and hear him. In the prospect of being called upon to speak on that 
occasion, he was not a little excited by the anticipation of speaking in 
that renowned place and in presence of such an assemblage. An ex- 
tract from a letter of Governor Everett, who presided on that occasion, 
gives the impression which he made. " The company was much the 
largest I ever saw assembled at dinner in any permanent building, and 
with the exception of the guest of the day no one was received with 
so much enthusiasm as Mr. Prentiss. Much was anticipated from his 
speech, but the public expectation was more than realized. He rose 
at rather a late hour and after a succession of able speakers ; for 
these and some other reasons it required first-rate ability to gain and 
fix the attention of the audience. I never had the good fortune to 
hear you.v brother, and I must own that I feared he would find him- 
self obliged, after a few sentences of customary acknowledgment, to 
give up the idea of addressing the company at any length. He was, 
however, from the outset completely successful. ... It seemed to me 
the most wonderful specimen of a sententious fluency which I had ever 
witnessed. The words poured from his lips in a torrent, but the 
sentences were correctly formed, the matter grave and important, the 



GRADUATES. 347 

train of thought distinctly pursued, the illustrations wonderfully happy, 
drawn from a wide range of reading and aided b}- a brilliant imagina- 
tion. . . . Sitting by Mr. Webster, I asked him if he had ever heard 
anything like it. He answered, ' Never, except from Mr. Prentiss 
himself.'" 

During this visit at Portland he had invitations to public dinners 
from various places, but to avoid such calls he returned b}- a sea voy- 
age to New Orleans. When he landed committees met him at New 
Orleans and at Vicksburg ; he was urged to address his fellow- citizens ; 
and he was welcomed by national salutes and unusual demonstrations 
of respect, regard, and admiration. 

In 1839 Mr. Prentiss was urged to be placed in nomination for the 
Senate of the United States. He consented, but failed of an election 
owing to the political complexion of the Legislature. Had he been 
chosen his purpose was, as he assured a friend, " to make the develop- 
ment of a broader and deeper sentiment of nationality a special object 
of his senatorial career." In the Presidential campaign of 1840 he 
had urgent invitations from a dozen different States, all assuring him 
that were it known that be was to be present, the people far and near 
would turn out en masse to hear him. The account of a meeting in 
Portland, Me., where he was on a visit that year, gives a vivid impres- 
sion of the enthusiasm excited wherever it was known he was to be 
present. "To four fifths of the assembly then congregated he was 
an entire stranger ; they had never heard and few had ever seen him. 
A considerable portion of his auditors were from neighboring towns, 
and some from a distance of fifty and even a hundred miles. . . . He 
spoke three hours ; he was listened to without a sign of impatience to 
the last sentence, and the assemblage with one heart united at the 
close in giving him twelve cheers ; and after cheers for Mississippi 
and Maine, three more for Seargent S. Prentiss." 

One of his most effective speeches was made at Newark, N. J., on 
his return to Mississippi, of which Governor Pennington of New Jer- 
sej 7 thus writes : " I cannot pretend to describe the speech, but it made 
an impression I have never forgotten. After hearing man}' political 
addresses from the ablest men in our country, I consider and have 
often said that this speech surpassed them all. He spoke between 
three and four hours." It is not needful to refer to other occasions in 
which he was equally successful. In this remarkable campaign he 
advocated the election of Gen Harrison, although his known decided 
preference was for Mr. Clay, of whom he was an ardent and constant 
admirer. 

Mr. Prentiss, as may be inferred, was far above the level of a mere 



348 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

politician. He never sought office : it sought him. He despised and 
loathed the arts of the demagogue : was a bold, vehement defender of 
fundamental principles ; ever manifested profound veneration for law 
and public order. "An act which appeared to him palpably wrong, 
whether perpetrated by one man or by a million, was certain to en- 
counter his open and unqualified hostility. Never, indeed, was his 
oratory more effective than in denouncing the violation or vindicating 
the sanctity of contracts, chartered rights, and constitutional obliga- 
tions." Of acute moral perceptions, and with a high standard of 
conduct, on occasion, as often occurred, " he lashed, as with a whip of 
scorpions, all gross departure from the principles of honor and mo- 
rality, maintaining that in public affairs a man should not act on any 
less elevated principles than in private life." Repudiation, which 
after a long and severe struggle became the lasting disgrace of Missis- 
sippi, at home and abroad found in him a determined, uncompromis- 
ing, relentless foe ; and when the dishonesty was consummated he 
could no longer dwell on its soil, and removed to another State. He 
still, however, " cherished a deep faith in the substantial intelligence, 
virtue, and good sense of the American people," attributing such mis- 
chief to the intrigues of unscrupulous, selfish demagogues. 

Of the uncommon powers of Mr. Prentiss in public speech sufficient 
proofs have been given. Reference has been made to his remarkable 
fluency of speech. He never faltered for a word, and had a rich 
vocabulary. The most cultured were never offended b} 7 inaccuracy 
of expression, lack of arrangement or of taste. He had a brilliant 
fancy, vigorous imagination, and great power of comparison and 
illustration. " His figures never halted or limped," he told me him- 
self. His brother testifies " the year before his death, that he never 
found any difficulty in completing or carrying out the most complicate 
metaphor." He was widely conversant with literature, and a faithful, 
ready memory afforded abundant and felicitous allusions. He had a 
robust understanding, and with all his moving appeals and play of sar- 
casm and humor he never lost the thread of close and powerful argu- 
ment. He had a genial temper, inexhaustible animal spirits, and 
marked impressibility. There was peculiar magnetism in his face, 
voice, and bearing. "Prentiss," once said a friend, "you always 
mesmerize me when }-ou speak." He answered, " Then it is an affair 
of reciprocity, for a multitude always electrifies me." "When he saw 
before him, as he sometimes did, five, ten, or twenty thousand people, 
gazing on him as if spellbound, or heard their responsive shouts, it 
almost maddened him with excitement. " I feel at such times," he 
once said to me, " a kind of preternatural rapture : new thoughts come 



GRADUATES. 349 

rushing into m}~ mind unbidden, and I seem to m3 T self like one utter- 
ing oracles. I am as much astonished at my own conceptions as any 
of nry auditors ; and when the excitement is over, I could no more 
reproduce them than I could make a world." Mr. Prentiss never 
wrote a speech, though doubtless he generally premeditated. His wit 
and humor never failed him and were often available in emergency, as 
will appear from one or two incidents. 

In one of his electioneering tours he declared tbat he owed his votes 
to a menagerie, as he related in a speech at a New England dinner in 
New Orleans. 

"At the appointed hour he found a large company assembled to 
hear him. He was in ' high feather,' and began with more than 
usual energy. The audience listened with marked attention. He had 
spoken some time when he noticed some of the outsiders looking over 
their shoulders, and gradually more of them doing the same. He 
thought he was growing dull and endeavored to rouse himself to more 
animation, but in vain. He looked in the popular direction, and to 
his dismay, just coming over the hill was the elephant in scarlet trap- 
pings and Oriental splendor, howdah on his back filled with musicians, 
and in the rear a long line of wagons and cages. He would not be 
outdone by elephant and train, and continued to talk and appeal in the 
name of the State, of patriotism, etc., etc., but in vain. 'Well,' 
said he, ' ladies and gentlemen, I am beaten, but I have the consola- 
tion of knowing it is not by my competitor. I will not knock under 
to any two-legged beast, but I yield to the elephant.' A few days after 
he had his revenge. A political gathering was a harvest day for a 
caravan. He came to an understanding with the caravan, agreeing 
with the proprietor that he would address the people for one hour 
under the great awning and then give way to monkey and clown. 
Accordingly between himself and caravan a large assembly gathered. 
One of the cages was converted into his rostrum. He heard a low 
sound resembling a growl, and learned that the hyena was his nearest 
listener. There were large auger holes in the top of the box for the 
admission of air. He commenced speaking, and when he reached the 
blood-and-thuuder portion of his speech, he ran his cane into the cage, 
and called forth a most horrible yell from the enraged animal, at the 
same time gesticulating violently with the other hand. ' Why, fellow- 
citizens,' he exclaimed, 'the very wild beasts are shocked at the 
political baseness and corruption of the times. See how this worthy 
fellow just below me is scandalized ! Hear his } T ell of patriotic shame ! ' 
The effect was electric ; he called down the house in a perfect tempest 
of enthusiasm. The hyena he declared was good for a hundred votes. 



350 HISTORY Or BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

" The next time it was decided that Prentiss should speak from the 
lion's cage. Never was the menagerie more crowded. Prentiss was 
as usual eloquent, and as if ignorant of the novel circumstances with 
which he was surrounded, went deeply into the matter in hand, his 
election. For a while the audience and the animals were quiet, the 
former listening, the latter eying the speaker with grave intensity. 
The first burst of applause electrified the menagerie : the elephant 
threw his trunk into the air and echoed back the noise, while the 
tigers and bears significantly growled. On went Prentiss, and as 
each peculiar animal vented his rage or approbation, Prentiss most 
ingeniously wrought in his habits as a fac-simile of some man or pas- 
sion. In the mean while the stately king of beasts, who had been 
quietly treading the mazes of his prison, became alarmed at the foot- 
steps over his head, and placing his mouth upon the floor of his cage, 
made everything shake by his terrific roar. This, joined with the 
already excited feelings of the audience, caused ladies to shriek, and a 
fearful commotion for a moment followed. Prentiss, equal to any 
occasion, changed his tone and manner, commenced a pla}'ful strain, 
and introduced the fox, the jackal, and the hyena, and capped the 
climax by likening some well-known political oppqnent to a grave 
baboon that presided over the cage with monkeys. The resemblance 
was instantly recognized, and bursts of laughter followed that liter- 
ally set many into convulsions. The baboon, all unconscious of the 
attention he was attracting, suddenly assumed a grimace and then a 
serious face, when Prentiss exclaimed, ' I see, my fine fellow, that 
your feelings are hurt by my unjust comparison, and I humbly beg 
your pardon.' The effect may be easily imagined." 

Mr. Prentiss was not, as may be inferred from statements already 
made, in any sense a mere successful declaimer or " stump" orator. 
He never addressed the people merely to please them or himself. 
"As a robust understanding was the substratum of his mind, so 
knowledge, reflection, logical method, judgment, good sense, and the 
other proper fruits of mental and practical culture were the substra- 
tum of all his speeches. Enliven these solid properties with wit, 
humor, imagination, and those other ethereal gifts which are the off- 
spring of genius ; let the countenance, voice, and action all corre- 
spond, and we have certainly a cause by no means out of proportion 
with the specific effect." There was added, what his look and air 
showed when he rose to speak, as characteristic of his speeches, 
"sincerity and depth and fervor of personal conviction." What is 
worthy of special notice, he never lost his self-possession, and once 
(he rarely spoke of himself) declared : " If I were of a sudden to be 



GRADUATES. 351 

transported to Old England, and let down through the roof into the 
assembled House of Lords, I doubt not the instant I found myself on 
my legs I could begin a speech on any subject which I understood, 
without the slightest hesitation or embarrassment." 

Mr. Prentiss had rare conversational powers. His inexhaustible 
fund of anecdote, gay humor, genial spirit, gentle courtesy, his origi- 
nality of thought and ready flow of language made him the charm of 
a social circle. He had quick sensibilities, strong affections, of which 
the admirable memoir by his brother, Rev. Dr. George L. Prentiss of 
New York, affords ample proof. The scenes of his early home were 
ever fresh in his mind, and his occasional visits to them he enjoyed 
with the fondness and enthusiasm of a child. On his last visit North 
" he was greatly disappointed in not being able to attend Commence- 
ment at Bowdoin, and had arranged his plans for that purpose ; but a 
temporary lameness compelled him to keep his room. He spoke with 
warm affection of his Alma Mater, and said the sombre aspect of the 
old pines which surround it, and the sighing of the wind through the 
branches, had made an indelible impression upon him while at college. 
He used to saunter through them or lie down under their summer 
shade, and project fancy sketches of the future. His reminiscences 
of the lecture-room of Prof. Cleaveland were particularly vivid, and 
he delighted to expatiate upon the genial gifts and acquirements of 
that veteran in natural science." 

In 1845 he removed, as has been stated, to New Orleans, and at 
once entered on lucrative practice. But though of strong constitu- 
tion, of power of endurance beyond most men, his health had been 
affected seriously by his unsparing labors and his often reckless ex- 
posure. He still persisted against advice in professional work almost 
to the last, though prostrated by incurable disease, and died at a 
country seat near Natchez, July 1, 1«50. 

In 1842 he married Miss Mary Jane Williams, daughter of the late 
James C. Williams of Natchez. His married life was exceedingly 
blessed, and his home became the centre of comfort, joy, and hope. 
Thej - had four children: two sons and two daughters. 

Mr. Cleaveland having left his sketch unfinished, the last half or 
more of the above has been prepared by A. S. Packard from mate- 
rials partly obtained by Mr. Cleaveland himself, and the memoir of 
Mr. Packard by his brother. 

James Samuel Rowe was born at Exeter, N. H., in 1807, studied 
law with George Sullivan in his native town, and practised for five 
years in Dover, since which time Bangor has been the bus}* scene of 



352 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

his life and labors. I have it from the highest author^ that he is 
"one of the best read lawyers in Maine, a fine advocate of unques- 
tioned integrity and worth." In 1857 Mr. Rowe married a Miss Gross 
of Bangor. 

Jonathan Maltby Rowland was born at Fairfield, Conn , in 
1804. He " studied theology two years at Princeton, the third at 
Andover. He served with honor and success as a missionary for 
several years, and was settled about seven years as pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church in Union, near P>inghamton, N. Y. He was 
one of the commissioners on the floor of the General Assembly, in 
1837, when by the unhappy action of the exscinding measures his 
seat was vacated, and he with many others was ordered to leave 
the house. In the early part of the year 1841 he removed to Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., where, for eleven years, he performed with assiduity and 
usefulness the arduous duties of city missionary." In 1851 he became 
pastor of the Reformed Dutch Church of Gowanus, Brooklyn, where 
in October, 1853, he died of congestion of the brain. " Mr. Rowland 
was a man of retiring and amiable manners, of sound judgment and 
clear views of truth, of practical sincerity, consistency, and useful- 
ness. As a preacher he was Scriptural, faithful, and solemn, yet ten- 
der and sympathizing. He was a man of prayer as well as of faith, 
and hence his example and his influence were so excellent. He was 
beloved as far as known. Especially the poor whom he visited, the 
mariner, the felon in his cell, the neglected, the ignorant, and the 
young, whose wants he explored and to whom his ministrations, 
reached, the sick, the widow, and the orphan feel that in iiim they had 
and have lost a friend indeed. His death was calm, composed, and 
Christian." His remains rest in his native Fairfield. He left a 
widow and two children. The daughter is married. The son has 
been United States consul at Riga in 'Russia 

John Brown Russwurm was born in 1799 at Port Antonio in the 
island of Jamaica of a Creole mother. When eight 3 r ears old he was 
put at school in Quebec. His father meanwhile came to the United 
States and married in the District of Maine. Mrs. Russwurm, true 
wife that she was, on learning the relationship, insisted that John 
Brown (as hitherto he had been called) should be sent for and should 
thenceforth be one of the family. The father soon died, but his 
widow proved herself a faithful mother to the tawny youth She sent 
him to school, though in consequence of existing prejudices it was not 
always easy to do so. She procured friends for him. Marrying again, 



GRADUATES. 3£3 

she was careful to stipulate that John should not lose his home. 
Through his own exertions, with some help from others, he was at 
length enabled to enter college and to complete the usual course. It 
should be remembered to the credit of his fellow-students in Bruns- 
wick, that peculiar as his position was among them, they were care- 
ful to avoid everything that might tend to make that position unpleas- 
ant. From college he went to New York and edited an abolition 
paper. This did not last long. He soon became interested in the 
colonization cause, and engaged in the service of the society. In 
1829 he went to Africa as superintendent of public schools in Liberia, 
and engaged in mercantile pursuits at Monrovia. From 1830 to 1834 
he acted as colonial secretary, superintending at the same time and 
editing with decided ability the Liberia Herald. In 1836 he was 
appointed governor of the Maryland Colony at Cape Palmas, and so 
continued till his death in 1851. With what fidelity and abiluty he 
discharged the duties of this responsible post may be gathered from 
the following remarks of Mr. Latrobe, at that time president of the 
Maryland Colonization Society, and now president of the American 
Colonization Societ}^. He was addressing the board of managers. 
" None knew better," he said, " or so well as the board under what 
daily responsibilities Governor Russwurm's life in Africa was passed, 
and how conscientiously he discharged them ; how, at periods when 
the very existence of the then infant colony depended upon its rela- 
tions with surrounding tribes of excited nations, his coolness and 
admirable judgment obviated or averted impending perils ; how, when 
the authority and dignity of the colonial government were at stake in 
lamentable controversies with civilized and angry white men, the 
calm decorum of his conduct brought even his opponents over to his 
side ; how, when popular clamor among the colonists called upon him 
as a judge to disregard the forms of law and sacrifice an offending 
individual in the absence of legal proof, he rebuked the angry multi- 
tude by the stern integrity of his conduct ; and how, when on his 
visit to Baltimore in 1848 he was thanked personally by the members 
of the board, he deprecated the praise bestowed on him for the per- 
formance of his dut}r, and impressed all who saw him with the 
modest manliness of his character and his most excellent and cour- 
teous bearing." Resolutions expressing similar sentiments and the 
highest approval of his administration were passed by the board. 
Dr. James Hall, a graduate of the Bowdoin Medical School, the 
friend of Russwurm, and his predecessor in the chief magistracy of 
African Maryland, has delineated him with apparent candor. I con- 
dense the picture. A man of erect and more than ordinary stature, 

23 



354 , HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

with a good head and face and a large, keen eye. In deportment 
always gentlemanly. Of a sound intellect, a great reader, with a 
special fondness for history and politics. Naturally sagacious in 
regard to men and things, and though somewhat indolent himself, 
exceedingly skilful in making others work. A man of strict integ- 
rity, a good husband, father, master, and friend, and in later life a 
devoted member of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He married 
a daughter of Lieut. -Gov. McGill of Monrovia, and was succeeded 
in his office at Cape Palmas by his brother-in-law, Dr. McGill. He 
left three sons and a daughter. Honor to the college which, disre- 
garding a general but illiberal prejudice, admitted to its privileges this 
member of a proscribed caste ! Honor especially to the memory of 
him who turned to so good account his discipline at Brunswick ! 

George Yeaton Sawyer, born in 180$, is a son of William Saw- 
yer of Wakefield, N. H., graduate of Harvard College, 1800, and 
living still. George Yeaton Sawyer was fitted at Exeter, studied law 
with his father, and practised three years at Meredith Bridge. Since 
that time Nashua has been his home. He served for several years as 
a representative in the Legislature, adhering with that slight excep- 
tion closely to his profession. His success and eminence at the bar 
justified his appointment in 1851 to the office of circuit judge. He 
resigned this seat in 1854 and returned to the practice. The next 
year he was made a justice of the Supreme Court of New Hampshire, 
and this high position he still holds. These simple facts might pass 
for ample evidence of the high estimate set upon Judge Sawyer ; 
still, a more specific view ma}^ interest his classmates and college 
friends. The following is the testimony of an expert: " In the prac- 
tice of his pi'ofession he exhibited in a marked degree strength and 
acuteness of mind and power of argument, being free from the light 
and fanciful modes of address often adopted by the advocate. His 
words were well chosen, and his efforts were characterized by a direct- 
ness and earnestness of manner which carried to the minds of a jury 
such conviction of his truthfulness as macte him a formidable oppo- 
nent at the bar. His reasoning was plain and comprehensive, his 
research profound, his elucidation clear and convincing ; he readily 
detected error or sophistry ; and to these features of his strong and 
well-balanced mind, more than to brilliancy of thought, may be attrib- 
uted the marked success which attended his later efforts at the bar. 
At the time of his appointment to the bench he had, by character, 
learning, and professional success, attained a position in the front rank 
of the Hillsborough County bar, then numbering among its active 



GRADUATES. 355 

members some of the ablest men in the State. In his present position 
on the Supreme bench, his firmness and decision, his habits of patient 
hearing and inquiry, and the urbanity of his manners have won for 
him with the people and with the bar a well-deserved reputation 
throughout the State. To the opinions delivered by him and now pub- 
lished his friends may safely refer as evidence of the learning, ability, 
and industiy which he has brought to the high office he now holds." 

Joseph Sherman was born at Edgecomb, March 3, 1800. For six 
3*ears after leaving college he had charge of the academy in North 
Yarmouth. After two years of theological stud} 7 at Andover he went 
in 1834 to Columbia in Tennessee as professor of ancient languages 
in Jackson College. In the duties of this office he spent the remain- 
ing fifteen years of his life, and during three of them he was also 
president of the institution. In June, 1849, he started with his wife 
(formerly Miss Mitchell of North Yarmouth) to visit their friends in 
Maine. On the second day, as they were leaving Nashville and 
about to cross the Cumberland River, the brake of the coach gave 
waj*, the driver fell, and the horses rushed unchecked upon the bridge. 
There the heavily loaded vehicle went over. Mr. Sherman being on 
the outside was thrown among the timbers of the bridge, and survived 
the accident but a few hours. Mrs. Sherman, who was uninjured, 
returned with the remains to Columbia, where they were buried with 
xasmy demonstrations of grief and respect. That he well deserved 
them there can be no doubt. On receiving the news of his death, 
the citizens of Columbia together with the trustees and Faculty of the 
college held a meeting to express their sense of the common calamity. 
A short extract from their proceedings will show how Dr. Sherman 
was regarded by the community in which he lived : ' ' Several 3-ears ago 
he came to this State as a minister of the gospel and an instructor of 
youth. Becoming identified with this community, he devoted his time 
and his talents to the instruction of our young men and the cause 
of the Redeemer, to which he was most ardently attached. From his 
first settlement among us he became connected with Jackson Col- 
lege as one of its professors, a station which he filled with distin- 
guished ability and success. Next to the cause of his Heavenly 
Master, that of education seemed to be predominant in his affections. 
He was universally beloved in this community, and in more than 
ordinary degree respected for his profound learning, exemplary piety, 
exalted virtue, and sincere devotion to truth. His mild and unob- 
trusive manner, singleness of purpose, and benevolent heart secured 
the confidence of all who knew him." 



356 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Manasseh Hovey Smith was a son of Manasseh and Olivia (Hovey) 
Smith of Warren, and was born there in 1807. In that town until 
quite recently he has been a practising lawyer and advocate. He was 
one of the executive council in 1848 and 1849. Mr. Smith was nom- 
inated for governor of the State in 1857, 1858, and 1859. Though he 
failed in the canvass he is far from having been an unsuccessful man. 
He now lives in Portland. A paragraph in one of the papers not 
politically friendly, announcing the fact that he had purchased a fine 
residence in that city, gave him the following welcome : " Personally 
we would extend a heart}' welcome to Mr. Smith in becoming a resi- 
dent of our city. He is well known as a gentleman of ability, high 
character, and of a very genial and social disposition." In 1837 he 
married Mary M. Dole. The} 7 have three sons and as man}* daugh- 
ters. 

[He died in 1865. —p.] 

Robert Southgate was born in 1808 in Portland. His father, 
Horatio Southgate, was brother to Frederic Southgate (see 1810). 
His mother was Abigail McLellan. Having graduated at Brunswick, 
he passed through the three years of theological study at Andover, 
and then squared the circle of his education by a fourth year under 
the great Dr. Taylor of New Haven. His life has been given exclu- 
sively to the work of the gospel ministry. He has been successively 
pastor of a Congregational church in Woodstock, Vt., of one in 
Wethersfield, Conn., of a Presbyterian church in Monroe, Mich., and 
of the First Congregational Church in Ipswich, Mass. This old pul- 
pit of historical renown he still occupies, — respectably, I believe, and 
usefully. In 1832 he married Mary Frances, daughter of Benjamin 
Swan of Woodstock, Vt. Of four surviving children three are yet 
at home. The oldest son is in a Boston counting-room. 

[Mr. Southgate died suddenly in Woodstock, Vt., in 1873. — p.] 

Benjamin Bussey Thatcher, born in 1809, was a son of Col. Sam- 
uel Thatcher (Harvard College, 1793), who settled as a lawyer in 
New Gloucester, but soon removed to AYarren, where he became use- 
ful and distinguished, was high sheriff of Lincoln County, was for 
several terms in the Legislature and two terms in Congress, was an 
overseer of the college and one of the founders of Warren Academy. 
Mr. Thatcher adopted the law for his profession, had an office in 
Court Street, Boston, and did enough in that line to give promise of 
eminence as a lawyer ; but literature had greater charms, and very 
soon engrossed all his time and power. During his short but honor- 




BBSJAMI1T BTJSSEY THATCHEE 



GRADUATES. 357 

able career he attached to himself many warm friends. From one of 
these, like himself " a man of letters and of manners too," I have 
received the following pleasant sketch. Mr. Tuckerman's estimate 
corresponds with my own impressions otherwise received, and has 
been approved by some to whom the name and memoiy of its subject 
are still dear : " The thought and time, the ambition and taste, of Mr. 
Thatcher were chiefly devoted to literature. He was an indefatigable 
writer, always engaged upon a review, a lecture, a book, newspaper, 
magazine, or some other literary enterprise. While the No y th Ameri- 
can Review was under the control of the late A. H. Everett, Mr. 
Thatcher was a frequent contributor to its pages. He wrote several 
articles for the Essayist, a magazine published by Mr. Light, among 
them critiques on American poets, which attracted considerable atten- 
tion. He edited the Colonizationist, a periodical which advocated the 
Liberian project, and delivered many eloquent speeches in behalf of 
that object. He edited a volume of Mrs. Hemans's poetry, for which 
he wrote an eloquent preface. For 'Harper's Family Library' he 
wrote the 'Lives of the Indians,' and for their 'Juvenile Series' a 
work called ' Indian Traits.' He wrote a life of Phillis Wheatlej" and 
one of J. Osgood Wright, a missionary. An article in the Quarterly 
Review on 'Atlantic Steam Navigation' was contributed by him 
while on a visit to England. On his return the journals contained 
sketches of his travel, with interesting descriptions of eminent indi- 
viduals whom he visited abroad. Mr. Thatcher cherished the most 
genuine poetical sympathies and aspirations ; he not only had a keen 
appreciation of poetry in general and an enthusiasm for certain bards, 
but it was a deep instinct of his heart to embody his own emotions in 
verse. Some of his pieces were recognized as the genuine offspring 
of sentiment, and are graceful utterances of love, sorrow, and faith. 
For several years he labored under a complication of disorders, and 
though often prostrated by disease, continued to. write, plan, labor, 
travel, and keep up incessant mental activity to the last. A very 
creditable selection of prose and verse might easily be made from his 
miscellaneous writings. His religious convictions, philanthropic zeal, 
devotion to literature, great industry, and attachment to his friends 
form material for a biography of uncommon interest. He died in 
Boston, July 14, 1840. It was thought that his end was hastened 
by unremitted application, and I have always considered the great 
error of his life an overestimate of literature as a profession and 
source of reputation. Still there is reason to believe that a morbid 
tendency of constitution would have soon terminated his career, even 
had his health been less drained by cerebral activity, and that he 



358 HISTORY or BOWDOIN college. 

habitually sought by intellectual occupation an antidote to the bane of 
disease." 

The portrait from which the engraving is taken was painted while 
Mr. Thatcher was in England by his friend Osgood, then well known 
as one of our best artists. I am indebted to his relative, Miss Put- 
nam of Peterboro', N. H., for the opportunity to reproduce it here. 

[This portrait was bequeathed by Mr. Thatcher to the college, and 
is in its gallery of paintings. — p.] 

Geokge Trask first saw the light in Beverly, Mass., somewhere 
in the latter part of the last century. His parents, Jeremiah and 
Hannah (Wallace), were " Israelites without guile, and Calvinistic to 
the hub." Mr. Trask has explored his pedigree a good way back, but 
cannot find that any of his progenitors were hung. He was somewhat 
mature when he began to prepare for college. Eeuben Nason was his 
teacher. Of his scholarship at that time he speaks modestly. He said 
his lessons in the recitation-room, and got his education elsewhere. 
He mixed with his fellow-students in democratic simplicity. He 
" paced his room diagonally, studying metaphysics with a vengeance." 
Once a week he debated great questions in a small club, brightening 
and invigorating his intellect by conflicts with such men as Little, 
Bradbury, Cilley, Theodore Wells, and John P. Hale. He got but 
few compliments from the college officers. The learned professor of 
chemistry alone seems to have had a peep into the future. " Trask," 
said he to some one, "■will be the useful man of his class." In clue 
course Mr. Trask began to preach. He was settled first in Framing- 
ham, then in Warren, then in Fitchburg, all in Massachusetts. In 
each of these places religion revived under his ministrations. For 
several 3 T ears he figured conspicuously in the abolition cause, speaking 
often and sometimes presiding in its societies and conventions. To 
play this part required not only courage but fortitude, in times when 
opponents not unfrequently corroborated their arguments with the logic 
of the brickbat, or with the nose-convincing syllogisms of perished 
eggs. Latterly Mr. Trask's moral and utilitarian efforts have been 
mostly in a different direction. It is now a good man}' years since he 
came out the uncompromising enemy of tobacco in all its styles. • In 
the use of this article he sees one of the great weakeners and cor- 
ruptee s of mankind, one of the most formidable obstacles to human 
virtue and progress. To assail it with tongue and pen has been for 
some time the chief business of his life. He has made innumerable 
speeches and lias written and printed many hooks and tracts full of 
argument and warning, of exhortation and entreaty. " His mission," 



GRADUATES. 359 

he says, " has been a painful one. Many wise men as well as fools 
laugh about it, and do nothing more." He has been "not only the 
song of the drunkard, but the jest of smoky drones of his own call- 
ing." Such too often, alas, is the hard fate of the earnest reformer ! 
And yet his labors have not been fruitless ; far from it Multitudes 
of clergymen and thousands of laymen have renounced the poison, 
while millions of the young have enlisted in the vast anti-nicotian 
army of which George Trask ma}*- be called the grand pioneer and 
generalissimo. As a writer and speaker Mr. Trask is direct, if not 
blunt. He does not think it necessary to weaken his attack on a 
great vice by the use of eloquent euphemisms. He never employs 
grass, when stones are the missiles indicated. As a moral practi- 
tioner he adheres to the allopathic rule ; and when he gives his patient 
a dose it is usually of the drastic order. A recent anti-tobacco tract 
(No. 19) is addressed to Rev. Dr. Spring of New York. The tobacco 
box of the reverend doctor, brought out upon the stage of the Acadr 
emy of Music in the Tract Societ}^ meeting of 1859 and courteously 
tendered to Rev. Dr. Bacon, just after the latter had made some unkind 
allusion to the narcotic weed, suggested to Mr. Trask this personal 
appeal. He is grieved to see such a man give the weight of his char- 
acter to so loathsome a vice, so monstrous an iniquity. The com- 
batants in this cause expect a hard time ; the} r expect to meet the 
enemy in smoke-rooms and dens of infamy, and here they are pre- 
pared for the fight : but to find him boldly flaunting his banner in 
high and holy places is really dreadful. When such a man as Dr. 
Spring, with his " polished sauctit} r ," is seen sporting with the " great 
curse," " we poor reformers are for the moment sick at heart ; and did- 
not God give us grit, as well as grace, we should give up the ghost." 
After a tremendous bombardment of four close-printed pages, he 
coolly asks the demolished doctor for his tobacco box to be preserved 
as a trophy. In 1831 Mr. Trask was married to Ruth F., daughter of 
Rev. Asa Packard of Lancaster, Mass. Of five children, one son tills 
the soil in Fitchburg, two sons are in Kansas, two daughters still glad- 
den the parental home. 

[He died very suddenly of disease of the heart in 1875. — p.] 

Charles W. C. Wilcox was born in Elliot in 1807. His father, 
David Wilcox, lived subsequently in York, where he kept a public 
house. He read law with Peleg Sprague in Hallowell, and opened an 
office in that town. Soon after, abandoning the law which he did not 
like, he became cashier of the Franklin Bank in Gardiner. About 
1835 he joined a company of emigrants from Maine and went to 



360 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

Illinois, where he resumed the banking business. He now lives in the 
flourishing town of Kankakee. Mr. Wilcox has been twice a member 
of the Legislature of Illinois. His first wife, Elizabeth Leonard of 
Hallowell, died childless soon after the removal to Illinois. He after- 
wards married Mrs. Peebles, a widowed lady of German origin, who 
died leaving an infant daughter, who has lived ever since with her 
father's friends in " Old York." His present wife was a Miss Chesley 
of New Hampshire. They have one daughter. 

Moses Emery Woodman was from Fryeburg, 1806. " He was fitted 
for college mainly by his own exertions, sustained an excellent char- 
acter, and held good rank as a scholar. He studied law and opened 
an office in Brunswick. He was a man of solid worth, not brilliant 
but of sound good sense." (D. T. Granger.) " He was a good col- 
lector, a good conveyancer, a good counsellor, and a trustworthy man, 
— qualities you know which go to make a useful and a good citizen, 
but which do not give a man so much notoriety at the bar as some 
other qualities. In 1836 he was chosen cashier of the Brunswick 
Bank and gave up the law. In this sphere he excelled : everybody 
liked him. Accurate, faithful, accommodating, everybody had con- 
fidence in him. He resigned his cashiership in the fall of 1839, and 
died of consumption in the March following. I saw much of him in 
his last days, which were made happy and cheerful by the Christian 
hope. He was beloved and respected by all, and his name is } r et fresh 
in the memory of many of our best citizens. He died a bachelor." 
(A. C. Robbins, Esq.) 

1827. 

John Stevens Abbot is a native of Temple, born in 1807. He 
left college with the first honors of his class, and took charge of the 
academy in China, which for neaiTy three years he taught successfully, 
reading law. at the same time. He concluded his law course under 
Mr. Belcher in Farmington and Mr. Lougfellow in Portland. After a 
short sta}' in Union, he went to Thomaston, entering at once on a large 
practice, and contending successfully with such opponents as Cilley, 
Farley, and Ruggles. After the advancement of Mr. Tenne} T to the 
Supreme bench, Mr. Abbot removed to Norridgewock, where he re- 
mained a few years in full aud highly successful practice. His removal 
from Thomaston to a smaller and less important field is not wholly inex- 
plicable. In 1835 Mr. Abbot was married to Elizabeth, only daughter 
of William Allen of Norridgewock. Mr. Abbot was the lending man 
in the Legislature of 1854, and was active in the election of his Mend 



GRADUATES. 361 

Fessenclen to the United States Senate. This is the sum total of his 
public life. He was attorney-general for the State in 1855, and this 
is the entire list of his appointments. As a lawj'er Mr. Abbot ranks 
among the first. The following characterization— is believed to be 
just: "He has not the talent of talking hour after hour to a jury 
without saying anything. While I consider him a good jury lawyer, 
one that can bring out and state clearly all the facts, yet his great 
skill and power are seen in a law argument before the court. The 
whole is stated as clearly as any mathematical demonstration. Every 
point is fortified by authorities, and the whole is as close and compact 
as an acorn in its shell. No mere words, no declamation, but the 
closest reasoning and the sternest logic. Abbot is every inch a law- 
yer, and the traces of his mind are to be found in the Maine Reports. 
But the man who is a lawyer only must be content with a moderate 
fame. In the strife for notoriety, a politician, though of but one- 
mouse poiver, will go far ahead of him." Mr. Abbot has a large 
family. One son is in Bowdoin College.* . 

Joseph Adams was born in West Newbury, Mass., in 1803. He 
was in Hummer Academy when I took charge of it in 1821, and went 
from it to Brunswick. He studied law in Hallo well and practised in 
Pittston until 1835, when he removed to Gardiner. From 1840 to 
1849, Mr. Adams was cashier of the Gardiner Bank and treasurer of 
the savings bank. Then he resigned and went to California, hoping 
thus to recover his health. Disappointed in this respect, he soon 
returned and resumed his post in the savings bank. In 1853 he was 
appointed cashier of the Cobbossee-Coutee Bank. These offices he still 
holds. Mr. Adams has suffered a good deal from feeble health and a 
too sensitive nervous s} T stem. These circumstances compelled him to 
exchange his profession for a less exciting employment. The simple 
story of his life is sufficient evidence that he has the confidence of 
those who knew him best. He married in 1832 Catharine, daughter 
of Major Edward Swan of Gardiner. They have four sons and three 
daughters, f 

Horatio 0. Allen was born in Sanford in 1810. The following 
extract is from a letter which I received from one of his classmates, — 

* Graduated in 1858. Mr. Abbot removed from Norridgewock to Boston in 1860, 
where he has since steadily pursued his professional labors. He died suddenly June 
12, 1881, at his residence in Watertown, Mass., leaving four sons and four daugh- 
ters, p. 

t Three of his sons have been cashiers of banks. All have died within about a 
year of the date of the father's death, April 26, 1879. p. 



362 HISTOET OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

now himself no more: "He was the youngest member of the class. 
He entered too young and was too far removed from the parental 
eye. I can see him now distinctly, as he appeared to me for the 
first time : a countenance indicative of health, youth, and good- 
nature ; a boy in gray roundabout jacket, with his shirt ruffle 
turned over the collar. Unfortunately, Allen fell into bad company. 
Soon the jacket gave place to a coat and the ruffle to a dickey. 
Above all loomed a hat. He became a man, and of necessity put 
away childish things ; and with them went the innocence of childhood, 
— and never returned. . . . He worried through college, but did not 
receive his degree till a year or two afterwards." Mr. Adams selected 
the law for his profession, and died at the age of twenty-seven. 

Lewis Bailey. Few Bowdoin men can see his name and not recall 
the image of her who gave him to the catalogue and to the world. At 
a very early period, and through many revolving academic yeai's, 
Nelly Bailey was an official personage about college ; and though 
not publicly recognized as of the Faculty, she was in her own esti- 
mation no mean member of that august body. At length, emeritis 
non utilis annis, she laid aside the broom and retired from public life. 
She long survived her active labors, and many a returning graduate, 
under the promptings of kindness or curiosity, has called at her lone 
cottage to behold in that bent and shrivelled form a still living 
remembrancer of his college days. Strange to say, the poor old 
body fell at last a victim to the fire-breathing railroad monster. She 
had just crossed the river, was upon the track, got bewildered, and 
was run over. 

In college her son Lewis u was more distinguished for diligence, 
amiability, and good conduct than for scholarship." He settled as a 
teacher of youth in Utica, N. Y., and was successful and well 
esteemed. An almost total loss of sight darkened his last years. 
He died in 1852, leaving a widow and children. 

Abraham Chittenden Baldwin was born in 1804 at North Guil- 
ford, Conn. His grandfather, Timothy Baldwin, fought for liberty in 
1876. His father was Col. Benjamin Baldwin. His maternal grand- 
father, Abraham Chittenden, was also in the war, a staff officer of 
Gen. Ward, and died at the age of ninety-six. Having passed 
through the New Haven Seminary, Mr. Baldwin was settled in Berlin, 
Mass., succeeding there the venerable Dr. Puffer. From 1833 to 
1837 he was pastor of the Olivet Church in Springfield, Mass. In 
1839 he became the associate principal of a young ladies' .school in 



GRADUATES. 363 

Newburg, N. Y. Two years afterward he accepted a call to the 
Howe Street Church in New Haven, Conn. From this place he went 
to Hartford as family guardian aud steward of the American Asylum 
for the Deaf aud Dumb. Compelled by ill health in his family to 
resign this office in 1854, he acted for a year or two as superintend- 
ent of the Guilford Institute, supplying, at the same time, the pulpit 
of his native parish. Since 1857 he has been pastor of the First 
Congregational Church in Durham, Conn., and also of the church at 
Black Rock, a portion of Bridgeport. He thence returned to spend 
his remaining days at Hartford. Without pastoral charge he has con- 
tinued to preach as opportunities presented. Tn addition to several 
sermons and contributions to the periodicals, Mr. Baldwin has pub- 
lished a work entitled " Themes and Texts for the Pulpit," which has 
had a good circulation ; also " Helen and her Cousin," a Sunday- 
school book; also "Friendly Letters to a Christian Slaveholder" (a 
premium essay), and three prize essays ; "Liberty and Slavery, the 
Great National Question" ; also a ""Dictionary of Phrases for Secret 
Telegraphing," of which Prof. Morse and others speak well ; as also 
an article on Joel Barlow in the New Englander for Jul}*, 1873. He 
was married in 1830 to Emily, daughter of Dr. Joseph Foote of North 
Haven, Conn. They have no children.* 

Samuel Harward Blake was born in 1807 on a farm in Hartford. 
He studied law in Buckfield, in Portland with Fessenden and Deblois, 
and at- the Law School in New Haven. Since 1831 he has practised 
his profession in Bangor. Politically he is and has always been a 
Democrat. In 1839 and in 1841 he was a member of the State Sen- 
ate, and for the year last named he was president of that bod}*. Sub- 
sequently he was attorney-general of the State for about one year. 
In 1854 he was the candidate of his party for Congress, but he was 
beaten under the question of " bleeding Kansas" by his friend and 
competitor Washburn, the present member. Mr. Blake was mar- 
ried late to a daughter of Capt. Joshua Hines of Frankfort. Mr. 
Blake has one brother, William A. Blake, who is president of the 
Merchants' Bank in Bangor. That these two men have obeyed the 
injunction to live in fraternal unit}* may at least be inferred from the 
fact that since the}* came of age they have had an entire community 
of goods and estate. Though one has been trading and the other 
practising law, and though each has a family, their property, both 

* Mr. Baldwin has, through the Congregational Publishing Society, published in 
1880 "A Pastor's Counsels to Young Christians.' 



364 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

real and personal, has alwaj^s been held and used in common. The 
entire estate has been managed by one or by the other as if he were 
sole owner, and as chanced to be most convenient ; nor has any 
account, whether of earnings or expenses, been kept as with each 
other. Very pleasant this. Verily, the charming story of the Cheer- 
yble Brothers is not an impossibility ; nor is it wholly a myth. 

Enoch Emery Brown was born in 1806 in Taunton, Mass., where 
his father, Enoch Brown, a graduate of Brown University, was then a 
practising lawyer. His mother was Melinda, a daughter of Judge 
Padelford of Taunton. Enoch E. Brown was a mere child when his 
father went to Maine and settled in Hampden. He studied law with 
his father, and made a beginning in Frankfort, county of Waldo. 
Then he stayed three years in St. Albans Village. In 1835 he be- 
came a partner in law business with Warren & Brown of Bangor. 
After two years in that city he went back to St. Albans, now called 
Hartland, and there he lives now. As he looks back on this last step 
he seems to think it was a mistake. Mr. Brown has held no office, 
but there was a time when he would have been a senator if his friends 
the Whigs had only been more numerous. In 1835 he married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Jared Whitman of South Abington, Mass. They 
have three daughters. 

Moses P. Cleaveland is kindly remembered by his classmates. 
The Rev. Dr. Peabody speaks of him "as the son of our revered 
professor, distinguished for his amiable temper, and his strict,' faith- 
ful, punctilious discharge of all duties laid upon him." To the same 
purport wrote Dr. Dorr : ' ' He never missed a recitation of an}' kind 
or a chapel exercise for the whole four years. He was always gen- 
tlemanly in his deportment and kind in his bearing towards others. 
I never knew him to speak a harsh word, or to give utterance to an 
unkind feeling." Mr. Cleaveland studied medicine and established 
himself for a time in Bucksport. His next abode was in Newmar- 
ket, N. H. While here he married his cousin, Martha Richardson 
of Duxbury, Mass., and had two daughters who died in childhood. 
He had just settled in Natick, Mass., when he was seized with typhus 
fever, which proved fatal in 1840. His widow is now the wife of 
Capt. E. Treat of Livermore Falls. 

John Codman, son of William Codman and grandson on the 
mother's side of Dr. Nathaniel Collin, fitted partly at Dummer Acad- 
emy and partly under Capt. Partridge, and entered Sophomore. 
Having studied law in the ollices of Leverett Salstonstall and Rufus 



GRADUATES. 365 

Choate and in the school at Cambridge, he settled in Boston, where 
he still practises his profession and has been master in chancery. 
He has been several times a member of the Legislature. That he 
retains and cherishes an interest in letters may be inferred from the 
fact that he is an active member in the Greek department of the 
examining committee at Cambridge, and also chairman of the com- 
mittee of the Boston Latin School. In 1855 Mr. Codman married 
Isabella, daughter of Hon. Samuel D. Parker of Boston. They have 
one child. 

[He died in Boston June 8, 1879. — p.] 

Asa Dodge was of a family which settled in Essex County, Mass., 
as early as 1639. " His grandfather was an officer in the Revolution- 
ary army during two or three of the first years of the war." About 
1778 he removed to Maine, and became one of the pioneer settlers of 
Newcastle. Here, in 1802, Asa Dodge was born. His opportunities 
for learning were few and small. But he early manifested a strong 
predilection for mental pursuits, and through difficulties and discour- 
agements, and almost unaided, he found his way to college. " In 
these struggles he had the S3 r mpathy and companionship of his 
cousin, Joseph Sherman, afterward the president of Columbia Col- 
lege ; or rather I should say the two young aspirants mutually aided 
and encouraged each other. . . . During all the first year of his col- 
legiate course and portions of each succeeding year, he pursued his 
studies away from the institution, that he might unite with them 
teaching or other occupation as means of support. Contending thus 
with difficulties at every step, he yet passed through his course with 
high success. The part assigned him as a graduating exercise showed 
his rank to be among the first three or four of his class. He then 
engaged in the study of medicine, and was admitted to the practice in 
1830. But before this time his mind had taken a new direction. While 
passing through his professional studies, he had thought much upon 
the great problems of human life and destiny. He seemed to have 
attained that point in man's experience, attained only by the happy 
few, at which the human spirit looks steadily beyond itself, and is 
filled with the all-absorbing desire that the reign of God may come. 
He entered upon the practice of his profession," but feeling that it 
was not his sphere of dutj^, he soon engaged in the study of theolog}^. 
In 1832, before he had completed the ordinary course, he was appointed 
by the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions to the 
Syrian mission, in the double capacity of missionary and physician.' 
In October of the same year, having just before been married to Mar- 



366 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

tha M. Merrill of Portland, he sailed with her for Asia. His station 
was Beirut, and there " he entered on his missionary work with the 
untiring energ}^ which had before distinguished him. Had he lived 
to the ordinary age of man, he would undoubtedly have performed 
much efficient labor in his chosen field of effort. But it was not so to 
be. In less than two years after his arrival. at Beirut he fell a vic- 
tim to fever, brought on by excessive labor in travelling to attend 
professionally the sick-bed of a missionary brother. He died at 
Jerusalem, Jan. 28, 1835, and his remains rest within the walls of the 
Holy City." 

Joseph Hawley Dorr was a native of Boston. He gave at his 
graduation the salutatory address. On leaving college he spent one 
or two years at the theological school at Cambridge. For a couple of 
years he was at the University of Gottingen, and he also pursued his 
studies in Paris. At what point in this academic career he turned 
from divinity to medicine, I have not learned. He settled in Phila- 
delphia, a well-read physician, we may safely say, but with too little 
health of his own to be of much service in restoring it to others. 
" He was a scholar and a gentleman, social and genial in his man- 
ners. He was a great reader, always cheerful though almost always suf- 
fering." He died of consumption in 1855, at the age of forty-seven. 
He was married in 1847, and his wife survives and laments him. 

Henry Enoch Dummer, born in 1808 and youngest brother of 
Charles Dummer (see 1814), studied law with his brother and at the 
Law School in Cambridge, and practised one year at Skowhegan Falls. 
In 1832 he removed to Springfield, 111., where he lived five years. 
He then settled in Beardstown, same State, were he had an extensive 
practice for twenty-six years, met often in his profession with Abra- 
ham Lincoln, Stephen A. Douglas, and others of that class. He was 
probate judge for Cass County about five years, aud was a member of 
the convention which met in 1846 to amend the Constitution of the 
State, and in 1860 was elected to the State Senate ; but his profes- 
sional engagements, with perhaps a distaste for political life, led him 
to resign before the expiration of his term. He married in 1840 
Phebe Van Ness of New Jersey. They have had two sons and three 
daughters.* 

*In 1864 Judge Dummer removed to Jacksonville, where he continued the prac. 
tice of his profession. He was a trustee of the Central Hospital for the [nsane, and 
also of Illinois College, aud was appointed, under strong recommendations, registrar 
in bankruptcy. His health requiring relief from care, early in July he repaired to 



GRADUATES. 367 

Alpheus Felch was born in Limerick, September, 1806. Repeated 
attempts to obtain particulars of his career since graduation have 
failed, and the writer has been compelled to depend on a general 
stateraent from another source. He studied law and went to Michi- 
gan, where he has prosecuted his profession at Ann Arbor. He has 
held responsible public positions until within a few years, in the 
Legislature of the State, auditor-general of the State, judge of the 
Supreme Court, governor, United States senator, and under the 
United States, commissioner on California land claims. In 1877 he 
received from the college the degree of LL. D. He has for some 
time been Tappan professor of law in the University of Michigan. 
He married and has children. p. 

Henry Cummings Field was born in Belfast, September, 1809. 
"After graduating he studied law with his father, Bohan P. Field, 
Esq. In 1830 he established himself in the profession in Lincoln, 
where he remained in successful practice until 1848, when he removed 
to Lee in order to secure for his children the advantages of its acad- 
emy, then a flourishing and popular institution. He returned to Lin- 
coln in 1863, and died in 1864. He had an acute mind, and was 
thoroughly versed in the principles of his profession. Though many 
opportunities offered he declined office, preferring to devote the time 
not occupied by his profession to the more congenial pursuits of agri- 
culture." p. 

Charles Field was of North Yarmouth. The following testimony 
is from a classmate and chum : "A more kind, honorable, noble fel- 
low never adorned the halls of Bowdoin College. His rank as a 
scholar was very good. As a companion and friend, warm-hearted, 
faithful, and true, he had no superiors. After he graduated he entered 
the medical class, in which he was highly distinguished. Just as he 
was entering on his profession he received an injury on a dark night 
in Boston, by striking his knee against a gate that was hanging across 
the sidewalk. The injury, though deemed slight at first, proved 
serious in its consequences. Resort was had to amputation, which 
was ineffectual and resulted in his death." What a comment this, 
on the too common but detestable practice of having gates swing out- 
ward ! Mr. Field suffered for years, but they were years of meek 

Mackinaw, but the change proved to he without effect. He became enfeebled and 
died of general prostration Aug. 12, 1878, at the age of seventy. He was a member 
of the Congregational Church, and in the words of his memorialist, "as lawyer, 
scholar, man, citizen, Christian, was one of the first and best." p. 



368 HISTORY OF BOWDOIN COLLEGE. 

endurance, brightening with hope and faith as they drew near their 
close. He died early in 1838. 

Franklin Gage was a native of Augusta. He went as a physi- 
cian to Bangor, and lived there several years ; but his habits of mind 
and life do not seem to have been favorable to permanence and suc- 
cess. After various wanderings he obtained, through the aid of his 
classmate John P. Hale, the appointment of surgeon for the Panama 
Railroad Company. It proved a fatal kiudness ; the fever of the 
tropics soon compelled him to return, and he died shortly after in 
1851 at the residence of a friend in Brooklyn, N. Y. " He had 
always maintained a high professional character, and wherever he 
went his gentlemanly bearing and kind heart won for him a host of 
friends." (Bangor Mercury.) 

John Parker Hale was born in 1806 in Rochester, N. H. His 
father, John Hale, and his grandfather, Samuel Hale, were both law- 
yers. His mother was a daughter of Jeremiah O'Brien of Machias, 
a brave man, who in our Revolutionary struggle was among the first 
to meet and vanquish the enemy on the sea. John P. Hale was fitted 
at Exeter. Of one who has become so famous it is natural to ask 
what promise he gave in college. A classmate of Hale — now, alas ! 
no more — wrote me as follows several years ago : "In most cases 
the college life corresponded very well with the subsequent career. 
Hale was to a considerable extent an exception. In college he was 
recognized as having superior talents, and was by far our most prompt 
and fertile debater. He had a passion for mock law cases and for 
making speeches, but he was no student ; and his habits were so care- 
less and indolent that I think his classmates did not anticipate for him 
the distinction he has gained." Mr. Hale began his law studies at 
Rochester, and finished them at Dover in the office of Mr. Christie. 
At the bar he was immediately successful. " His winning manners, 
his assiduous attention to business, and his energetic pleading soon 
gained for him a large practice. In 1832 he entered on public life as a 
representative in the Legislature. Even then, though an avowed and 
active Democrat, he occasionally evinced an independence of spirit 
which showed that he was not likely to obey blindly the edicts of any 
party. In 1834 he received from President Jackson the appointment 
of United States attorney for New Hampshire. Reappointed by Van 
Buren, he held the office until removed by Tyler.* In 1843 he was 
chosen representative of his district in Congress. It was a critical 
period. Thrown into the midst of the struggle for supremac}' between 

* The remainder i.s from the editor. 





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GEADUATES. 369 

the two sections of the Union, apparently at great personal sacrifice 
he at once took his stand in decided strenuous, opposition to the 
scheme of annexing Texas. This action on his part was regarded by 
his party as a departure not to be forgiven, and he failed of a second 
election. In 1846 he was again sent as representative to the State 
Legislature ; was chosen Speaker of the House, in which position, by 
his dignit}', urbanity, and independence, he gained a strong hold on the 
popular sentiment ; and was elected to the Senate of the United States. 
" When he took his seat in that body he was almost alone and single- 
handed in conflict with the political giants of those days." Amidst 
reproach and insult and the well-known arts employed to embarrass and 
browbeat a 5, political opponent, he could not be intimida